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1. Biomedical articles (top 50; 2009 to 2014)
1. |||||||||. 100%  Vano-Galvan S, Moreno C, Fernández-Lorente M, Jaén P: Classic Kaposi sarcoma mimicking chilblains. Dermatol Online J; 2011;17(2):16
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Classic Kaposi sarcoma mimicking chilblains.
  • We report a case of classic KS mimicking chilblains.
  • [MeSH-major] Chilblains / pathology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Humans. Male


2. |||||||||. 100%  Vano-Galvan S, Martorell A: Chilblains. CMAJ; 2012 Jan 10;184(1):67
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Chilblains.
  • [MeSH-major] Chilblains / diagnosis. Foot Dermatoses / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans

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  • [Cites] Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2001 Apr;128(4):557-60 [11395660.001]
  • [Cites] J Am Acad Dermatol. 2010 Jun;62(6):e21-2 [20466166.001]
  • [Cites] J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990 Aug;23(2 Pt 1):257-62 [2212122.001]
  • [Cites] Br J Dermatol. 1989 Feb;120(2):267-75 [2647123.001]
  • (PMID = 22025653.001).
  • [ISSN] 1488-2329
  • [Journal-full-title] CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l'Association medicale canadienne
  • [ISO-abbreviation] CMAJ
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3255185
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3. |||||||... 73%  Tonoli RE, Souza PR: Case for diagnosis. Chilblains. An Bras Dermatol; 2012 Jul-Aug;87(4):649-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Case for diagnosis. Chilblains.
  • Chilblains are an inflammatory skin condition that develops following exposure to the cold.
  • They consist of pruritic and/or painful erythematous-to-violaceous acral lesions and are the result of an abnormal vascular response to exposure to the cold.
  • [MeSH-major] Chilblains / diagnosis. Hand Dermatoses / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 22892789.001).
  • [ISSN] 1806-4841
  • [Journal-full-title] Anais brasileiros de dermatologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] An Bras Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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4. ||||||.... 61%  Bohman KD, Papadimos TJ, Gottwald LD, Pan ZK: Perniosis (chilblains) masquerading as CA-MRSA: a case report. Cases J; 2009;2:6500
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Perniosis (chilblains) masquerading as CA-MRSA: a case report.
  • Perniosis (chilblains) is a vasospastic, inflammatory disease that occurs when the skin is subjected to cold above the freezing point, under damp conditions.

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  • [Cites] N Engl J Med. 2005 Apr 7;352(14):1485-7 [15814886.001]
  • [Cites] Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med. 2008 Apr;10(2):128-35 [18325315.001]
  • [Cites] Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2003 May-Jun;69(3):209-11 [17642888.001]
  • [Cites] Br J Dermatol. 1989 Feb;120(2):267-75 [2647123.001]
  • [Cites] High Alt Med Biol. 2001 Winter;2(4):535-8 [11809094.001]
  • [Cites] J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990 Aug;23(2 Pt 1):257-62 [2212122.001]
  • [Cites] Acta Derm Venereol. 2006;86(6):558-9 [17106612.001]
  • (PMID = 19829817.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI043524; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI043524-07A1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2740003
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5. ||||||.... 57%  Akkurt ZM, Ucmak D, Yildiz K, Yürüker SK, Celik HÖ: Chilblains in Turkey: a case-control study. An Bras Dermatol; 2014 Jan-Feb;89(1):44-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Chilblains in Turkey: a case-control study.
  • BACKGROUND: Chilblains are rather common in winter months in our country.
  • OBJECTIVES: Determination of demographical and clinical characteristics of patients presenting with chilblains in Diyarbakir, Turkey.
  • Evaluation of body mass index (BMI) as risk factor for development of chilblains.
  • METHODS: Sixty-nine patients who were diagnosed as chilblains at our outpatient clinics were included in this study.
  • RESULTS: Of the 69 patients with chilblains, 45 (65.2%) were females and 24 (34.8%) were males.
  • 61.3% of the patients reported recurrence of the lesions every winter season.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Low BMI may be a risk factor contributing to development of chilblains in persons exposed to cold weather conditions.
  • Diagnosis of chilblains requires wariness, as history of cold exposure may not be evident.
  • [MeSH-major] Body Mass Index. Chilblains / etiology

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  • [Cites] Clin Physiol. 2000 Sep;20(5):360-5 [10971547.001]
  • [Cites] Clin Exp Dermatol. 2012 Dec;37(8):844-9 [23082992.001]
  • [Cites] Eur J Appl Physiol. 2003 Jun;89(5):411-26 [12712346.001]
  • [Cites] Pediatr Dermatol. 1994 Mar;11(1):1-5 [8170840.001]
  • [Cites] Cutis. 1994 Dec;54(6):395-9 [7867381.001]
  • [Cites] Pediatrics. 2005 Sep;116(3):e472-5 [16140694.001]
  • [Cites] Acta Derm Venereol. 2006;86(6):558-9 [17106612.001]
  • [Cites] J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2008 Feb;6(2):149-50 [18261084.001]
  • [Cites] Hong Kong Med J. 2008 Jun;14(3):185-91 [18525086.001]
  • [Cites] Clin Rheumatol. 2008 Aug;27(8):949-54 [18543054.001]
  • [Cites] Eur J Appl Physiol. 2010 May;109(1):133-40 [20135142.001]
  • [Cites] J Am Acad Dermatol. 2010 Jun;62(6):e21-2 [20466166.001]
  • [Cites] Arch Dis Child. 2010 Jul;95(7):567-8 [20522476.001]
  • [Cites] Wilderness Environ Med. 2010 Mar;21(1):17-21.e1 [20591349.001]
  • [Cites] Acta Derm Venereol. 2010 Sep;90(5):544-5 [20814645.001]
  • [Cites] Br J Dermatol. 2010 Sep;163(3):645-6 [20426783.001]
  • [Cites] Microcirculation. 2012 Jan;19(1):65-77 [21851473.001]
  • [Cites] CMAJ. 2012 Jan 10;184(1):67 [22025653.001]
  • [Cites] An Bras Dermatol. 2012 Jul-Aug;87(4):649-50 [22892789.001]
  • [Cites] Dermatol Surg. 2012 Sep;38(9):1555-6 [22691068.001]
  • [Cites] Medicine (Baltimore). 2001 May;80(3):180-8 [11388094.001]
  • (PMID = 24626647.001).
  • [ISSN] 1806-4841
  • [Journal-full-title] Anais brasileiros de dermatologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] An Bras Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3938353
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6. |......... 5%  Lee A, Batra P, Furer V, Cheung W, Wang N, Franks A Jr: Rowell syndrome (systemic lupus erythematosus + erythema multiforme). Dermatol Online J; 2009;15(8):1
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  • [Title] Rowell syndrome (systemic lupus erythematosus + erythema multiforme).
  • A 61-year-old woman with a history of chilblains and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) for 15 years presented with annular, erythematous, scaly papules and plaques on her face, neck, chest, abdomen, back, arms, and legs.
  • A biopsy specimen showed a destructive interface dermatitis with extensive epithelial cell necrosis, which was consistent with lupus erythematosus with combined subacute cutaneous lupus and erythema multiforme-like features.
  • These findings are most compatible with a diagnosis of Rowell syndrome.
  • Rowell syndrome and its relation to lupus erythematosus and erythema multiforme are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Erythema Multiforme. Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic


