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1. Biomedical articles (top 50; 2009 to 2014)
1. |||||||||. 100%  Lee NY, Huang YT, Hsueh PR, Ko WC: Clostridium difficile bacteremia, Taiwan. Emerg Infect Dis; 2010 Aug;16(8):1204-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clostridium difficile bacteremia, Taiwan.
  • To determine clinical characteristics and outcome of patients with Clostridium difficile bacteremia (CDB), we identified 12 patients with CDB in 2 medical centers in Taiwan; all had underlying systemic diseases.
  • Five isolates had C. difficile toxin A or B.
  • Of 8 patients treated with metronidazole or vancomycin, only 1 died, and all 4 patients treated with other drugs died (12.5% vs. 100%; p = 0.01). C. difficile bacteremia, although uncommon, is thus associated with substaintial illness and death rates.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology. Bacteremia / microbiology. Clostridium difficile / isolation & purification. Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous / microbiology


2. |||||||||. 99%  Southern WN, Rahmani R, Aroniadis O, Khorshidi I, Thanjan A, Ibrahim C, Brandt LJ: Postoperative Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea. Surgery; 2010 Jul;148(1):24-30
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  • [Title] Postoperative Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea.
  • BACKGROUND: Abdominal surgery is thought to be a risk factor for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD).
  • [MeSH-major] Clostridium difficile / pathogenicity. Diarrhea / etiology. Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous / etiology. Postoperative Complications / etiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 20116817.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-7361
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / P30 AI051519; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / P30 AI051519-01A1; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / P30 AI51519
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS162865; NLM/ PMC2886164
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3. |||||||||. 92%  Naaber P, Stsepetova J, Smidt I, Rätsep M, Kõljalg S, Lõivukene K, Jaanimäe L, Löhr IH, Natås OB, Truusalu K, Sepp E: Quantification of Clostridium difficile in antibiotic-associated-diarrhea patients. J Clin Microbiol; 2011 Oct;49(10):3656-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Quantification of Clostridium difficile in antibiotic-associated-diarrhea patients.
  • Comparing culture- and non-culture-based methods for quantifying Clostridium difficile in antibiotic-associated-diarrhea patients, we found that the real-time PCR method correlated well with quantitative culture and was more sensitive.
  • A positive association between the population levels of C. difficile and the presence of its toxins was found.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Bacterial Agents / adverse effects. Bacterial Load / methods. Clostridium Infections / microbiology. Clostridium difficile / isolation & purification. Diarrhea / microbiology

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  • (PMID = 21865427.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-660X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Microbiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Bacterial Toxins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3187345
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4. |||||||||. 90%  Gersch M, Sieber SA: Disarming Clostridium difficile. Chem Biol; 2010 Nov 24;17(11):1165-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Disarming Clostridium difficile.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • [CommentOn] Chem Biol. 2010 Nov 24;17(11):1201-11 [21095570.001]
  • (PMID = 21095563.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1301
  • [Journal-full-title] Chemistry & biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chem. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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5. |||||||||. 89%  Heinlen L, Ballard JD: Clostridium difficile infection. Am J Med Sci; 2010 Sep;340(3):247-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clostridium difficile infection.
  • Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of hospital-acquired diarrhea in Europe and North America and is a serious reemerging pathogen.
  • Recent outbreaks have led to increasing morbidity and mortality and have been associated with a new strain (BI/NAP1/027) of C difficile that produces more toxin than historic strains.
  • With the increasing incidence of C difficile infection, clinicians have also seen a change in the epidemiology with increased infections in previously low-risk populations.
  • This chapter highlights the current knowledge on C difficile virulence, human disease, epidemic outbreaks and optimal treatment strategies.
  • [MeSH-major] Clostridium Infections / epidemiology. Clostridium difficile / isolation & purification

