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1. Biomedical articles (top 50; 2009 to 2014)
1. |||||||||. 100%  Kuroda S, Shinya A, Yokoyama D, Gomi H, Shinya A: Effects of coloring agents applied during sintering on bending strength and hardness of zirconia ceramics. Dent Mater J; 2013;32(5):793-800
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effects of coloring agents applied during sintering on bending strength and hardness of zirconia ceramics.
  • The effects of coloring agents (Vita in-ceram 2000 YZ coloring liquid (VL) and IPS e.max ZirCAD (IS)) and shades (1, 3, and 5) applied during sintering on the bending strength and fracture toughness of zirconia ceramics was examined.
  • No differences in the bending strength or fracture toughness were observed for the type of coloring agent used.
  • Moreover, the bending strength and Vickers hardness of the zirconia ceramics decreased, while the crack length and fracture toughness did not change with the different coloring agents.
  • Therefore, clinical application of zirconia ceramics can be recommended because the coloring agents and shades applied during sintering have the same effect as an opaque layer and cause no significant deterioration of the mechanical properties of the zirconia ceramics.

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  • (PMID = 24088836.001).
  • [ISSN] 1881-1361
  • [Journal-full-title] Dental materials journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dent Mater J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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2. |......... 6%  Tampi C: In search of the rainbow: colored inks in surgical pathology. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2012 Apr-Jun;55(2):154-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • A systematic search for locally available coloring agents was done, and resulted in identifying specific shades within a popular set of children's hobby colors of a particular brand.
  • Coloring gross specimen excision margins with different colors, adds precision to margin examination.
  • AIM: A systematic search for indigenous coloring agents was carried out, which included the dyes used in the histopathology laboratory, gelatin, commercially available paints, including acrylic paints and inks.

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  • (PMID = 22771634.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-5130
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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3. |......... 4%  Gunasti S, Aksungur VL: Severe inflammatory and keloidal, allergic reaction due to para-phenylenediamine in temporary tattoos. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol; 2010 Mar-Apr;76(2):165-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Hair coloring with henna has been popular in Turkey for years.
  • In recent years since the tattoos are applied by the street vendors in most of the beach places in Turkey, skin coloring with henna has also increased.
  • Henna can be used alone or in combination with other coloring agents.
  • [MeSH-major] Coloring Agents / adverse effects. Dermatitis, Allergic Contact / pathology. Keloid / chemically induced. Keloid / pathology. Phenylenediamines / adverse effects. Tattooing / adverse effects


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4. |......... 4%  Rahman S, Parvez AK, Islam R, Khan MH: Antibacterial activity of natural spices on multiple drug resistant Escherichia coli isolated from drinking water, Bangladesh. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob; 2011;10:10
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  • BACKGROUND: Spices traditionally have been used as coloring agents, flavoring agents, preservatives, food additives and medicine in Bangladesh.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology. Drug Resistance, Multiple. Escherichia coli / drug effects. Plant Extracts / pharmacology. Spices / analysis. Water Microbiology. Water Supply / analysis

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  • (PMID = 21406097.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-0711
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of clinical microbiology and antimicrobials
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Clin. Microbiol. Antimicrob.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Plant Extracts
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3070620
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5. |......... 4%  Chan LK, Koay SS, Boey PL, Bhatt A: Effects of abiotic stress on biomass and anthocyanin production in cell cultures of Melastoma malabathricum. Biol Res; 2010;43(1):127-35
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Plant cell cultures could be used as an important tool for biochemical production, ranging from natural coloring (pigments) to pharmaceutical products.
  • Anthocyanins are becoming a very important alternative to synthetic dyes because of increased public concern over the safety of artificial food coloring agents.