7. |||||||||. 167%  Prakash S, Weisman MH: Idiopathic chilblains. Am J Med; 2009 Dec;122(12):1152-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Idiopathic chilblains.
  • BACKGROUND: Chilblains is a benign condition infrequently encountered in clinical practice; its resemblance to vasculitis or peripheral thromboemboli can often result in an extensive and unnecessary diagnostic work-up.
  • METHOD: Three cases of chilblains seen by our Rheumatology service, along with 113 documented cases, were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Chilblains is characterized by painful red-to-purple papular lesions involving the acral surface of fingers or toes that resolves with symptomatic treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: Distinct clinical features of chilblains can be used for early recognition and management, thus avoiding unnecessary diagnostic testing and delays in patient care.
  • [MeSH-major] Chilblains / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19958897.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-7162
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 22
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8. |||||||... 67%  Souwer IH, Lagro-Janssen AL: Chronic chilblains. BMJ; 2011;342:d2708
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Chronic chilblains.
  • [MeSH-major] Chilblains / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Chronic Disease. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 21652748.001).
  • [ISSN] 1756-1833
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ (Clinical research ed.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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9. |||||||... 66%  Hermanns JF, Caucanas M, Piérard GE, Piérard-Franchimont C, Quatresooz P: [Chilblains, differential diagnosis and risk factors]. Rev Med Liege; 2010 Dec;65(12):688-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Chilblains, differential diagnosis and risk factors].
  • [Transliterated title] Les engelures, stigmates des affres climatiques.
  • Chilblain results from environmental nonfreezing cold exposure.
  • Chilblains are often idiopathic, but they may be part of lupus erythematosus.
  • [MeSH-major] Chilblains / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Cold Temperature / adverse effects. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 21287764.001).
  • [ISSN] 0370-629X
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue médicale de Liège
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Liege
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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10. ||||||.... 62%  Prindaville B, Antaya RJ: Chilblains and microgeodic disease diagnosed concurrently in a child's toe. Pediatr Dermatol; 2013 Mar-Apr;30(2):269-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Chilblains and microgeodic disease diagnosed concurrently in a child's toe.
  • Microgeodic disease, similar to chilblains (pernio), is characterized by painful, erythematous swelling, as well as small, punched-out erosions found in affected phalanges.
  • Although they share a similar appearance and proposed pathogenesis, chilblains has rarely been diagnosed in children with microgeodic disease, and in those cases has not been confirmed on skin biopsy.
  • This article details a child in Connecticut diagnosed during the winter with chilblains and microgeodic disease of his toe, as supported by biopsy and imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Chilblains / diagnosis. Finger Phalanges / pathology. Toes / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Connecticut. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male

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  • [Copyright] © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 22277090.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1470
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. ||||||.... 56%  Abdel-Salam GM, El-Kamah GY, Rice GI, El-Darouti M, Gornall H, Szynkiewicz M, Aymard F, Zaki MS, Abdel-Aleem AK, Lebon P, Crow YJ: Chilblains as a diagnostic sign of aicardi-goutières syndrome. Neuropediatrics; 2010 Feb;41(1):18-23
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Chilblains as a diagnostic sign of aicardi-goutières syndrome.
  • Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder showing variability in age of onset and clinical features.
  • Chilblain lesions have been described in AGS patients and recent papers have discussed the clinical, molecular and cutaneous histopathological overlap with chilblain lupus.
  • Here we report on 2 unrelated children with AGS and chilblain lesions, whose clinical histories and examination findings well illustrate the wide phenotypic variability that can be seen in this pleiotropic disorder.
  • Although both patients show remarkable similarity in the histopathology of their associated skin lesions, with thrombi formation, fat necrosis and hyalinization of the subcutaneous tissue, we note that the histopathology reported in other AGS cases with chilblains does not necessarily demonstrate this same uniformity.
  • Our findings highlight the significant role of the characteristic chilblain skin lesions in the diagnosis of AGS, and variability in the associated histopathology which may relate to the stage and severity of the disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Basal Ganglia Diseases / complications. Basal Ganglia Diseases / diagnosis. Chilblains / etiology. Eye Diseases / complications. Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic / complications


12. |||||..... 55%  Souwer IH, Lagro-Janssen AL: Vitamin D3 is not effective in the treatment of chronic chilblains. Int J Clin Pract; 2009 Feb;63(2):282-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Vitamin D3 is not effective in the treatment of chronic chilblains.
  • BACKGROUND: Chronic chilblains is a common disease causing major restrictions in daily life, nevertheless little is known about effective treatment.
  • OBJECTIVE: We have conducted a study to assess the effect of oral administration of 2000 IU vitamin D3 per day on patients suffering from chronic chilblains.
  • The study population consisted of patients with a confirmed diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSION: Oral administration of 2000 IU vitamin D3 per day is not better than placebo in the treatment of patients with chronic chilblains.
  • [MeSH-major] Chilblains / drug therapy. Cholecalciferol / therapeutic use. Vitamins / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Chronic Disease. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Patient Compliance. Treatment Failure. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19196366.001).
  • [ISSN] 1742-1241
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vitamins; 1C6V77QF41 / Cholecalciferol
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13. |||||..... 52%  Padeh S, Gerstein M, Greenberger S, Berkun Y: Chronic chilblains: the clinical presentation and disease course in a large paediatric series. Clin Exp Rheumatol; 2013 May-Jun;31(3):463-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Chronic chilblains: the clinical presentation and disease course in a large paediatric series.
  • OBJECTIVES: Children often present during winter with painful, red-purple swollen fingers and/or toes, usually misdiagnosed as Raynaud's phenomenon.
  • Pernio, or chronic chilblains, is a localised inflammatory lesion of the skin resulting from an abnormal response to cold.
  • The aim of this study was to better characterise the clinical presentation of chronic chilblains in children.
  • METHODS: This is a single-centre retrospective study of patients referred to our paediatric rheumatology clinic with cold, purple, and painful hands.
  • Data of the clinical presentation, physical findings, laboratory investigations and the course of the disease were extracted from the patients' charts and analysed.
  • Patients age at presentation was 13.5±2.1, and disease duration was 2.0±1.0 winters.
  • Fingers swelling was the most common finding (81.8%), followed by proximal interphalangeal joint (PIPs) swelling (63.6%), skin ulceration (54.5%), and dry, irritated skin (45.5%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: We report a large series of children with a unique symptomatology consisting in chronic chilblains.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Antinuclear / immunology. Chilblains / diagnosis. Raynaud Disease / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Arthritis / diagnosis. Arthritis / etiology. Child. Chronic Disease. Cohort Studies. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Edema / diagnosis. Edema / etiology. Female. Finger Joint / pathology. Humans. Male. Physical Examination. Retrospective Studies. Skin Ulcer / diagnosis. Skin Ulcer / etiology