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  • (PMID = 20697257.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-2990
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of the medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL084489; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL084489-03
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 93
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS221674; NLM/ PMC2935936
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6. ||||||.... 60%  Cooper IF, Siadaty MS: 'Steroids' associated with 'Clostridium Difficile Disorder': Top Publications. BioMedLib Review; Steroid;ClostridiumDifficileDisorder:705822018. ISSN: 2331-5717. 2014/4/28
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  • [Title] 'Steroids' associated with 'Clostridium Difficile Disorder': Top Publications.
  • [Transliterated title]
  • Background: There are articles published each month which present 'steroid' for 'clostridium difficile disorder'.
  • Finding such articles is important for researchers, clinicians, and patients.
  • However these articles are spread across thousands of journals, and there are many types of 'steroid'.
  • This makes searching and locating the relevant publications a challenge.
  • We have used BioMedLib's semantic search technology to address the issue, and gathered all the pertinent publications in this review article.
  • Methods: We categorized the publications we found into two groups.
  • We used the strength of textual-association to separate the groups.
  • In group one there are publications with the strongest evidence of association. We focused finding the most relevant publications pertinent to our goal, rather than combining them into a conclusion section. Such textual synthesis will be the focus of our next project.
  • Results: Group one includes 245 publications, and group two 1627 publications.
  • Here are the top 10.
  • Shin S et al: Evaluation of the Xpert Clostridium difficile assay for the diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection.
  • Pitts AC et al: Structural insight into the Clostridium difficile ethanolamine utilisation microcompartment.
  • Di Bella S et al: Clostridium difficile infection in the elderly.
  • Aubry A et al: Modulation of toxin production by the flagellar regulon in Clostridium difficile.
  • Kuntz JL et al: Clostridium difficile infection, Colorado and the northwestern United States, 2007.
  • Dubberke ER et al: Burden of Clostridium difficile on the healthcare system.
  • Tyrrell KL et al: Evaluation of cycloserine-cefoxitin fructose agar (CCFA), CCFA with horse blood and taurocholate, and cycloserine-cefoxitin mannitol broth with taurocholate and lysozyme for recovery of Clostridium difficile isolates from fecal samples.
  • Brazier JS: Clostridium difficile: the anaerobe that made the grade.
  • Foster NF et al: Improved recovery of Clostridium difficile spores with the incorporation of synthetic taurocholate in cycloserine-cefoxitin-fructose agar (CCFA).
  • Blanco JL et al: Is the prevalence of Clostridium difficile in animals underestimated?.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2014 Siadaty and Cooper; licensee BioMedLib LLC.
  • (UID = 705822018.001).
  • [ISSN] 2331-5717
  • [Journal-full-title] BioMedLib Review
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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7. ||||||.... 60%  Cooper IF, Siadaty MS: 'Genes or Genomes' associated with 'Clostridium Difficile Disorder': Top Publications. BioMedLib Review; GeneOrGenome;ClostridiumDifficileDisorder:705003983. ISSN: 2331-5717. 2014/6/25
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  • [Title] 'Genes or Genomes' associated with 'Clostridium Difficile Disorder': Top Publications.
  • [Transliterated title]
  • Background: There are articles published each month which present 'Gene or Genome' for 'clostridium difficile disorder'.
  • Finding such articles is important for researchers, clinicians, and patients.
  • However these articles are spread across thousands of journals, and there are many types of 'Gene or Genome'.
  • This makes searching and locating the relevant publications a challenge.
  • We have used BioMedLib's semantic search technology to address the issue, and gathered all the pertinent publications in this review article.
  • Methods: We categorized the publications we found into two groups.
  • We used the strength of textual-association to separate the groups.
  • In group one there are publications with the strongest evidence of association. We focused finding the most relevant publications pertinent to our goal, rather than combining them into a conclusion section. Such textual synthesis will be the focus of our next project.
  • Results: Group one includes 25 publications, and group two 3662 publications.
  • Here are the top 10.
  • Peltier J et al: Genomic and expression analysis of the vanG-like gene cluster of Clostridium difficile.
  • Barketi-Klai A et al: The flagellin FliC of Clostridium difficile is responsible for pleiotropic gene regulation during in vivo infection.
  • Martin MJ et al: The agr locus regulates virulence and colonization genes in Clostridium difficile 027.
  • Putnam EE et al: SpoIVA and SipL are Clostridium difficile spore morphogenetic proteins.
  • Walter BM et al: The LexA regulated genes of the Clostridium difficile.
  • Péchiné S et al: Immunization using GroEL decreases Clostridium difficile intestinal colonization.
  • Biazzo M et al: Diversity of cwp loci in clinical isolates of Clostridium difficile.
  • Honda H et al: Clostridium difficile infection in solid organ transplant recipients.
  • Friedman-Moraco RJ et al: Fecal microbiota transplantation for refractory Clostridium difficile colitis in solid organ transplant recipients.
  • Eckert C et al: Molecular Test Based on Isothermal Helicase-Dependent Amplification for Detection of the Clostridium difficile Toxin A Gene.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2014 Siadaty and Cooper; licensee BioMedLib LLC.
  • (UID = 705003983.001).
  • [ISSN] 2331-5717
  • [Journal-full-title] BioMedLib Review
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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8. |||||||||. 127%  Rupnik M: Clostridium difficile toxinotyping. Methods Mol Biol; 2010;646:67-76
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clostridium difficile toxinotyping.
  • Clostridium difficile shows considerable variability in the PaLoc region encoding two main virulence factors, toxins TcdA and TcdB.
  • [MeSH-major] Clostridium difficile / classification. Clostridium difficile / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20597003.001).
  • [ISSN] 1940-6029
  • [Journal-full-title] Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Methods Mol. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bacterial Proteins; 0 / Bacterial Toxins; 0 / Enterotoxins; 0 / tcdA protein, Clostridium difficile; 0 / toxB protein, Clostridium difficile
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9. |||||||||. 125%  Curry S: Clostridium difficile. Clin Lab Med; 2010 Mar;30(1):329-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clostridium difficile.
  • Clostridium difficile has re-emerged as a major hospital-acquired infection since 2001.
  • The importance of C difficile acquired outside the hospital environment remains an unknown factor and awaits further epidemiologic investigation.
  • This article discusses the changing epidemiology, clinical presentation, and pathogenesis of C difficile infection and highlights the ongoing challenges of laboratory diagnosis, treatment, and disease relapse.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Clostridium difficile / immunology. Clostridium difficile / isolation & purification. Humans. Prognosis. Recurrence

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20513554.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9832
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 105
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10. |||||||||. 102%  Metcalf DS, Costa MC, Dew WM, Weese JS: Clostridium difficile in vegetables, Canada. Lett Appl Microbiol; 2010 Nov;51(5):600-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clostridium difficile in vegetables, Canada.
  • BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is an important gastrointestinal pathogen of humans and animals.
  • It has been isolated from various foods, including meat and ready-to-eat salads, and concern has been expressed regarding food as a possible source of human C. difficile infection (CDI).
  • AIMS: We sought to isolate C. difficile from a variety of vegetables obtained from local grocery stores and to characterize these isolates.
  • RESULTS: Clostridium difficile was isolated from 4.5% (5/111) of retail vegetables.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Contamination of vegetables with CDI-associated isolates can occur and although the implications for food safety practices remain elusive, the presence of toxigenic isolates suggests vegetables could be a source of C. difficile in humans.
  • [MeSH-major] Clostridium difficile / isolation & purification. Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous / microbiology. Vegetables / microbiology


11. |||||||||. 101%  Efron PA, Mazuski JE: Clostridium difficile colitis. Surg Clin North Am; 2009 Apr;89(2):483-500, x
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clostridium difficile colitis.
  • Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of infectious diarrhea in hospitalized patients.
  • Its effects are mediated by C difficile toxins A and B.
  • Although oral metronidazole and oral vancomycin can be used to treat C difficile-associated disease, intraluminal vancomycin is preferable for more severe C difficile colitis.
  • [MeSH-major] Clostridium Infections. Clostridium difficile. Cross Infection. Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous


12. |||||||||. 101%  Bujanda L, Cosme A: [Clostridium-difficile-associated diarrhea]. Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2009 Jan;32(1):48-56
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  • [Title] [Clostridium-difficile-associated diarrhea].
  • [Transliterated title] Diarrea asociada a Clostridium difficile.
  • Clostridium difficile is the most frequent cause of nosocomial diarrhea and is a significant cause of morbidity among hospitalized patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Clostridium difficile / physiology. Diarrhea / microbiology. Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous / microbiology


13. |||||||||. 100%  Wiggelinkhuizen M, Gerrits MA: [Clostridium difficile-induced necrotizing enteritis]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2011;155(49):A2414
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Clostridium difficile-induced necrotizing enteritis].
  • [Transliterated title] Necrotiserende enteritis door Clostridium difficile.
  • BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection usually manifests as pseudomembranous colitis.
  • Infection of the small intestine is rare. C. difficile enteritis has a high mortality rate due to secondary enteric necrosis and perforation.
  • CASE DESCRIPTION: We describe an 87-year-old woman with abdominal pain, who died from necrotizing enteritis due to a C. difficile infection.
  • This is the first described case of small bowel involvement in the absence of known risk factors for C. difficile enteritis, i.e. bowel surgery and recent use of antibiotics.
  • The described patient was using immunosuppressants, which in this case could have been a risk factor for small bowel colonization with C. difficile.
  • CONCLUSION: In clinical practice it is important to be prepared for C. difficile infection, as early treatment of this infection will strongly improve the prognosis.
  • Identification of patients at an increased risk of C. difficile infection is of great value in this respect.
  • [MeSH-major] Clostridium Infections / complications. Clostridium difficile / pathogenicity. Enteritis / etiology