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  • (PMID = 21157639.001).
  • [ISSN] 0717-6287
  • [Journal-full-title] Biological research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Chile
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anthocyanins
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6. |......... 1%  Alihosseini F, Lango J, Ju KS, Hammock BD, Sun G: Mutation of bacterium Vibrio gazogenes for selective preparation of colorants. Biotechnol Prog; 2010 Mar-Apr;26(2):352-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mutation of bacterium Vibrio gazogenes for selective preparation of colorants.
  • These colorants could dye wool, silk and synthetic fabrics such as polyester and polyacrylic and also show antibacterial properties against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria on the dyed products.
  • Methyl nitrosoguanidine was used as a mutation agent to increase the genetic diversity and the production yield of the bacteria of the family of Vibrio gazogenes.
  • The analysis of the mutated samples showed that two new main colorants as well as three previously found ones were produced.
  • Liquid chromatography electro spray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic techniques were used to elucidate the structures of the newly produced colorants.
  • Mass measurements revealed that the colorants C1, C2, C3, C4 have molecular masses of 321, 323, 351, and 295 Da.
  • One unstable colorant C5 with molecular mass of 309 Da was detected as well.
  • The antibiotic activities of pure colorants are discussed as well.
  • Based on their bio-activity and excellent dyeing capabilities, these colorants could be employed in cosmetic and textile industries.
  • [MeSH-major] Coloring Agents / metabolism. Mutagenesis. Pigments, Biological / metabolism. Prodigiosin / analogs & derivatives. Prodigiosin / metabolism. Vibrio / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology. Escherichia coli. Indoles / chemistry. Indoles / metabolism. Indoles / pharmacology. Microbial Sensitivity Tests. Molecular Weight. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular. Oxidation-Reduction. Pyrroles / chemistry. Pyrroles / metabolism. Pyrroles / pharmacology. Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization. Staphylococcus aureus

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  • (PMID = 19902486.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-6033
  • [Journal-full-title] Biotechnology progress
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biotechnol. Prog.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / 5 P42 ES04699; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P42 ES004699-23
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Indoles; 0 / Pigments, Biological; 0 / Pyrroles; 24311-00-0 / prodiginine; 86797-91-3 / cycloprodigiosin; OL369FU7CJ / Prodigiosin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS195955; NLM/ PMC2864118
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7. |......... 1%  Yamanushi TT, Torii MI, Janjua N, Kabuto H: In vivo tissue uptake of intravenously injected water soluble all-trans beta-carotene used as a food colorant. Nutr J; 2009;8:56
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  • [Title] In vivo tissue uptake of intravenously injected water soluble all-trans beta-carotene used as a food colorant.
  • Water soluble beta-carotene (WS-BC) is a carotenoid form that has been developed as a food colorant.
  • Although WS-BC is commonly used as a food colorant, its effects on body tissues are still not clarified.
  • [MeSH-major] Food Coloring Agents / pharmacokinetics. beta Carotene / pharmacokinetics

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  • (PMID = 19951403.001).
  • [ISSN] 1475-2891
  • [Journal-full-title] Nutrition journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nutr J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Food Coloring Agents; 01YAE03M7J / beta Carotene
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2791764
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8. |......... 7%  Draelos ZD: Cosmetics, categories, and the future. Dermatol Ther; 2012 May-Jun;25(3):223-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The coloring agents used in cosmetics are regulated along with their preservative constituents.
  • [MeSH-major] Coloring Agents / administration & dosage. Cosmetics / administration & dosage. Dermatologic Agents / administration & dosage. Skin / drug effects. Skin Aging / drug effects

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  • [Copyright] © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 22913438.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-8019
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / Dermatologic Agents; 0 / Nonprescription Drugs
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9. |......... 7%  Eng M, Martin P, Bhagwandin C: The analysis of metameric blue fibers and their forensic significance. J Forensic Sci; 2009 Jul;54(4):841-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Metamerism is a phenomenon where two or more colored items with different colorant chemistries appear to the observer to be the same color.
  • Additionally, the literature on color science states that metameric samples will have spectra that intersect at three or more loci.
  • Metameric samples of blue textile fibers, which were created using different coloring agents or different relative concentrations of the coloring agents, were studied to demonstrate that they could be differentiated by obtaining their spectra between 350 and 800 nm using UV-visible microspectrophotometry.
  • In the spectra that did intersect, no correlation was found between either the dye chemistries or the relative component concentrations.