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  • (PMID = 23414913.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-856X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental rheumatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Rheumatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Antinuclear
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14. |||||..... 48%  Raza N, Habib A, Razvi SK, Dar NR: Constitutional and behavioral risk factors for chilblains: a case-control study from Pakistan. Wilderness Environ Med; 2010 Mar;21(1):17-21.e1
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Constitutional and behavioral risk factors for chilblains: a case-control study from Pakistan.
  • OBJECTIVES: To study constitutional and behavioral risk factors for chilblains in patients at Abbottabad and Sialkot, Pakistan.
  • METHODS: One hundred patients and matched controls completed a single-page, close-ended questionnaire which included demographic data and questions related to possible constitutional and behavioral risk factors for chilblains.
  • Twenty-six patients and 3 controls had a positive family history for chilblains (odds ratio = 9.33); 42 patients and 14 controls reported a history of constipation (odds ratio = 2.69); 32 patients and 8 controls had a history of either numbness or tingling of fingers or toes (odds ratio = 2.93); 55 patients and 45 controls led sedentary lifestyles (odds ratio = 1.27); 85 patients and 58 controls consumed a low number of cups of tea daily (odds ratio = 3.20); 65 patients and 29 controls frequently washed their hands and/or feet (odds ratio = 4.93); and 56 patients and 33 controls had occasional sun exposure during winter months (odds ratio = 2.08).
  • CONCLUSION: Significant risk factors for the development of chilblains for people at Abbottabad and Sialkot included a history of chilblains in first-degree relatives, numbness and tingling sensations of fingers or toes, frequent hand or feet washing, and lower tea consumption during winter months.
  • [MeSH-major] Altitude. Chilblains / epidemiology. Cold Temperature
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Beverages. Case-Control Studies. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Hand Disinfection. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Odds Ratio. Pakistan. Risk Factors. Tea. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20591349.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-1534
  • [Journal-full-title] Wilderness & environmental medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Wilderness Environ Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tea
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15. ||||...... 40%  Pramanik T, Jha AK, Ghimire A: A retrospective study of cases presenting with chilblains (Perniosis) in Out Patient Department Of Dermatology, Nepal Medical College and Teaching Hospital (NMCTH). Nepal Med Coll J; 2011 Sep;13(3):190-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A retrospective study of cases presenting with chilblains (Perniosis) in Out Patient Department Of Dermatology, Nepal Medical College and Teaching Hospital (NMCTH).
  • Chilblains (Perniosis/Pernio) is characterized by painful red-to-purple papular lesions involving the fingers or toes due to non-freezing damp cold that resolves with symptomatic treatment.
  • As in winters, cold is moderate to severe in Kathmandu, this retrospective study was undertaken to find out the incidence of chilblains cases, seeking health care in the Out Patient Department of Dermatology, Nepal Medical College and Teaching Hospital.
  • Cases of chilblains were noted in the months of October to December 2009, January to March 2010, October to December 2010 and January to March 2011.
  • Most of (79.6%) the chilblain victims sought health care during the months of December to February -- coldest time of the years.
  • The patients were advised to protect their acral parts from cold exposure as far as practicable by wearing shocks and gloves.
  • They were advised not to warm their extremities all on a sudden, after exposure to cold, as this causes vasospasm and makes the condition worse.
  • [MeSH-major] Chilblains / epidemiology. Dermatology. Hospitals, Teaching. Outpatient Clinics, Hospital

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  • (PMID = 22808813.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Nepal Medical College journal : NMCJ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nepal Med Coll J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nepal
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16. |||....... 33%  Ayli EE, Ingraffea A, Weinman M, Gloster HM Jr: Chilblains in a Mohs histotechnician. Dermatol Surg; 2012 Sep;38(9):1555-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Chilblains in a Mohs histotechnician.
  • [MeSH-major] Chilblains / etiology. Cold Temperature / adverse effects. Cryoultramicrotomy. Occupational Exposure / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 22691068.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4725
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; F446C597KA / Triamcinolone Acetonide
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17. |||....... 32%  Gardinal-Galera I, Pajot C, Paul C, Mazereeuw-Hautier J: Childhood chilblains is an uncommon and invalidant disease. Arch Dis Child; 2010 Jul;95(7):567-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Childhood chilblains is an uncommon and invalidant disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Chilblains / etiology. Cryoglobulinemia / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Chronic Disease. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 20522476.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-2044
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of disease in childhood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Dis. Child.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
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18. |||....... 27%  Robb-Nicholson C: By the way, doctor. I've been diagnosed as having chilblains in the fingers on both hands. What causes chilblains? Is there a cure? Harv Womens Health Watch; 2010 Dec;18(4):8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] By the way, doctor. I've been diagnosed as having chilblains in the fingers on both hands. What causes chilblains? Is there a cure?
  • [MeSH-major] Chilblains / drug therapy. Chilblains / prevention & control. Cholecalciferol / therapeutic use. Fingers. Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice. Self Medication / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Cold Temperature / adverse effects. Humans. Risk Factors. Vitamins / therapeutic use