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  • (PMID = 22166175.001).
  • [ISSN] 1876-8784
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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14. |||||||||. 100%  Ramos Martínez A, Romero Pizarro Y, Martínez Arrieta F, Balandín Moreno B, Múñez Rubio E, Cuiñas León K, Sánchez Romero I, Cantos López de Ibargüen B, Asensio Vegas A: [Clostridium difficile enteritis]. Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2011 Oct;34(8):539-45
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Clostridium difficile enteritis].
  • [Transliterated title] Enteritis por Clostridium difficile.
  • INTRODUCTION: Clostridium difficile infection of the small intestine is infrequent.
  • METHOD: We present the first case of C. difficile enteritis (CDE) diagnosed in Spain and provide a review of the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Clostridium difficile / isolation & purification. Enteritis / microbiology. Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous / diagnosis. Opportunistic Infections / microbiology. Postoperative Complications / microbiology


15. |||||||||. 99%  Pant C, Madonia PN, Jordan P, Manas K, Bass P 3rd: Harbingers for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea. J Investig Med; 2009 Jan;57(1):40-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Harbingers for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea.
  • PURPOSE: : Recent research has recognized surrogate markers for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD).
  • METHODS: : We undertook a retrospective review of inpatients at our institution that were diagnosed with nosocomial diarrhea and subsequently had a stool sample sent for C. difficile toxins A and B.
  • RESULTS: : A total of 77 C. difficile-positive patients and 91 C. difficile-negative patients were studied.
  • [MeSH-major] Clostridium Infections / diagnosis. Clostridium difficile. Diarrhea / microbiology

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  • (PMID = 19092680.001).
  • [ISSN] 1081-5589
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of investigative medicine : the official publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Investig. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
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16. |||||||||. 99%  Cartman ST, Heap JT, Kuehne SA, Cockayne A, Minton NP: The emergence of 'hypervirulence' in Clostridium difficile. Int J Med Microbiol; 2010 Aug;300(6):387-95
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The emergence of 'hypervirulence' in Clostridium difficile.
  • The impact of Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD) in healthcare settings throughout the developed world is considerable in terms of mortality, morbidity, and disease management.
  • The physiological factors responsible for the rapid emergence of hypervirulent C. difficile strains remain unclear.
  • However, the contribution of these and other as yet unidentified factors to the rapid spread of certain C. difficile variants (e.g., ribotypes 027 and 078) remains unclear at present.
  • The advent of ClosTron technology means that it is now possible to construct genetically stable isogenic mutants of C. difficile and carry out reverse genetic studies to elucidate the role of specific gene loci in causing disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Clostridium difficile / pathogenicity. Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous / epidemiology. Evolution, Molecular. Virulence Factors / genetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20547099.001).
  • [ISSN] 1618-0607
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of medical microbiology : IJMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Med. Microbiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council / / BB/D522797/1; United Kingdom / Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council / / BB/F003390/1; United Kingdom / Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council / / BD/D522289/1; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0601176
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Virulence Factors
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17. |||||||||. 99%  Hopman NE, Keessen EC, Harmanus C, Sanders IM, van Leengoed LA, Kuijper EJ, Lipman LJ: Acquisition of Clostridium difficile by piglets. Vet Microbiol; 2011 Apr 21;149(1-2):186-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Acquisition of Clostridium difficile by piglets.
  • Clostridium difficile is recognized as an important cause of nosocomial diarrhoea in humans especially in association with administration of antibiotics.
  • In pigs, C. difficile can cause neonatal enteritis and can be isolated from faeces from both diseased and healthy animals.
  • The presented prospective study describes how soon C. difficile can be isolated from newborn piglets after normal parturition and how C. difficile spreads within a pig farm.
  • Six sows, their farrowing crates and their litters at one farm were sampled until C. difficile was found in all piglets.
  • Within 48 h after birth, all 71 piglets became positive for C. difficile (two piglets were already positive within 1h post partum), all sows became positive within 113 h after parturition and the farrowing crates were found intermittently positive. C. difficile could also be detected in air samples and in samples of teats of the sows.
  • Twenty-one C. difficile ribotype 078 isolates, found at the farm, were further analyzed by MLVA (multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis) and belonged to one clonal complex, except one isolate.
  • To be sure that piglets were not born already infected with C. difficile ribotype 078, 38 caesarean derived piglets were sampled immediately after surgery.
  • All piglets tested negative at delivery and stayed negative for C. difficile ribotype 078 during the 21 days in which they were kept in sterile incubators.
  • This study shows that C. difficile ribotype 078 spreads easily between sows, piglets and the environment.
  • Vertical transmission of C. difficile ribotype 078 was not found and is very unlikely to occur.
  • [MeSH-major] Clostridium difficile / isolation & purification. Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous / veterinary. Swine / microbiology. Swine Diseases / microbiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21111541.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-2542
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Microbiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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18. |||||||||. 97%  Al-Najjar A, Al-Rawahi GN, Hoang LM, Kollmann TR: Clostridium difficile vertebral osteomyelitis. Pediatr Infect Dis J; 2013 Sep;32(9):1030-2
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  • [Title] Clostridium difficile vertebral osteomyelitis.
  • Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea, and it occasionally causes extraintestinal infections.
  • We present a case of C. difficile-associated diarrhea that led to vertebral osteomyelitis associated with hardware.
  • The osteomyelitis became symptomatic 2 years after the initial diarrheal event. C. difficile recovered from internal hardware sites cannot simply be regarded as a contaminant but should be treated.
  • [MeSH-major] Clostridium Infections / diagnosis. Clostridium difficile / isolation & purification. Osteomyelitis / diagnosis. Spinal Diseases / diagnosis


19. |||||||||. 95%  Lipovsek S, Leitinger G, Rupnik M: Ultrastructure of Clostridium difficile colonies. Anaerobe; 2013 Dec;24:66-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ultrastructure of Clostridium difficile colonies.
  • The ultrastructural colony architecture of six Clostridium difficile strains belonging to four different ribotypes (001, 027, 078/126 and 036) was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
  • [MeSH-major] Biofilms / growth & development. Clostridium difficile / growth & development. Clostridium difficile / ultrastructure. Spores, Bacterial / growth & development. Spores, Bacterial / ultrastructure

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 24120350.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-8274
  • [Journal-full-title] Anaerobe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anaerobe
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Bacterial colony patterns / Biofilm / Clostridium difficile / Motility / Scanning electron microscopy / Sporulation
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20. |||||||||. 95%  Mäkelä J, Takala H, Klintrup K, Syrjälä H, Rautio T: [Fulminant Clostridium difficile colitis]. Duodecim; 2013;129(16):1681-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Fulminant Clostridium difficile colitis].
  • [Transliterated title] Fulminantin Clostridium difficilen aiheuttama koliitti--milloin kirurginen hoito on aiheellinen?
  • Clostridium difficile is a common cause of nosocomial diarrhea and it's most difficult Fulminant form is increasing in prevalence and severity in hospitalized patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Clostridium Infections / therapy. Colitis / therapy. Cross Infection / therapy. Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous / therapy