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  • (PMID = 19486243.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-4029
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of forensic sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Forensic Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. |......... 6%  Swerlick RA, Campbell CF: Medication dyes as a source of drug allergy. J Drugs Dermatol; 2013 Jan;12(1):99-102
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Medication dyes as a source of drug allergy.
  • The last function may depend heavily on the use of coloring agents, especially when there are multiple dosages (such as with warfarin), and dose confusion may result in profound complications.
  • We have found a cohort of 11 patients with chronic, unexplained pruritic skin disorders that have responded to medication changes centered around avoidance of coloring agents, particularly FD&C Blue No. 1 (bright blue) and Blue No. 2 (indigo carmine).
  • We believe that reactions to agents that color medications and foods may be more common than previously appreciated and that recognition of this phenomenon may provide therapeutic alternatives to patients with intractable pruritic disorders.
  • [MeSH-major] Coloring Agents / adverse effects. Drug Hypersensitivity / etiology. Excipients / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Aged. Dermatitis, Atopic / pathology. Female. Food Coloring Agents / adverse effects. Glyburide / adverse effects. Humans. Hypoglycemic Agents / adverse effects. Male. Metformin / adverse effects. Middle Aged. Pharmaceutical Preparations. Pruritus / chemically induced. Pruritus / pathology. Skin / pathology

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  • (PMID = 23377335.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-9616
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Drugs Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Excipients; 0 / Food Coloring Agents; 0 / Hypoglycemic Agents; 0 / Pharmaceutical Preparations; 9100L32L2N / Metformin; SX6K58TVWC / Glyburide
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11. |......... 1%  Wei YP, Li T, Gao HW: Synthetic dye--inorganic salt hybrid colorants for application in thermoplastics. Molecules; 2011;16(6):5035-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Synthetic dye--inorganic salt hybrid colorants for application in thermoplastics.
  • Common synthetic dyes, e.g., Weak Acid Pink Red B (APRB, C.I.
  • 42660), can be removed from water by in situ hybridization with CaCO(3), BaSO(4) and Ca(3)(PO(4))(2) and the resulting hybrids thus prepared used as plastic colorants.
  • All the hybrids can be processed into polypropylene (PP) at 200 °C with good color intensity, color brightness and homogeneous dispersion.
  • The crystallinity of PP is enhanced by incorporation of these hybrids and the use of these hybrids as colorants in PP instead of the dyes alone is determined to be feasible.
  • [MeSH-major] Coloring Agents / chemical synthesis. Coloring Agents / chemistry. Plastics / chemistry. Salts / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 21694669.001).
  • [ISSN] 1420-3049
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecules (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Molecules
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Plastics; 0 / Salts
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12. |......... 1%  Qi H, Kawagishi M, Yoshimoto M, Takano H, Zhu B, Shimoishi Y, Tada M, Murata Y, Nakamura Y: Artificial food colorants inhibit superoxide production in differentiated HL-60 cells. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem; 2010;74(8):1725-8
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  • [Title] Artificial food colorants inhibit superoxide production in differentiated HL-60 cells.
  • We tested synthetic food colorants for their antioxidative potential by the in vitro superoxide generation assay in differentiated HL-60 cells in response to phorbol ester.
  • Among the 12 colorants tested, such fluorescein-type red colorants as rose bengal showed potent inhibitory activity without any cytotoxicity under dark conditions.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Differentiation / drug effects. Food Coloring Agents / pharmacology. Superoxides / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20699554.001).
  • [ISSN] 1347-6947
  • [Journal-full-title] Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Food Coloring Agents; 11062-77-4 / Superoxides
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13. |......... 1%  Sachindra NM, Mahendrakar NS: Stability of carotenoids recovered from shrimp waste and their use as colorant in fish sausage. J Food Sci Technol; 2010 Jan;47(1):77-83
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Stability of carotenoids recovered from shrimp waste and their use as colorant in fish sausage.
  • Also the use of recovered pigments as colorants in fish sausage was evaluated.