  • HSDB. structure - CHOLECALCIFEROL.
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  • (PMID = 21275088.001).
  • [ISSN] 1070-910X
  • [Journal-full-title] Harvard women's health watch
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Harv Womens Health Watch
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vitamins; 1C6V77QF41 / Cholecalciferol
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19. |||....... 27%  Cappel JA, Wetter DA: Clinical characteristics, etiologic associations, laboratory findings, treatment, and proposal of diagnostic criteria of pernio (chilblains) in a series of 104 patients at Mayo Clinic, 2000 to 2011. Mayo Clin Proc; 2014 Feb;89(2):207-15
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical characteristics, etiologic associations, laboratory findings, treatment, and proposal of diagnostic criteria of pernio (chilblains) in a series of 104 patients at Mayo Clinic, 2000 to 2011.
  • OBJECTIVE: To further characterize the clinical features, etiologic associations, laboratory findings, and treatment of pernio.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective review of patients with pernio seen at our institution between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2011.
  • RESULTS: Of 104 patients with pernio (mean age at diagnosis, 38.3 years), 82 (79%) were women.
  • Pernio affected the toes in 85 patients (82%) and the fingers in 31 (30%).
  • Thirty-eight patients (37%) had at least 1 abnormal laboratory test result, and test results were positive for cold agglutinins in 11 (55%) of 20 tested patients.
  • Four patients (4%) had connective tissue disease (nonlupus) associated with pernio; 3 patients (3%) had an associated hematologic malignant disease.
  • CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this study represents one of the largest single-center case series of pernio to date.
  • Most of the patients did not have an underlying systemic association with pernio, although a few patients had pernio in association with connective tissue disease or hematologic malignant disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Chilblains / diagnosis. Chilblains / etiology. Chilblains / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic / complications. Male. Middle Aged. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2014 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 24485134.001).
  • [ISSN] 1942-5546
  • [Journal-full-title] Mayo Clinic proceedings
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mayo Clin. Proc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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20. |||....... 27%  Lutz V, Cribier B, Lipsker D: Chilblains and antiphospholipid antibodies: report of four cases and review of the literature. Br J Dermatol; 2010 Sep;163(3):645-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Chilblains and antiphospholipid antibodies: report of four cases and review of the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Antiphospholipid / analysis. Chilblains / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antiphospholipid Syndrome / diagnosis. Antiphospholipid Syndrome / immunology. Biopsy. Female. Humans. Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic / diagnosis. Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic / immunology. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20426783.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Antiphospholipid
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21. ||........ 19%  Prendiville JS, Crow YJ: Blue (or purple) toes: chilblains or chilblain lupus-like lesions are a manifestation of Aicardi-Goutières syndrome and familial chilblain lupus. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2009 Oct;61(4):727-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Blue (or purple) toes: chilblains or chilblain lupus-like lesions are a manifestation of Aicardi-Goutières syndrome and familial chilblain lupus.


22. |......... 9%  Larkins N, Murray KJ: Major cluster of chilblain cases in a cold dry Western Australian winter. J Paediatr Child Health; 2013 Feb;49(2):144-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Major cluster of chilblain cases in a cold dry Western Australian winter.
  • AIM: Primary chilblains are an idiopathic cold-induced vasculopathy affecting the soft tissues of the hands and feet.
  • Secondary chilblains occur in different forms of vasculitis and chronic autoimmune connective tissue disorders.
  • Idiopathic chilblains are rarely reported in children and may generate significant anxiety to doctors and patients.
  • We describe a cluster of idiopathic chilblains encountered over the winter of 2010 in Perth, Western Australia.
  • RESULTS: Thirty-two patients with isolated idiopathic chilblains were included, including 20 females and 12 males with a median age at onset of 13.5 years.
  • Most patients improved spontaneously with warmer weather or responded to cold protection advice.
  • CONCLUSION: Our cluster of chilblains was associated with an unusually cold winter in Perth 2010.
  • It is the largest series reported in the literature, suggesting that chilblains may be more common than previously thought.
  • Chilblains are almost always benign in nature and patients are systemically well and usually need no further investigation and only symptomatic treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Chilblains / epidemiology. Cold Temperature / adverse effects. Seasons

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  • [Copyright] © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
  • (PMID = 23356736.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1754
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of paediatrics and child health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Paediatr Child Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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23. |......... 6%  Takci Z, Vahaboglu G, Eksioglu H: Epidemiological patterns of perniosis, and its association with systemic disorder. Clin Exp Dermatol; 2012 Dec;37(8):844-9
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  • [Title] Epidemiological patterns of perniosis, and its association with systemic disorder.
  • BACKGROUND: There are few studies exploring the epidemiological properties of perniosis (chilblains) and its association with systemic disorders.
  • AIM: To collect epidemiological data for perniosis, to investigate any association with systemic disorders, and to identify markers for the differential diagnosis of idiopathic and secondary perniosis.
  • METHODS: This was a prospective study of 51 patients with perniosis [female : male ratio 2.64 : 1, mean ± SD age 24.6 ± 14.7 years, with 25 patients (49%) aged 0-18 years].
  • RESULTS: Significant proportions of the patients had both chronic and idiopathic perniosis (P < 0.001 for both).
  • The mean age of the group with secondary perniosis was significantly higher than that of the idiopathic group (P < 0.01).
  • There was no significant gender difference in the secondary perniosis group (P = 0.71).
  • Persistence beyond the cold seasons, and presence of photosensitivity, hypergammaglobulinaemia and rheumatoid factor were significant findings in the secondary group (P = 0.02, P = 0.02, P < 0.01, P < 0.05, respectively).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Perniosis is not rare in children, but patients with secondary perniosis are more likely to be older.
  • In terms of underlying systemic disorder, advanced age and male gender may be important demographic features.
  • Measurement of cryoglobulin levels in the initial laboratory investigations of patients with perniosis is not necessary.
  • Persistence beyond the cold seasons, and presence of photosensitivity, hypergammaglobulinaemia and rheumatoid factor may be useful in differentiating between idiopathic and secondary perniosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Chilblains / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Biological Markers / analysis. Child. Child, Preschool. Chronic Disease. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Prevalence. Prospective Studies. Risk Factors. Seasons. Sex Factors. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] © The Author(s). CED © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.
  • (PMID = 23082992.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2230
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biological Markers
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24. |......... 6%  Guly HR: Frostbite and other cold injuries in the heroic age of Antarctic exploration. Wilderness Environ Med; 2012 Dec;23(4):365-70
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  • [Title] Frostbite and other cold injuries in the heroic age of Antarctic exploration.
  • Frostbite and other cold injuries on the early polar expeditions were common.
  • Nonfreezing cold injury probably also occurred but was not differentiated from frostbite, and chilblains were also described.
  • [MeSH-major] Cold Temperature / adverse effects. Environmental Exposure / adverse effects. Expeditions / history. Frostbite / history

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2012 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 22835802.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-1534
  • [Journal-full-title] Wilderness & environmental medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Wilderness Environ Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / /
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. |......... 5%  Massey PR, Wanat KA, Stewart CL, Kim EJ, Castelo-Soccio L, Elenitsas R, Rubin AI: CD30 positive atypical lymphocytes in perniosis: a potential histopathologic pitfall in a benign condition. Am J Dermatopathol; 2014 Sep;36(9):730-3
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  • [Title] CD30 positive atypical lymphocytes in perniosis: a potential histopathologic pitfall in a benign condition.
  • In classical clinical perniosis (chilblains), the presence of atypical lymphocytes with immunohistochemical staining positive for CD30 is unusual and rarely reported.
  • Here we report 2 cases of clinical perniosis, one in a 16-year-old girl and another in a 67-year-old woman.
  • Dermatopathologists must be aware of this potential histologic pattern in perniosis to prevent misdiagnosis and overtreatment of this condition.