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  • (PMID = 24069637.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-7183
  • [Journal-full-title] Duodecim; lääketieteellinen aikakauskirja
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Duodecim
  • [Language] fin
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Finland
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21. |||||||||. 93%  Allen UD, Canadian Paediatric Society, Infectious Diseases and Immunization Committee: Clostridium difficile in paediatric populations. Paediatr Child Health; 2014 Jan;19(1):43-54
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clostridium difficile in paediatric populations.
  • An increase in Clostridium difficile infection incidence has been observed among hospitalized children in the United States.
  • The present statement, targeted at clinicians caring for infants and children in community and institutional settings, summarizes the relevant information relating to the role of C difficile in childhood diarrhea and provides recommendations for diagnosis, prevention and treatment.
  • The relationship between age and disease severity in children with a newly emergent and more fluoroqinolone-resistant strain of C difficile (North American Pulse-field type-1 [NAP1]) remains unknown.
  • This statement replaces a previous Canadian Paediatric Society position statement on C difficile published in 2000.

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  • (PMID = 24627655.001).
  • [ISSN] 1205-7088
  • [Journal-full-title] Paediatrics & child health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Paediatr Child Health
  • [Language] eng; fre
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3938221 [Available on 01/01/15]
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; CDI / Colitis / Diarrhea / Immunocompromise / Megacolon / Metronidazole / NAP1 / Vancomycin
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22. |||||||||. 90%  Hussain HA, Roberts AP, Whalan R, Mullany P: Transposon mutagenesis in Clostridium difficile. Methods Mol Biol; 2010;646:203-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Transposon mutagenesis in Clostridium difficile.
  • Genetic manipulation of Clostridium difficile is notoriously difficult, currently there is only one reliable method for generating random mutations in the organism and that is to use the conjugative transposon Tn916.
  • Tn916 enters the genome of most strains of C. difficile with no obvious target site preference.
  • In order to use the genome strain C. difficile 630 for transposon mutagenesis a erythromycin-sensitive derivative C. difficile 630Deltaerm was constructed and the Tn916 derivative, Tn916DeltaE, was shown to enter the genome at multiple sites enabling the construction of a Tn916 insertion library.
  • [MeSH-major] Clostridium difficile / genetics. Mutagenesis / genetics. Retroelements / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20597011.001).
  • [ISSN] 1940-6029
  • [Journal-full-title] Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Methods Mol. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council / / 364/E13746; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0601176
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Retroelements
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23. |||||||||. 89%  Ben Abdelghani K, Gerard-Dran D, Morel J, Combe B: [Clostridium difficile associated reactive arthritis]. Rev Med Interne; 2010 Mar;31(3):e13-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Clostridium difficile associated reactive arthritis].
  • [Transliterated title] Arthrite réactionnelle àClostridium difficile.
  • Extracolonic manifestations of Clostridium difficile infections have rarely been reported as a reactive arthritis.
  • She was admitted for fever and polyarthritis, 10 days after the onset of a C. difficile enterocolitis.
  • [MeSH-major] Arthritis, Reactive / microbiology. Clostridium difficile. Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous / complications

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  • [Copyright] 2009 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19457598.001).
  • [ISSN] 1768-3122
  • [Journal-full-title] La Revue de médecine interne / fondée ... par la Société nationale francaise de médecine interne
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Interne
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids
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24. |||||||||. 89%  Bardoň J, Vágnerová I, Kolář M: [Animal sources of Clostridium difficile]. Klin Mikrobiol Infekc Lek; 2012 Feb;18(1):9-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Animal sources of Clostridium difficile].
  • [Transliterated title] K problematice animálních zdrojů Clostridium difficile.
  • The bacterium Clostridium difficile is pathogenic for both humans and animals.
  • Identical human and animal isolates of C. difficile have been reported in several studies.
  • The article presents results from a small local study aimed at detecting C. difficile and its toxins in the District of Olomouc, Czech Republic, by 3 different methods.
  • [MeSH-major] Clostridium difficile / isolation & purification. Feces / microbiology. Sus scrofa / microbiology

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  • (PMID = 22484972.001).
  • [ISSN] 1211-264X
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinická mikrobiologie a infekc̆ní lékar̆ství
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin. Mikrobiol. Infekc. Lek.
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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25. |||||||||. 89%  Medina-Torres CE, Weese JS, Staempfli HR: Prevalence of Clostridium difficile in horses. Vet Microbiol; 2011 Aug 26;152(1-2):212-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prevalence of Clostridium difficile in horses.
  • Fecal samples were collected to establish the apparent prevalence of Clostridium difficile shedding in Standardbred and Thoroughbred racehorses housed at 4 racetracks and 2 breeding facilities, and in horses admitted to a referral large animal clinic.
  • Forty-one (7.59%) of 540 racetrack horses, seven (5.83%) of 120 breeding farm horses, and four (4.88%) out of 82 horses admitted to the referral clinic were culture-positive for C. difficile.
  • An overall fecal culture prevalence of 7.01% for C. difficile was identified in 742 fecal samples.
  • PCR-ribotyping and toxin gene identification was performed and seventeen 17 PCR-ribotypes were identified among the 52 C. difficile isolates.
  • [MeSH-major] Bacterial Shedding. Clostridium difficile / isolation & purification. Feces / microbiology. Horses / microbiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21570780.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-2542
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Microbiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bacterial Toxins
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26. |||||||||. 89%  Sun X, Savidge T, Feng H: The enterotoxicity of Clostridium difficile toxins. Toxins (Basel); 2010 Jul;2(7):1848-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The enterotoxicity of Clostridium difficile toxins.
  • The major virulence factors of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) are two large exotoxins A (TcdA) and B (TcdB).
  • Both purified TcdA and TcdB are capable of inducing the pathophysiology of CDI, although most studies have focused on TcdA. C. difficile toxins exert a wide array of biological activities by acting directly on intestinal epithelial cells.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Clostridium Infections / etiology. Clostridium difficile / pathogenicity. Disease Models, Animal. Humans. Protein Structure, Tertiary