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  • (PMID = 23572605.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1155
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of food science and technology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Food Sci Technol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3550990
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Carotenoid / Colorant / Sausage / Shrimp waste / Stability
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14. |......... 1%  Dib E, Rodrigues EB, Maia M, Meyer CH, Penha FM, Furlani Bde A, Costa Ede P, Farah ME: [Vital dyes in chromovitrectomy]. Arq Bras Oftalmol; 2009 Nov-Dec;72(6):845-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Vital dyes in chromovitrectomy].
  • [Transliterated title] Corantes vitais em cromovitrectomia.
  • The aim of this article is to present the current data with regard to the application of vital dyes during vitreoretinal surgery, 'chromovitrectomy', as well as to overview the current literature regarding the properties of dyes, techniques of application, indications and complications in chromovitrectomy.
  • Newer generation vital dyes for chromovitrectomy include trypan blue, patent blue, triamcinolone acetonide, infracyanine green, sodium fluorescein, bromophenol blue, fluorometholone acetate and brilliant blue.
  • The first line agents for internal limiting membrane staining in chromovitrectomy are indocyanine green, infracyanine green, and brilliant blue.
  • Novel dyes available for chromovitrectomy deserve further investigation.
  • [MeSH-major] Coloring Agents. Vitrectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 20098913.001).
  • [ISSN] 1678-2925
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de oftalmologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Oftalmol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coloring Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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15. |......... 1%  Ueno R, Hamada-Sato N, Ishida M, Urano N: Potential of carotenoids in aquatic yeasts as a phylogenetically reliable marker and natural colorant for aquaculture. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem; 2011;75(9):1654-61
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  • [Title] Potential of carotenoids in aquatic yeasts as a phylogenetically reliable marker and natural colorant for aquaculture.
  • We also found, for the first time, the potential of a pigment-rich Rhodotorula strain as a colorant for aquaculture.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animal Feed. Animals. Aquaculture. Aquatic Organisms / chemistry. Carps / physiology. Chromatography, Thin Layer. Color. Integumentary System / anatomy & histology. Japan. Phylogeny. Salinity. Tilapia / physiology

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  • (PMID = 21897034.001).
  • [ISSN] 1347-6947
  • [Journal-full-title] Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biological Markers; 0 / DNA, Ribosomal; 0 / Xanthophylls
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16. |......... 5%  Zulian L, Emilitri E, Scavia G, Botta C, Colombo M, Destri S: Structural iridescent tuned colors from self-assembled polymer opal surfaces. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces; 2012 Nov;4(11):6071-9
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  • Structural colors are the object of a wide scientific interest, not only for the potential technical applications of their intriguing optical properties but also for the need of coloring agents to replace toxic and carcinogenic dyes.
  • We present a simple methodology to obtain polymer opal surfaces of self-assembled core-shell nanoparticles with different degree of order for structural color applications.
  • [MeSH-major] Color. Crystallization / methods. Nanostructures / chemistry. Nanostructures / ultrastructure. Polymers / chemistry. Refractometry / methods

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  • (PMID = 23057585.001).
  • [ISSN] 1944-8252
  • [Journal-full-title] ACS applied materials & interfaces
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Polymers
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17. |......... 5%  Nidheesh PV, Gandhimathi R, Ramesh ST: Degradation of dyes from aqueous solution by Fenton processes: a review. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int; 2013 Apr;20(4):2099-132
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  • [Title] Degradation of dyes from aqueous solution by Fenton processes: a review.
  • Several industries are using dyes as coloring agents.
  • The removal of dyes from aqueous solution has a great potential in the field of environmental engineering.
  • This paper reviews the classification, characteristics, and problems of dyes in detail.
  • Advantages and disadvantages of different methods used for dye removal are also analyzed.
  • Among these methods, Fenton process-based advanced oxidation processes are an emerging prospect in the field of dye removal.
  • The studies include analyzing different configurations of reactors used for dye removal, its efficiency, and the effects of various operating parameters such as pH, catalyst concentration, H2O2 concentration, initial dye concentration, and temperature of Fenton processes.
  • From the present study, it can be conclude that Fenton processes are very effective and environmentally friendly methods for dye removal.
  • [MeSH-major] Coloring Agents / chemistry. Hydrogen Peroxide / chemistry. Iron / chemistry. Textile Industry. Waste Water / chemistry. Water Pollutants, Chemical / chemistry. Water Pollution, Chemical / prevention & control. Water Purification / methods