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  • (PMID = 25072680.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. |......... 4%  Vogt J, Agrawal S, Ibrahim Z, Southwood TR, Philip S, Macpherson L, Bhole MV, Crow YJ, Oley C: Striking intrafamilial phenotypic variability in Aicardi-Goutières syndrome associated with the recurrent Asian founder mutation in RNASEH2C. Am J Med Genet A; 2013 Feb;161A(2):338-42
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  • The disorder demonstrates significant genetic heterogeneity with causative mutations in five genes identified to date.
  • A later presentation with a more variable effect on development, morbidity and mortality has been particularly observed in association with mutations in SAMHD1 and RNASEH2B.
  • In this family, one female child had a severe AGS phenotype with an onset in infancy and profound developmental delay, whilst an older sister was of completely normal intellect with a normal head circumference and was only diagnosed because of the presence of chilblains and a mild hemiplegia.
  • An appreciation of intrafamilial phenotypic expression is important in the counseling of families considering prenatal diagnosis, and may also be relevant to the assessment of efficacy in future clinical trials.
  • [MeSH-minor] Abnormalities, Multiple / genetics. Brain Diseases / genetics. Chilblains / genetics. Child, Preschool. Consanguinity. Female. Founder Effect. Hemiplegia / genetics. Humans. Infant. Phenotype

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 23322642.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-4833
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of medical genetics. Part A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Med. Genet. A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.1.26.- / ribonuclease HII; EC 3.1.26.4 / Ribonuclease H; Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome
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27. |......... 4%  Horie S: [Disorders caused by heat, cold, and abnormal pressure]. Nihon Rinsho; 2014 Feb;72(2):223-35
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  • [Title] [Disorders caused by heat, cold, and abnormal pressure].
  • Exposure to cold constricts peripheral arteries and reduces metabolism, resulting in the development of chilblains, frostbite, immersion foot, and hypothermia.
  • [MeSH-major] Atmospheric Pressure. Cold Temperature / adverse effects. Hot Temperature / adverse effects. Occupational Diseases / etiology

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  • (PMID = 24605519.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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28. |......... 4%  Ramesh V, Bernardi B, Stafa A, Garone C, Franzoni E, Abinun M, Mitchell P, Mitra D, Friswell M, Nelson J, Shalev SA, Rice GI, Gornall H, Szynkiewicz M, Aymard F, Ganesan V, Prendiville J, Livingston JH, Crow YJ: Intracerebral large artery disease in Aicardi-Goutières syndrome implicates SAMHD1 in vascular homeostasis. Dev Med Child Neurol; 2010 Aug;52(8):725-32
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  • [Title] Intracerebral large artery disease in Aicardi-Goutières syndrome implicates SAMHD1 in vascular homeostasis.
  • AIM: To describe a spectrum of intracerebral large artery disease in Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) associated with mutations in the AGS5 gene SAMHD1.
  • RESULTS: Five individuals (three males, two females) were identified as having biallelic mutations in SAMHD1 and a cerebral arteriopathy in association with peripheral vessel involvement resulting in chilblains and ischaemic ulceration.
  • A similar disease has not been observed in patients with mutations in AGS1 to AGS4, suggesting a particular role for SAMHD1 in vascular homeostasis.


29. |......... 4%  McMahon JA, Howe A: Cold weather issues in sideline and event management. Curr Sports Med Rep; 2012 May-Jun;11(3):135-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cold weather issues in sideline and event management.
  • Exercise in cold environments exerts a unique physiologic stress on the human body, which, under certain conditions, may result in a cold-related injury.
  • Frostbite occurs as a result of direct cold injury to peripheral tissues.
  • Trench foot is a result of repeated and constant immersion in cold water.
  • Chilblains are local erythematous or cyanotic skin lesions that develop at ambient air temperatures of 32°F to 60°F after an exposure time of about 1 to 5 h.
  • Cold urticaria is, essentially, an allergic reaction to a cold exposure and can be controlled with avoidance of the cold.
  • There are a number of risk factors and conditions that predispose athletes to cold injury, but exercise in the cold can be done safely with proper education and planning.
  • [MeSH-major] Body Temperature / physiology. Cold Temperature / adverse effects. Wounds and Injuries / etiology. Wounds and Injuries / prevention & control
  • [MeSH-minor] Frostbite / etiology. Frostbite / therapy. Humans. Hypothermia / etiology. Hypothermia / therapy. Immersion Foot / etiology. Immersion Foot / therapy. Raynaud Disease / etiology. Raynaud Disease / therapy. Urticaria / etiology