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  • (PMID = 22069662.001).
  • [ISSN] 2072-6651
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxins
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxins (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / K01 DK076549; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI088748; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK084509
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bacterial Toxins; 0 / Clostridium difficile lethal toxin B; 0 / Enterotoxins; 0 / tcdA protein, Clostridium difficile
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3153265
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Clostridium difficile / enterotoxicity / toxin A (TcdA) / toxin B (TcdB)
  • [General-notes] NLM/ Original DateCompleted: 20111110
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27. |||||||||. 89%  Knight CL, Surawicz CM: Clostridium difficile Infection. Med Clin North Am; 2013 Jul;97(4):523-36, ix
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clostridium difficile Infection.
  • Clostridium difficile is emerging as a common cause of infectious diarrhea.
  • Fecal microbiota transplantation is a potentially promising therapy for patients with multiple recurrences of C difficile infection.
  • [MeSH-major] Clostridium Infections. Clostridium difficile

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 23809712.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9859
  • [Journal-full-title] The Medical clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Antidiarrheals
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28. |||||||||. 89%  Eckert C, Barbut F: [Clostridium-difficile-associated infections]. Med Sci (Paris); 2010 Feb;26(2):153-8
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  • [Title] [Clostridium-difficile-associated infections].
  • [Transliterated title] Infections à Clostridium difficile.
  • C. difficile is a spore-forming anaerobic enteropathogen.
  • This bacillus is responsible for virtually all cases of pseudomembranous colitis and for 15 to 25% of cases of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea.
  • Clostridium difficile associated-infections (CDI) have a wide range of clinical features which vary from mild uncomplicated diarrhoea to severe debilitating disease, paralytic ileus, toxic megacolon, or even perforation and sometimes death.
  • [MeSH-major] Bacterial Toxins / genetics. Clostridium difficile / physiology. Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous / microbiology

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  • (PMID = 20188046.001).
  • [ISSN] 0767-0974
  • [Journal-full-title] Médecine sciences : M/S
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Sci (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Bacterial Proteins; 0 / Bacterial Toxins; 0 / Enterotoxins; 0 / tcdA protein, Clostridium difficile; 0 / toxB protein, Clostridium difficile; 0 / toxin R, Clostridium difficile; 140QMO216E / Metronidazole; 6Q205EH1VU / Vancomycin
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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29. |||||||||. 88%  Permpoonpattana P, Tolls EH, Nadem R, Tan S, Brisson A, Cutting SM: Surface layers of Clostridium difficile endospores. J Bacteriol; 2011 Dec;193(23):6461-70
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  • [Title] Surface layers of Clostridium difficile endospores.
  • Clostridium difficile is an important human pathogen and one where the primary cause of disease is due to the transmission of spores.
  • We have investigated the proteins found in the outer coat layers of C. difficile spores of pathogenic strain 630 (CD630).
  • CotE, in addition to a role in macromolecular degradation, could play an important role in inflammation, and this may be of direct relevance to the development of the gastrointestinal symptoms that accompany C. difficile infection.
  • Although specific enzyme activity has not yet been assigned to the proteins identified here, this work provides the first detailed study of the C. difficile spore coat.
  • [MeSH-major] Bacterial Proteins / metabolism. Clostridium difficile / growth & development. Spores, Bacterial / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 21949071.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-5530
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of bacteriology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Bacteriol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bacterial Proteins; EC 1.11.1.15 / Peroxiredoxins; EC 1.11.1.6 / Catalase; EC 3.2.1.14 / Chitinase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3232898
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30. |||||||||. 88%  Monteiro MA, Ma Z, Bertolo L, Jiao Y, Arroyo L, Hodgins D, Mallozzi M, Vedantam G, Sagermann M, Sundsmo J, Chow H: Carbohydrate-based Clostridium difficile vaccines. Expert Rev Vaccines; 2013 Apr;12(4):421-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Carbohydrate-based Clostridium difficile vaccines.
  • Clostridium difficile is responsible for thousands of deaths each year and a vaccine would be welcomed, especially one that would disrupt bacterial maintenance, colonization and persistence in carriers and convalescent patients.
  • Structural explorations at the University of Guelph (ON, Canada) discovered that C. difficile may express three phosphorylated polysaccharides, named PSI, PSII and PSIII; this review captures our recent efforts to create vaccines based on these glycans, especially PSII, the common antigen that has precipitated immediate attention.
  • So far, it has been observed that anti-PSII antibodies can be raised in farm animals, mice and hamster models; humans and horses carry anti-PSII IgA and IgG antibodies from natural exposure to C. difficile, respectively; phosphate is an indispensable immunogenic epitope and vaccine-induced PSII antibodies recognize PSII on C. difficile outer surface.
  • [MeSH-major] Bacterial Vaccines / administration & dosage. Bacterial Vaccines / immunology. Clostridium difficile / immunology. Polysaccharides, Bacterial / immunology

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  • (PMID = 23560922.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8395
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of vaccines
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Vaccines
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Bacterial; 0 / Bacterial Vaccines; 0 / Immunoglobulin A; 0 / Immunoglobulin G; 0 / Polysaccharides, Bacterial; 0 / Vaccines, Conjugate
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31. |||||||||. 87%  Burns DA, Minton NP: Sporulation studies in Clostridium difficile. J Microbiol Methods; 2011 Nov;87(2):133-8
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  • [Title] Sporulation studies in Clostridium difficile.
  • Clostridium difficile is a leading cause of healthcare-associated diarrhoea.
  • In recent years, certain C. difficile types have become highly represented among clinical isolates and are associated with outbreaks of increased disease severity, higher relapse rates and an expanded repertoire of antibiotic resistance.
  • Endospores, produced during sporulation, play a pivotal role in infection and disease transmission and it has been suggested in the literature that these so-called 'hypervirulent' C. difficile types are more prolific in terms of sporulation in vitro.
  • However, work in our laboratory has provided evidence to the contrary suggesting that although there is significant strain-to-strain variation in C. difficile sporulation characteristics this variation does not appear to be type-associated.
  • The conflicting data in the literature may, therefore, not necessarily be generally representative of C. difficile sporulation.
  • In this review, the need for further investigations of C. difficile sporulation rates is highlighted.
  • Specifically, the advantages and disadvantages of the different experimental approaches previously used are discussed and a standard set of principles for measuring C. difficile sporulation in the future is proposed.
  • [MeSH-major] Bacteriological Techniques / methods. Clostridium difficile / growth & development. Spores, Bacterial / growth & development

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21864584.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8359
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of microbiological methods
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Microbiol. Methods
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0601176
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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32. |||||||||. 87%  Roberts AP, Mullany P: Clostridium difficile: no longer an enigmatic pathogen? Methods Mol Biol; 2010;646:3-7
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  • [Title] Clostridium difficile: no longer an enigmatic pathogen?
  • Never before has there been a more timely opportunity to investigate the molecular genetics of Clostridium difficile.
  • Over the last few years the perception of C. difficile has changed from an obscure, and often under-researched, bacterium to one of major clinical importance, at least in industrialized nations.
  • Coupled with the increased interest in this organism researchers now have a greater understanding of its genetic content and molecular epidemiology; a direct consequence of the multiple C. difficile genomes which have been, and currently are being, sequenced.
  • Concurrent with the sequencing efforts have been the development of tools to genetically manipulate the organism.
  • We are now in a position to answer fundamental questions about the biology and pathogenicity of the organism.
  • The techniques detailed in this volume should allow researchers to enter a new era of C. difficile research where it is possible, finally, to fulfil Koch's molecular postulates and determine empirically how this once enigmatic organism is able to cause disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Clostridium difficile / genetics. Clostridium difficile / pathogenicity