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Iron.
  • HSDB. structure - IRON.
  • HSDB. structure - HYDROGEN PEROXIDE.
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  • (PMID = 23338990.001).
  • [ISSN] 1614-7499
  • [Journal-full-title] Environmental science and pollution research international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Fenton's reagent; 0 / Waste Water; 0 / Water Pollutants, Chemical; BBX060AN9V / Hydrogen Peroxide; E1UOL152H7 / Iron
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18. |......... 4%  Wang K, Qiu F: Curcuminoid metabolism and its contribution to the pharmacological effects. Curr Drug Metab; 2013 Sep;14(7):791-806
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  • Curcuminoids are safe natural yellow pigments used as food coloring agents and traditional drugs with a variety of biological functions such as antitumor, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities.

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  • (PMID = 23937173.001).
  • [ISSN] 1875-5453
  • [Journal-full-title] Current drug metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Drug Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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19. |......... 4%  Stathi K, Tarantili PA, Polyzois G: The effect of accelerated ageing on performance properties of addition type silicone biomaterials. J Mater Sci Mater Med; 2010 May;21(5):1403-11
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  • The UV-protection provided to addition type silicone elastomers by various colorants, such as conventional dry earth pigments, as well as the so called "functional or reactive" pigments, was investigated.
  • Regarding the evaluation of various coloring agents used in this work, the obtained results show that dry pigments are more sensitive to accelerated ageing conditions in comparison with functional liquid pigments.
  • [MeSH-minor] Coloring Agents / chemistry. Elasticity. Silicones. Tensile Strength. Ultraviolet Rays

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  • (PMID = 20094903.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-4838
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of materials science. Materials in medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Mater Sci Mater Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Silicone Elastomers; 0 / Silicones
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20. |......... 4%  Lu XR, Lu JL, Wu YW, Ouyang J, Sun SQ: [Study on esterified modification of anthocyanins by FTIR]. Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi; 2010 Jan;30(1):38-41
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  • The role of anthocyanins as food coloring agents becomes very important because they can provide attractive bright color of many food products.
  • Nevertheless, the instability of natural anthocyanins was a big obstacle for its usage in food as colorants.
  • The stability of the red radish anthocyanins is significantly improved by modified esterification of the colorant.
  • The major methods for determining the structures of anthocyanin colorants involve chromatographic techniques such as TLC, HPLC and HPLC-MS, which are very useful in separation and identification of the components of anthocyanins However, compared to the spectroscopic method, the chromatographic methods are usually complicated and time-consuming during separation and analysis.
  • The anthocyanins from red radish was esterification-modified by reacting with succinic anhydride, and the natural and modified anthocyanins were detected by FTIR The results showed that carbonyl of succinic anhydride was connected with the hydroxyl in glucosyl rings of anthocyanins to form new esterified anthocyanins, which are more stable than the natural one and present attractive bright color as usual.

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  • (PMID = 20302076.001).
  • [ISSN] 1000-0593
  • [Journal-full-title] Guang pu xue yu guang pu fen xi = Guang pu
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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21. |......... 4%  Mpountoukas P, Pantazaki A, Kostareli E, Christodoulou P, Kareli D, Poliliou S, Mourelatos C, Lambropoulou V, Lialiaris T: Cytogenetic evaluation and DNA interaction studies of the food colorants amaranth, erythrosine and tartrazine. Food Chem Toxicol; 2010 Oct;48(10):2934-44
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  • [Title] Cytogenetic evaluation and DNA interaction studies of the food colorants amaranth, erythrosine and tartrazine.
  • Food coloring agents, amaranth, erythrosine and tartrazine have been tested at 0.02-8mM in human peripheral blood cells in vitro, in order to investigate their genotoxic, cytotoxic and cytostatic potential.
  • Furthermore, spectroscopic titration studies for the interaction of these food additives with DNA showed that these dyes bind to calf thymus DNA and distinct isosbestic points are observed clearly suggesting binding of the dyes to DNA.
  • Additionally DNA electrophoretic mobility experiments showed that these colorants are obviously capable for strong binding to linear dsDNA causing its degradation.
  • PCR amplification of all DNA fragments (which previously were pre-treated with three different concentrations of the colorants, extracted from agarose gel after separation and then purified), seems to be attenuated with a manner dye concentration-dependent reflecting in a delayed electrophoretic mobility due to the possible binding of some molecules of the dyes.
  • Our results indicate that these food colorants had a toxic potential to human lymphocytes in vitro and it seems that they bind directly to DNA.
  • [MeSH-major] Amaranth Dye / toxicity. DNA / chemistry. Erythrosine / toxicity. Food Coloring Agents / toxicity. Mutagens / toxicity. Tartrazine / toxicity