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  • (PMID = 22580491.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-8918
  • [Journal-full-title] Current sports medicine reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Sports Med Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. |......... 4%  Sifuentes Giraldo WA, Ahijón Lana M, García Villanueva MJ, González García C, Vázquez Diaz M: Chilblain lupus induced by TNF-α antagonists: a case report and literature review. Clin Rheumatol; 2012 Mar;31(3):563-8
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  • [Title] Chilblain lupus induced by TNF-α antagonists: a case report and literature review.
  • We report the case of a 72-year-old man with history of ankylosing spondylitis, who, during the treatment with infliximab, developed painful, erythematous-violaceous plaques with later development of ulcers on his feet associated with cold exposure.
  • He was diagnosed of chilblain lupus induced by infliximab, this agent was withdrawn and initiated treatment for chilblains with improvement of lesions.
  • On reviewing of the literature, we found seven reported cases of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) antagonists-induced chilblain lupus, all in rheumatoid arthritis patients and four of them with clinical and immunological characteristics available are presented and compared with our case.
  • Although it is infrequent, chilblain lupus forms part of the spectrum of TNF-α antagonists-induced lupus erythematosus; usually is limited to skin without progression to systemic lupus erythematosus; presents ANA, anti-DNA, and antinucleosome antibodies positivity as more frequent immunological alterations; and responds appropriately to the specific treatment, TNF-α antagonists withdrawal being not necessary in almost all cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents / adverse effects. Antibodies, Monoclonal / adverse effects. Chilblains / chemically induced. Lupus Erythematosus, Cutaneous / chemically induced. Spondylitis, Ankylosing / drug therapy. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 22207249.001).
  • [ISSN] 1434-9949
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical rheumatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Rheumatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 0 / infliximab; Chilblain lupus
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31. |......... 3%  Abdel-Salam GM, Abdel-Hamid MS, Hassan NA, Issa MY, Effat L, Ismail S, Aglan MS, Zaki MS: Further delineation of the clinical spectrum in RNU4ATAC related microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type I. Am J Med Genet A; 2013 Aug;161A(8):1875-81
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  • Oculocutaneous albinism, brain hemorrhage and chilblains have been found to be associated with MOPD I.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 23794361.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-4833
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of medical genetics. Part A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Med. Genet. A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ribonucleoproteins, Small Nucleolar; Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism, type 1
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; RNU4ATAC / abnormal gyral pattern / interhemispheric cyst / microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism I (MOPD I) / molar tooth sign / pigmentary disorder / vasculopathy
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32. |......... 3%  Dale RC, Gornall H, Singh-Grewal D, Alcausin M, Rice GI, Crow YJ: Familial Aicardi-Goutières syndrome due to SAMHD1 mutations is associated with chronic arthropathy and contractures. Am J Med Genet A; 2010 Apr;152A(4):938-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Both children had an unclassified chronic inflammatory skin condition with chilblains, and recurrent mouth ulcers.
  • [MeSH-major] Abnormalities, Multiple / genetics. Contracture / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Joint Diseases / genetics. Monomeric GTP-Binding Proteins / genetics. Mutation / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Child, Preschool. Chronic Disease. DNA Mutational Analysis. Family. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Pedigree. Pregnancy. Syndrome. Urticaria / complications. Urticaria / genetics


33. |......... 3%  Abdel-Salam GM, Miyake N, Eid MM, Abdel-Hamid MS, Hassan NA, Eid OM, Effat LK, El-Badry TH, El-Kamah GY, El-Darouti M, Matsumoto N: A homozygous mutation in RNU4ATAC as a cause of microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type I (MOPD I) with associated pigmentary disorder. Am J Med Genet A; 2011 Nov;155A(11):2885-96
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  • [Title] A homozygous mutation in RNU4ATAC as a cause of microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type I (MOPD I) with associated pigmentary disorder.
  • The older sib had an intracranial hemorrhage at 1 week after birth, the younger developed chilblains-like lesions at the age 2½ years old but analysis of the SAMHD1 and TREX1 genes did not show any mutations.


34. |......... 3%  Speranza L, Franceschelli S, Pesce M, Menghini L, Patruno A, Vinciguerra I, De Lutiis MA, Felaco M, Felaco P, Grilli A: Anti-inflammatory properties of the plant Verbascum mallophorum. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents; 2009 Jul-Sep;23(3):189-95
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Verbascum has been used in popular medicine for treating wounds, chilblains, respiratory ailments, acne and arthritic disturbances.
  • [MeSH-minor] Blotting, Western. Cell Line. Citrulline / biosynthesis. Densitometry. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic / drug effects. Glucosides / pharmacology. Humans. Interferon-gamma / pharmacology. Lipopolysaccharides / pharmacology. NF-kappa B / metabolism. Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II / genetics. Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II / metabolism. Phenols / pharmacology. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Superoxides / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19828096.001).
  • [ISSN] 0393-974X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biological regulators and homeostatic agents
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biol. Regul. Homeost. Agents
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Glucosides; 0 / Lipopolysaccharides; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Phenols; 11062-77-4 / Superoxides; 29VT07BGDA / Citrulline; 61276-17-3 / acteoside; 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II
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35. |......... 3%  Comte C, Bessis D, Picot E, Peyron JL, Guillot B, Dereure O: [Treatment of connective tissue disorder-related acral syndromes using UVA-1 phototherapy. An open study of 11 cases]. Ann Dermatol Venereol; 2009 Apr;136(4):323-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Treatment of connective tissue disorder-related acral syndromes using UVA-1 phototherapy. An open study of 11 cases].
  • We conducted an open study to investigate the efficacy of this therapy on connective tissue disorder-related acrosyndrome.
  • Cutaneous lesions improved in 5/11 patients (45%: 2/6 SS and 3/5 SLE), especially for lupus-related lesions including chilblains and in idiopathic chilblains that totally subsided within one month.
  • No major adverse effects were seen in patients treated with hand-only phototherapy but a slight and spontaneously reversible cutaneous rash, reminiscent of lupus lesions, occurred in one female patient receiving whole-body phototherapy.
  • DISCUSSION: This study is the first to provide a precise evaluation of the efficiency of UVA-1 phototherapy on connective tissue disorder-related acrosyndrome.
  • This therapeutic effect is not necessarily restricted to the laboratory effects of UVA-1 since the favourable impact of infrared radiation and a placebo effect cannot be ruled out.
  • Although its methodological limitations are obvious, our study also confirms dare data in the recent literature data by demonstrating significant improvement in cutaneous lesions, trophic ulcers and Raynaud's phenomenon in patients presenting connective tissue disorders, including SS, without any major adverse effects.
  • [MeSH-major] Connective Tissue Diseases / radiotherapy. Phototherapy / methods. Raynaud Disease / radiotherapy. Ultraviolet Therapy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Fingers. Hand. Humans. Radiotherapy Dosage. Scleroderma, Diffuse / pathology. Scleroderma, Diffuse / radiotherapy. Toes. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19361698.001).
  • [ISSN] 0151-9638
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de dermatologie et de vénéréologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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36. |......... 3%  Giummarra MJ, Georgiou-Karistianis N, Nicholls ME, Gibson SJ, Chou M, Bradshaw JL: Maladaptive plasticity: imprinting of past experiences onto phantom limb schemata. Clin J Pain; 2011 Oct;27(8):691-8
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  • We explore the impact of pre-amputation pain and impairment duration, and complications in the limb (eg, infection, gangrene, surgery, and vascular disease).
  • RESULTS: Our findings support Flor's model, as amputation-related and non-amputation-related pain memories, and non-painful memories comprised pains or sensations that were either enduring/recurring pains or sensations (eg, ingrown toenail, corns, chilblains, arthritis-type pain in winter, night-cramps, or holding a tennis racquet), or resulted from a painful event with a "core-trauma" element (eg, fracture, crushing/penetration injury).