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  • (PMID = 20596999.001).
  • [ISSN] 1940-6029
  • [Journal-full-title] Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Methods Mol. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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33. |||||||||. 87%  Weese JS, Wakeford T, Reid-Smith R, Rousseau J, Friendship R: Longitudinal investigation of Clostridium difficile shedding in piglets. Anaerobe; 2010 Oct;16(5):501-4
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  • [Title] Longitudinal investigation of Clostridium difficile shedding in piglets.
  • A longitudinal study of Clostridium difficile colonization in piglets was performed on a conventional swine farm in Ontario, Canada.
  • Fecal samples were collected from 10 sows prior to their expected farrowing date, and then from all their piglets on days 2, 7, 30, 44 and 62 of life. C. difficile was isolated from 4/10 (40%) of sows prior to farrowing, 90/121 (74%) piglets on day 2, 66/117 (56%) on day 7, 45/113 (40%) on day 30, 23/101 (23%) on day 44 and 2/54 (3.7%) on day 62.
  • Overall, C. difficile was isolated from one or more samples from 116/121 (96%) piglets.
  • The decline in C. difficile colonization over the first 2 months of life was remarkable.
  • The variation in colonization over a relatively short period of time has important implications for the design and interpretation of studies evaluating C. difficile colonization in pigs, since relatively small differences in age may have a major confounding effect on the prevalence of colonization.
  • [MeSH-major] Bacterial Shedding. Clostridium Infections / veterinary. Clostridium difficile / pathogenicity. Swine / microbiology. Swine Diseases / epidemiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20708700.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-8274
  • [Journal-full-title] Anaerobe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anaerobe
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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34. |||||||||. 86%  Piacenti FJ, Leuthner KD: Antimicrobial stewardship and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea. J Pharm Pract; 2013 Oct;26(5):506-13
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  • [Title] Antimicrobial stewardship and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea.
  • Antimicrobial stewardship programs are essential to health care institutions to promote the appropriate use of antibiotics not only to decrease antimicrobial resistance but to prevent the spread and infection of Clostridium difficile.
  • Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea is increasing rapidly in the United States and is now considered a major public health problem that poses an immediate threat to the health of patients prescribed antibiotics, more so than antimicrobial resistance.
  • Clostridium difficile-associated disease is the result of collateral damage to the normal bacterial flora of the human body, which is an inevitable consequence of any antibiotic use.
  • Antimicrobial stewardship programs such as audit with feedback and antibiotic restriction are designed to help limit Clostridium difficile infections and other hospital-associated organisms by optimizing antimicrobial selection, dosing, de-escalation, and duration of therapy.
  • This article reviews the literature on how antimicrobial stewardship programs impact Clostridium difficile rates and discusses experiences in designing, implementing, monitoring, and follow-through of such programs.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Clostridium Infections / prevention & control. Diarrhea / prevention & control
  • [MeSH-minor] Clostridium difficile / isolation & purification. Cross Infection / epidemiology. Cross Infection / microbiology. Cross Infection / prevention & control. Drug Monitoring / methods. Drug Resistance, Bacterial. Humans. Practice Guidelines as Topic. United States / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 23946208.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-1937
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pharmacy practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pharm Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Clostridium difficile / antibiotic usage / antimicrobial stewardship
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35. |||||||||. 85%  Mattila E, Arkkila P, Mattila PS, Tarkka E, Tissari P, Anttila VJ: Extraintestinal Clostridium difficile infections. Clin Infect Dis; 2013 Sep;57(6):e148-53
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  • [Title] Extraintestinal Clostridium difficile infections.
  • BACKGROUND:  Clostridium difficile causes diarrhea that ranges from a benign, self-limiting antibiotic use-associated disease to a life-threatening pseudomembranous colitis.
  • Clostridium difficile has rarely been isolated in extraintestinal infections.
  • METHODS Extraintestinal C. difficile infections (CDIs) were searched for in an electronic database of all C. difficile-positive isolates found during a 10-year period.
  • Two patients had bacteremic infections, 4 had abdominal infections without any prior surgery, 7 had abdominal infections after surgery, 4 had perianal abscesses, 13 had wound infections, and 1 had C. difficile in a urinary catheter.
  • In most cases (85%), C. difficile was isolated together with other microbes.
  • Clostridium difficile may reach distant sites via bacteremia.
  • [MeSH-major] Bacteremia / epidemiology. Clostridium Infections / epidemiology. Clostridium difficile / isolation & purification

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  • (PMID = 23771984.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-6591
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Clostridium difficile / abscess / bacteremia / postoperative complications / wound infection
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36. |||||||||. 85%  Seekatz AM, Young VB: Clostridium difficile and the microbiota. J Clin Invest; 2014 Oct 1;124(10):4182-9
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  • [Title] Clostridium difficile and the microbiota.
  • Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the leading health care-associated illness.
  • Both human and animal models have demonstrated the importance of the gut microbiota's capability of providing colonization resistance against C. difficile.

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  • (PMID = 25036699.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-8238
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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37. ||||||||.. 84%  Headley CM: Deadly diarrhea: Clostridium difficile infection. Nephrol Nurs J; 2012 Nov-Dec;39(6):459-68; quiz 469
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  • [Title] Deadly diarrhea: Clostridium difficile infection.
  • Diarrhea is often only a minor inconvenience, but sometimes it can be deadly--especially if it results from a Clostridium difficile infection.
  • Clostridium difficile colitis is becoming increasingly common and more virulent, and patients with kidney failure are at increased risk for development of a Clostridium disfficile infection.
  • This article provides information about Clostridium difficile infection, its incidence, diagnosis, and treatment.
  • In addition, the article discusses how to combat the transmission of Clostridium difficile infection by employing specific infection control recommendations.
  • [MeSH-major] Clostridium Infections / nursing. Clostridium difficile / isolation & purification