  • HSDB. structure - TARTRAZINE.
  • HSDB. structure - AMARANTH.
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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20667460.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-6351
  • [Journal-full-title] Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Food Chem. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Food Coloring Agents; 0 / Mutagens; 9007-49-2 / DNA; 915-67-3 / Amaranth Dye; I753WB2F1M / Tartrazine; PN2ZH5LOQY / Erythrosine
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22. |......... 4%  Morshedi D, Mohammadi Z, Akbar Boojar MM, Aliakbari F: Using protein nanofibrils to remove azo dyes from aqueous solution by the coagulation process. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces; 2013 Dec 1;112:245-54
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Using protein nanofibrils to remove azo dyes from aqueous solution by the coagulation process.
  • The ever-increasing applications of hazardous azo dyes as industrialized coloring agents have led to serious remediation challenges.
  • In this study, proteinaceous nanofibrils were examined as coagulants for decolorization of azo dyes in aqueous solutions.
  • The results provided some insight regarding the mechanism of dye removal.
  • The strength of nanofibrils to remove dyes from solution was evaluated by remediation of acid red 88, Bismarck brown R, direct violet 51, reactive black 5, and Congo red.
  • However, the efficiency of nanofibrils to coagulate with different dyes was variable (60-98%) and dependent on the structures of dyes and the physicochemical conditions of the solutions.
  • Increasing the temperature or ionic strength declined the coagulation time and induced the rate of dye removal.
  • Changing pH had contradictory effects on the dye removal efficiency which was more affected by the chemical structure of the dye rather than the change in stability of the coagulant.
  • The efficiency of nanofibrils to remove dyes was more than that of charcoal, which is considered as one of the most common substances used for azo dye remediation which may be due to its well dispersion in the aqueous solutions, and slower rates of the coagulation than that of the adsorption process.
  • Ease of production, proper and quick dispersion in water, without the production of dangerous dye by-products and derivatives, are some of the main advantages of nanofibrils.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 23999142.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4367
  • [Journal-full-title] Colloids and surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Azo dyes / Coagulation process / Dye removal / Proteinaceous nanofibrils
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23. |......... 4%  Mobin SM, Sanghavi BJ, Srivastava AK, Mathur P, Lahiri GK: Biomimetic sensor for certain phenols employing a copper(II) complex. Anal Chem; 2010 Jul 15;82(14):5983-92
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  • Further 1 is used as a modifier in the construction of a biomimetic sensor for determining phenols [phenol (Phe), resorcinol (Res), hydroquinone (HQ), and catechol (Cat)] in phosphate buffer by using cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronocoulometry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), and square wave voltammetry (SWV).
  • DPV has been proposed for trace determination of Phe and Res while SWV for HQ and Cat.
  • The method has been applied for the selective and precise analysis of Phe in commercial injections, Res in hair coloring agents, HQ in photographic developers and cosmetics, and Cat in tea samples and guarana tablets.
  • The calibration curves showed a linear response ranging between 10(-6) and 10(-8) M for all four of the analytes with detection limits (3sigma) of 1.04 x 10(-8), 2.31 x 10(-8), 1.54 x 10(-8), and 0.86 x 10(-8) M for Phe, Res, HQ, and Cat, respectively.