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  • (PMID = 21487290.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-5409
  • [Journal-full-title] The Clinical journal of pain
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin J Pain
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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37. |......... 3%  Tlougan BE, Mancini AJ, Mandell JA, Cohen DE, Sanchez MR: Skin conditions in figure skaters, ice-hockey players and speed skaters: part II - cold-induced, infectious and inflammatory dermatoses. Sports Med; 2011 Nov 1;41(11):967-84
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Skin conditions in figure skaters, ice-hockey players and speed skaters: part II - cold-induced, infectious and inflammatory dermatoses.
  • Competitive athletes in these sports experience a range of dermatological injuries related to mechanical factors: exposure to cold temperatures, infectious agents and inflammation.
  • Part I of this two part review discussed the mechanical dermatoses affecting ice-skating athletes that result from friction, pressure, and chronic irritation related to athletic equipment and contact with surfaces.
  • Here, in Part II, we review the cold-induced, infectious and inflammatory skin conditions observed in ice-skating athletes.
  • Cold-induced dermatoses experienced by ice-skating athletes result from specific physiological effects of cold exposure on the skin.
  • These conditions include physiological livedo reticularis, chilblains (pernio), Raynaud phenomenon, cold panniculitis, frostnip and frostbite.
  • Calcium channel blockers, including nifedipine, are the mainstay of pharmacological therapy for the major nonfreezing cold-induced dermatoses including chilblains and Raynaud phenomenon.
  • Raynaud phenomenon, a vasculopathy involving recurrent vasospasm of the fingers and toes in response to cold, is especially common in figure skaters.
  • Protective clothing and insulation, avoidance of smoking and vasoconstrictive medications, maintaining a dry environment around the skin, cold avoidance when possible as well as certain physical manoeuvres that promote vasodilation are useful preventative measures.
  • Exercise-induced purpuric eruptions often occur after exercise, are rarely indicative of a chronic venous disorder or other haematological abnormality and the lesions typically resolve spontaneously.
  • We hope that this comprehensive review will aid sports medicine practitioners, dermatologists and other physicians in the diagnosis and treatment of these dermatoses.
  • [MeSH-major] Cold Temperature. Hockey / injuries. Skating / injuries. Skin Diseases / etiology

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  • (PMID = 21985216.001).
  • [ISSN] 1179-2035
  • [Journal-full-title] Sports medicine (Auckland, N.Z.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sports Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
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38. |......... 2%  Yang X, Perez OA, English JC 3rd: Successful treatment of perniosis with hydroxychloroquine. J Drugs Dermatol; 2010 Oct;9(10):1242-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Successful treatment of perniosis with hydroxychloroquine.
  • BACKGROUND: The current medical therapies for perniosis are diverse.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine outcomes of patients with perniosis treated with hydroxychloroquine.
  • METHODS: In this retrospective study, patients with a diagnosis of perniosis treated with hydroxychloroquine were analyzed for dosage required, subjective improvement in signs and symptoms, and adverse drug reactions.
  • CONCLUSION: Hydroxychloroquine is a relatively safe, well tolerated alternative therapy for the treatment of perniosis and should be considered as part of the initial management.
  • [MeSH-major] Chilblains / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 20941949.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-9616
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Drugs Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4QWG6N8QKH / Hydroxychloroquine
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39. |......... 2%  Stewart CL, Adler DJ, Jacobson A, Brod BA, Shinohara MM, Seykora JT, Elenitsas R, Rosenbach M: Equestrian perniosis: a report of 2 cases and a review of the literature. Am J Dermatopathol; 2013 Apr;35(2):237-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Equestrian perniosis: a report of 2 cases and a review of the literature.
  • Equestrian perniosis (EP) is a rare condition in which patients develop tender burning nodular plaques on their bilateral thighs after riding in the cold.
  • These lesions tend to resolve rapidly with minimal exposure to cold, and wearing loose, layered warm clothing.
  • Unlike acral perniosis, EP has no known systemic disease associations, although 2 reported cases did have elevated cold agglutinins.
  • The histology of this disease is similar to perniosis; however, EP is distinct in that the perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate prominently involves the fat.
  • [MeSH-major] Chilblains / pathology

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  • (PMID = 22534636.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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40. |......... 1%  Imray CH, Richards P, Greeves J, Castellani JW: Nonfreezing cold-induced injuries. J R Army Med Corps; 2011 Mar;157(1):79-84
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  • [Title] Nonfreezing cold-induced injuries.
  • Non-freezing cold injury (NFCI) is the Cinderella of thermal injuries and is a clinical syndrome that occurs when tissues are exposed to cold temperatures close to freezing point for sustained periods.
  • NFCI is insidious in onset, often difficult to recognize and problematic to treat, and yet the condition accounts for significant morbidity in both military and civilians who work in cold conditions.
  • [MeSH-major] Cold Temperature / adverse effects. Wounds and Injuries / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Chilblains / diagnosis. Chilblains / physiopathology. Chilblains / therapy. Humans

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  • (PMID = 21465916.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-8665
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J R Army Med Corps
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
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41. |......... 1%  Neal AJ, Jarman AM, Bennett TG: Perniosis in a long-distance cyclist crossing Mongolia. J Travel Med; 2012 Jan-Feb;19(1):66-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Perniosis in a long-distance cyclist crossing Mongolia.
  • We report a case of severe perniosis in a long-distance cyclist.
  • This case demonstrates the importance of identifying those at risk of cold-related injuries who are about to embark on extensive travel in cold environments.
  • [MeSH-major] Chilblains / diagnosis. Travel

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  • [Copyright] © 2011 International Society of Travel Medicine.
  • (PMID = 22221816.001).
  • [ISSN] 1708-8305
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of travel medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Travel Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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42. |......... 1%  Ozuguz P, Kacar SD, Karaca S: Does pernio cause nail dystrophy? J Pak Med Assoc; 2014 Mar;64(3):349-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Does pernio cause nail dystrophy?
  • Pernio is an abnormal inflammatory response to moisture and cold.
  • It is characterized with inflammatory, erythema or violet, painful or itchy cutaneous lesions affecting distal extremities, particularly the fingers and toes.
  • A literature search showed no reports of nail deformities due to pernio.
  • Here, we present a pernio case who developed nail deformities after extended exposure to cold, if combined with other facilitating factors.
  • [MeSH-major] Chilblains / complications. Nail Diseases / etiology