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  • (PMID = 23469412.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-744X
  • [Journal-full-title] Nephrology nursing journal : journal of the American Nephrology Nurses' Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nephrol Nurs J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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38. ||||||||.. 82%  Marta Piskorz M, Valentina Araya M, Piskorz EL, Sigelboim D: [Clostridium difficile and ulcerative colitis]. Acta Gastroenterol Latinoam; 2010 Dec;40(4):347-50
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  • [Title] [Clostridium difficile and ulcerative colitis].
  • [Transliterated title] Clostridium difficile y colitis ulcerosa.
  • Infectious colitis, including Clostridium difficile colitis, and inflammatory bowel disease are the main diagnosis that we put into consideration.
  • Because of the recurrence of the symptoms we arrived to the diagnosis of Clostridium difficile colitis complicating an ulcerative colitis.
  • Clostridium difficile colitis has particular characteristic in the context of an inflammatory bowel disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Clostridium Infections. Clostridium difficile / isolation & purification. Colitis, Ulcerative / microbiology. Diarrhea / microbiology


39. ||||||||.. 82%  Zaiss NH, Witte W, Nübel U: Fluoroquinolone resistance and Clostridium difficile, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis; 2010 Apr;16(4):675-7
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  • [Title] Fluoroquinolone resistance and Clostridium difficile, Germany.
  • We characterized 670 Clostridium difficile isolates collected from patients in 84 hospitals in Germany in 2008.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Clostridium difficile / drug effects. Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous / drug therapy. Fluoroquinolones / therapeutic use


40. ||||||||.. 82%  Hargreaves KR, Clokie MR: Clostridium difficile phages: still difficult? Front Microbiol; 2014;5:184
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  • [Title] Clostridium difficile phages: still difficult?
  • Phages that infect Clostridium difficile were first isolated for typing purposes in the 1980s, but their use was short lived.
  • However, the rise of C. difficile epidemics over the last decade has triggered a resurgence of interest in using phages to combat this pathogen.
  • Phage therapy is an attractive treatment option for C. difficile infection, however, developing suitable phages is challenging.
  • In this review we summarize the difficulties faced by researchers in this field, and we discuss the solutions and strategies used for the development of C. difficile phages for use as novel therapeutics.
  • Epidemiological data has highlighted the diversity and distribution of C. difficile, and shown that novel strains continue to emerge in clinical settings.
  • In parallel with epidemiological studies, advances in molecular biology have bolstered our understanding of C. difficile biology, and our knowledge of phage-host interactions in other bacterial species.
  • These three fields of biology have therefore paved the way for future work on C. difficile phages to progress and develop.
  • Benefits of using C. difficile phages as therapeutic agents include the fact that they have highly specific interactions with their bacterial hosts.
  • No strictly virulent C. difficile phages have been reported and this contributes to the difficulties with their therapeutic exploitation.
  • Whilst we don't envisage working with C. difficile phages will be problem-free, sufficient study should inform future strategies to facilitate their development to combat this problematic pathogen.

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  • (PMID = 24808893.001).
  • [ISSN] 1664-302X
  • [Journal-full-title] Frontiers in microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Front Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4009436
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Clostridium difficile / genomics / gut pathogen / lysogeny / nosocomial / phage evolution / phage therapy
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41. ||||||||.. 82%  Schneeberg A, Neubauer H, Schmoock G, Baier S, Harlizius J, Nienhoff H, Brase K, Zimmermann S, Seyboldt C: Clostridium difficile genotypes in piglet populations in Germany. J Clin Microbiol; 2013 Nov;51(11):3796-803
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  • [Title] Clostridium difficile genotypes in piglet populations in Germany.
  • Clostridium difficile was isolated from 147 of 201 (73%) rectal swabs of piglets from 15 farms of Lower Saxony and North Rhine-Westphalia.
  • The comparison of multilocus VNTR (variable number of tandem repeats) analysis (MLVA) data from this study and previously published data on human, porcine, and bovine PCR ribotype 078 isolates from 5 European countries revealed genetic differences between strains of different geographic origin and confirmed the relatedness of human and porcine C. difficile isolates.
  • The results suggest that presence of C. difficile is correlated with animal age but not with antibiotic treatment or clinical disease.
  • MLVA indicated that strains of the same geographical origin are often genetically related and corroborated the hypothesis of a close epidemiological connection between human and porcine C. difficile isolates.
  • [MeSH-major] Clostridium difficile / classification. Clostridium difficile / genetics. Genetic Variation. Rectum / microbiology. Swine / microbiology

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  • (PMID = 24025903.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-660X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Microbiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3889769
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42. ||||||||.. 79%  Romano V, Albanese F, Dumontet S, Krovacek K, Petrini O, Pasquale V: Prevalence and genotypic characterization of Clostridium difficile from ruminants in Switzerland. Zoonoses Public Health; 2012 Dec;59(8):545-8
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  • [Title] Prevalence and genotypic characterization of Clostridium difficile from ruminants in Switzerland.
  • Clostridium difficile is an emerging enteric pathogen of humans and animals with a known main reservoir in the intestinal tract of various warm-blooded animals.
  • This study was carried out to evaluate the prevalence of C. difficile in 150 rectal swab samples collected from cattle and goats in Switzerland.
  • The overall prevalence of C. difficile was 6.6%.
  • In addition, the occurrence of C. difficile in faecal samples collected from farm ground was also evaluated and C. difficile was detected in 21% (7/30) of these samples.
  • Several isolates pertained to ribotypes known to cause Clostridium difficile infections in humans.
  • [MeSH-major] Cattle Diseases / microbiology. Clostridium difficile / isolation & purification. Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous / veterinary. Goat Diseases / microbiology. Ruminants / microbiology

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  • [Copyright] © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
  • (PMID = 22925279.001).
  • [ISSN] 1863-2378
  • [Journal-full-title] Zoonoses and public health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zoonoses Public Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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43. ||||||||.. 79%  Songer JG, Trinh HT, Killgore GE, Thompson AD, McDonald LC, Limbago BM: Clostridium difficile in retail meat products, USA, 2007. Emerg Infect Dis; 2009 May;15(5):819-21
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  • [Title] Clostridium difficile in retail meat products, USA, 2007.
  • To determine the presence of Clostridium difficile, we sampled cooked and uncooked meat products sold in Tucson, Arizona.
  • Forty-two percent contained toxigenic C. difficile strains (either ribotype 078/toxinotype V [73%] or 027/toxinotype III [NAP1 or NAP1-related; 27%]).
  • These findings indicate that food products may play a role in interspecies C. difficile transmission.
  • [MeSH-major] Cattle / microbiology. Clostridium difficile / isolation & purification. Food Contamination. Meat Products / microbiology