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  • (PMID = 24864616.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-9982
  • [Journal-full-title] JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pak Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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43. |......... 1%  Li Z: Thermotherapy: a novel possible treatment strategy of chronic rhinosinusitis based on the chilblain-like alteration in the early pathophysiology. Med Hypotheses; 2012 Jan;78(1):67-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Thermotherapy: a novel possible treatment strategy of chronic rhinosinusitis based on the chilblain-like alteration in the early pathophysiology.
  • Clinical data provide the evidence that the chilblain-like alteration occurs in the early pathophysiology of CRS.
  • In this article, we discuss the possibility of the chilblain-like alteration in the early pathophysiology and a therapeutic role of thermotherapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Chilblains / physiopathology. Humans

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 22000479.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2777
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical hypotheses
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Hypotheses
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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44. |......... 1%  Ozmen M, Kurtoglu V, Can G, Tarhan EF, Soysal D, Aslan SL: The capillaroscopic findings in idiopathic pernio: is it a microvascular disease? Mod Rheumatol; 2013 Sep;23(5):897-903
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The capillaroscopic findings in idiopathic pernio: is it a microvascular disease?
  • OBJECTIVES: Pernio is a disorder that affects the unprotected skin regions of individuals who are exposed to nonfreezing, damp cold.
  • We aimed to examine nailfold capillaries by video capillaroscopy and evaluate the vascular involvement in patients with idiopathic pernio.
  • METHODS: Fifty-three patients with idiopathic pernio (male/female ratio 35:18, mean age 25 ± 9 years) and 38 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers (male/female ratio 30:8, mean age 24 ± 4 years) were included in the study.
  • Both of these differences were independent of the disease activity, smoking, and the number of pernio episodes.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, increased nailfold capillary diameter and increased apical capillary diameter were found in patients with pernio regardless of the disease activity.
  • [MeSH-major] Capillaries / physiopathology. Chilblains / physiopathology. Nails / blood supply. Skin / blood supply

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  • (PMID = 23001749.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-7609
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern rheumatology / the Japan Rheumatism Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod Rheumatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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45. |......... 1%  Patel S, Hardo F: Chilblain lupus erythematosus. BMJ Case Rep; 2013;2013
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  • [Title] Chilblain lupus erythematosus.
  • Chilblain lupus erythematosus is a rare form of chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus.
  • It is characterised by purple plaques/nodules and oedematous skin mainly around the acral regions of the body, which are most exposed to the cold.
  • In this paper we report a case of chilblain lupus erythematosus that was diagnosed using the Mayo Clinic Diagnostic Criteria and its successful treatment with hydroxychloroquine.
  • [MeSH-major] Antirheumatic Agents / therapeutic use. Chilblains / diagnosis. Chilblains / drug therapy. Hydroxychloroquine / therapeutic use. Lupus Erythematosus, Cutaneous / diagnosis. Lupus Erythematosus, Cutaneous / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 24285807.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-790X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antirheumatic Agents; 4QWG6N8QKH / Hydroxychloroquine; Chilblain lupus
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46. |......... 1%  Yang AY, Schwartz L, Divers AK, Sternberg L, Lee JB: Equestrian chilblain: another outdoor recreational hazard. J Cutan Pathol; 2013 May;40(5):485-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Equestrian chilblain: another outdoor recreational hazard.
  • Herein, we describe two cases and review 14 cases of equestrian chilblain or 'equestrian cold panniculitis' in the literature.
  • The second was a 34-year-old healthy woman with recurrent nodular eruption on the lateral thighs after horseback riding in the winter.
  • Laboratory workup for systemic and autoimmune connective tissue disease was negative.
  • We aim to better characterize the histopathologic findings of equestrian chilblain and discuss its relationship to other cold-induced skin injuries and autoimmune connective tissue disease, namely lupus erythematosus.
  • [MeSH-major] Athletes. Athletic Injuries / pathology. Chilblains / pathology. Horses. Panniculitis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Animals. Cold Temperature / adverse effects. Female. Glucocorticoids / therapeutic use. Humans. Methylprednisolone / therapeutic use. Skin / pathology. Thigh. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
  • (PMID = 23432072.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; X4W7ZR7023 / Methylprednisolone
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47. |......... 1%  Burgess JE, Macfarlane F: Retrospective analysis of the ethnic origins of male British army soldiers with peripheral cold weather injury. J R Army Med Corps; 2009 Mar;155(1):11-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Retrospective analysis of the ethnic origins of male British army soldiers with peripheral cold weather injury.
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine if African Americans, Pacific Islanders and Gurkhas have a different incidence and severity of peripheral cold injury when compared to Caucasians in the British Army.
  • METHOD: The design was a retrospective analysis of those British male army personnel aged over 18 assessed at the Institute of Naval Medicine Cold Injury Clinic.
  • The African Americans were more severely affected than Caucasians, with mean scores of 5.39 (SD 1.767) against 4.24 (SD 1.994) for Caucasians.
  • CONCLUSION: Young male African Americans in the British Army are at 30 times greater chance of developing peripheral cold injury and are more severely affected than their Caucasian counterparts following similar climatic exposure, using similar clothing and equipment.
  • [MeSH-major] Chilblains / ethnology. Cold Temperature. Ethnic Groups. Frostbite / ethnology. Naval Medicine

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  • (PMID = 19817081.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-8665
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J R Army Med Corps
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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48. |......... 1%  Verma P, Singal A, Yadav P: Perniosis in an infant treated with topical nitroglycerine. Pediatr Dermatol; 2013 Sep-Oct;30(5):623-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Perniosis in an infant treated with topical nitroglycerine.
  • Treatment of perniosis with topical nitroglycerin ointment is reported in a 6-month-old boy.
  • [MeSH-major] Chilblains / drug therapy. Nitroglycerin / administration & dosage. Vasodilator Agents / administration & dosage

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  • [Copyright] © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 23551545.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1470
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vasodilator Agents; G59M7S0WS3 / Nitroglycerin
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49. |......... 1%  Barton SR: What's in a name? BMJ; 2011;342:d3694
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Chilblains. Terminology as Topic

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  • (PMID = 21672976.001).
  • [ISSN] 1756-1833
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ (Clinical research ed.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
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50. |......... 1%  Yu JH: [Chilblain treated by ginger-separated moxibustion in summer]. Zhongguo Zhen Jiu; 2011 Dec;31(12):1096
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Chilblain treated by ginger-separated moxibustion in summer].
  • [MeSH-major] Chilblains / therapy. Moxibustion

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  • (PMID = 22256645.001).
  • [ISSN] 0255-2930
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo zhen jiu = Chinese acupuncture & moxibustion
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Zhen Jiu
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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