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  • (PMID = 19402980.001).
  • [ISSN] 1080-6059
  • [Journal-full-title] Emerging infectious diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Emerging Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2687047
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44. ||||||||.. 79%  Enoch DA, Butler MJ, Pai S, Aliyu SH, Karas JA: Clostridium difficile in children: colonisation and disease. J Infect; 2011 Aug;63(2):105-13
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  • [Title] Clostridium difficile in children: colonisation and disease.
  • Clostridium difficile is the commonest cause of hospital acquired diarrhoea in adults and is associated with significant mortality and morbidity.
  • The clinical significance of C. difficile in children, however, is less certain.
  • In this article we discuss colonisation and infection and describe C. difficile in childhood in terms of risk factors, epidemiology and management.
  • [MeSH-major] Carrier State / epidemiology. Carrier State / microbiology. Clostridium Infections / epidemiology. Clostridium Infections / microbiology. Clostridium difficile / isolation & purification

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2011 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21664931.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2742
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of infection
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Infect.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
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45. ||||||||.. 78%  Limbago BM, Long CM, Thompson AD, Killgore GE, Hannett GE, Havill NL, Mickelson S, Lathrop S, Jones TF, Park MM, Harriman KH, Gould LH, McDonald LC, Angulo FJ: Clostridium difficile strains from community-associated infections. J Clin Microbiol; 2009 Sep;47(9):3004-7
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  • [Title] Clostridium difficile strains from community-associated infections.
  • Clostridium difficile isolates from presumed community-associated infections (n = 92) were characterized by toxinotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, tcdC and cdtB PCR, and antimicrobial susceptibility.
  • [MeSH-major] Clostridium difficile / classification. Clostridium difficile / isolation & purification. Community-Acquired Infections / microbiology. Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous / microbiology

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  • (PMID = 19571021.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-660X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Microbiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bacterial Proteins; 0 / Bacterial Toxins; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / TcdC protein, Clostridium difficile; EC 2.4.2.- / ADP Ribose Transferases; EC 2.4.2.31 / actin-specific ADP-ribosyltransferase, Clostridium
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2738099
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46. ||||||||.. 78%  Bouillaut L, McBride SM, Sorg JA: Genetic manipulation of Clostridium difficile. Curr Protoc Microbiol; 2011 Feb;Chapter 9:Unit 9A.2
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  • [Title] Genetic manipulation of Clostridium difficile.
  • Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive, spore forming, anaerobic, intestinal bacterium and is the most common cause of antibiotic-associated colitis.
  • For many years this organism was considered genetically intractable, but in the past 10 years, multiple methods have been developed or adapted for genetic manipulation of C. difficile.
  • This unit describes the molecular techniques used for genetic modification of this organism, including methods for gene disruption, complementation, plasmid introduction and integration, and cross-species conjugations.
  • [MeSH-major] Clostridium difficile / genetics. Genetic Techniques

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  • [Copyright] © 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • (PMID = 21400677.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-8533
  • [Journal-full-title] Current protocols in microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Protoc Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK082156; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / K01 DK087763; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / K01 DK087763-01A1; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / K12 GM074869; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / K12 GM074869-01A1; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / K12 GM074869-02; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / N01 AI030050; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / N01 AI30050; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI057637; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI057637; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI057637-01A1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS369964; NLM/ PMC3615975
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47. ||||||||.. 78%  Ananthakrishnan AN, Issa M, Binion DG: Clostridium difficile and inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterol Clin North Am; 2009 Dec;38(4):711-28
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  • [Title] Clostridium difficile and inflammatory bowel disease.
  • The past decade has seen an alarming increase in the burden of disease associated with Clostridium difficile.
  • Several studies have now demonstrated an increasing incidence of C difficile infection in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with a more severe course of disease compared with the non-IBD population.
  • This article summarizes the available literature on the impact of C difficile infection on IBD and discusses the various diagnostic testing and treatment options available.
  • [MeSH-major] Clostridium Infections / complications. Clostridium difficile. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases / microbiology

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  • [ReprintIn] Med Clin North Am. 2010 Jan;94(1):135-53 [19944802.001]
  • (PMID = 19913210.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-1942
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterology clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 90
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48. ||||||||.. 78%  Bakri MM, Brown DJ, Butcher JP, Sutherland AD: Clostridium difficile in ready-to-eat salads, Scotland. Emerg Infect Dis; 2009 May;15(5):817-8
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  • [Title] Clostridium difficile in ready-to-eat salads, Scotland.
  • Of 40 ready-to-eat salads, 3 (7.5%) were positive for Clostridium difficile by PCR.
  • Ready-to-eat salads may be potential sources for virulent C. difficile.
  • [MeSH-major] Clostridium difficile / isolation & purification. Food Contamination. Lettuce / microbiology. Spinacia oleracea / microbiology

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  • (PMID = 19402979.001).
  • [ISSN] 1080-6059
  • [Journal-full-title] Emerging infectious diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Emerging Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Bacterial Proteins; 0 / Bacterial Toxins; 0 / Enterotoxins; 0 / tcdA protein, Clostridium difficile; 0 / toxB protein, Clostridium difficile
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2687046
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49. ||||||||.. 78%  Rogers MA, Greene MT, Saint S, Chenoweth CE, Malani PN, Trivedi I, Aronoff DM: Higher rates of Clostridium difficile infection among smokers. PLoS One; 2012;7(7):e42091
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Higher rates of Clostridium difficile infection among smokers.
  • We investigated whether smoking affected the probability of developing Clostridium difficile infection (CDI).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Smoking is associated with developing a Clostridium difficile infection.
  • [MeSH-major] Clostridium difficile / pathogenicity. Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous / epidemiology. Smoking

  • Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Clostridium Difficile.
  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Clostridium Difficile Infections.
  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Smoking.
  • ExactAntigen/Labome. author profiles.
  • ResearchGate. author profiles.
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  • (PMID = 22848714.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / 5U19AI090871-02; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / U01AG009740
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3407081
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50. ||||||||.. 78%  He X, Wang J, Steele J, Sun X, Nie W, Tzipori S, Feng H: An ultrasensitive rapid immunocytotoxicity assay for detecting Clostridium difficile toxins. J Microbiol Methods; 2009 Jul;78(1):97-100
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] An ultrasensitive rapid immunocytotoxicity assay for detecting Clostridium difficile toxins.
  • We describe a novel ultrasensitive cell-based immunocytotoxicity assay for detecting Clostridium difficile toxin A and B.
  • Using this assay, we were able to detect the presence of C. difficile toxins in the fecal and serum specimens of experimentally infected piglets.
  • [MeSH-major] Bacterial Toxins / isolation & purification. Biological Assay / methods. Clostridium difficile / chemistry. Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic / methods. Cytotoxins / isolation & purification

  • ResearchGate. author profiles.
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  • (PMID = 19393695.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8359
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of microbiological methods
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Microbiol. Methods
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / K01 DK076549; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / K01 DK076549-01A1; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / K01DK076549; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / N01AI30050
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Bacterial; 0 / Bacterial Toxins; 0 / Cytotoxins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS126645; NLM/ PMC2740367
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