  • HSDB. structure - RESORCINOL.
  • HSDB. structure - CATECHOL.
  • HSDB. structure - HYDROQUINONE.
  • HSDB. structure - COPPER, ELEMENTAL.
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  • (PMID = 20568721.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-6882
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catechols; 0 / Coordination Complexes; 0 / Hydroquinones; 0 / Phenols; 0 / Resorcinols; 123-31-9 / hydroquinone; 789U1901C5 / Copper; LF3AJ089DQ / catechol; YUL4LO94HK / resorcinol
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24. |......... 3%  Forte G, Petrucci F, Cristaudo A, Bocca B: Market survey on toxic metals contained in tattoo inks. Sci Total Environ; 2009 Nov 15;407(23):5997-6002
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  • Tattooing practice is adopted worldwide and represents an important socio-cultural phenomenon, but, the injection into the skin of coloring agents as metals might pose a risk for allergies and other skin inflammations as well as for systemic diseases.
  • The relative contribution of metals to the tattoo inks composition was highly variable between brands and colors, even in pigments with the same base color.

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  • (PMID = 19766292.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1026
  • [Journal-full-title] The Science of the total environment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sci. Total Environ.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Metals
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25. |......... 3%  Chinkova N, Tanchev L, Strateva D, Tsvetkov Ch, Tsvetkov Ch, Gorchev G: [Anatomic and topographic lymphatic metastasis and sentinel lymph node mapping in early stage of cervical cancer patients']. Akush Ginekol (Sofiia); 2010;49(4):38-44
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • We applied a preoperative method for detection of the sentinel lymph nodes by using a coloring agent to all the patients included and after that, they had a different kind of operative intervention on the uterine and the lymph nodes.
  • AIM AND GOALS: Our aim was to show the locoregional metastasing and detection of the SLNB in patients with invasive cancer of the uterine cervix, by using a coloring agents Patent blau V (PV)--which passed through surgical intervention on the uterine and pelvic or paraaortic dissection.
  • Our goal was to clear up the anatomic topographical lymph metastasing and coloring by levels and localization in invasive cancer of the uterine cervix--regionally in pelvic lymph nodes and in paraaortic area.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Coloring Agents. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies


26. |......... 1%  Torres CR, Batista GR, César PD, Barcellos DC, Pucci CR, Borges AB: Influence of the quantity of coloring agent in bleaching gels activated with LED/laser appliances on bleaching efficiency. Eur J Esthet Dent; 2009;4(2):178-86
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Influence of the quantity of coloring agent in bleaching gels activated with LED/laser appliances on bleaching efficiency.
  • The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the quantity of coloring agent on the bleaching efficiency of gels containing 35% H2O2.
  • They were distributed into three groups: Whiteness HP, Total Bleach, and Whiteform Perox Red Gel; and subdivided into four sub-groups: no coloring agent, manufacturer's standard, double the standard, and triple the standard.
  • The variation was submitted to the ANOVA test (two factors: type of gel and quantity of coloring agent) and Tukey test.
  • Differences were observed for the quantity of coloring agent.
  • The mean (+/-SD) was determined for each quantity of coloring used: no coloring agent -6.85 (+/-2.26)a, manufacturer's standard -794 (+/-2.55)ab, double the standard -8.65 (+/-2.47)b, triple the standard -9.05 (+/-2.72)b.
  • In conclusion, the standard quantity of coloring agent did not provide significantly more intense bleaching than when it was completely absent.
  • The use of double and triple the amount provided greater bleaching than that observed for the gel without coloring agent.
  • [MeSH-minor] Coloring Agents. Curing Lights, Dental. Humans. Lasers, Solid-State

  • HSDB. structure - HYDROGEN PEROXIDE.
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  • (PMID = 19655654.001).
  • [ISSN] 1862-0612
  • [Journal-full-title] The European journal of esthetic dentistry : official journal of the European Academy of Esthetic Dentistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Esthet Dent
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Oxidants; BBX060AN9V / Hydrogen Peroxide
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27. |......... 1%  Zamboni SC, Castanho GM, Torres CR, Nogueira L Jr, Borges AB, Bottino MA: Influence of the coloring agent concentration on bleaching gel and pulp chamber temperatures during dental bleaching. Gen Dent; 2010 Jan-Feb;58(1):e36-41
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  • [Title] Influence of the coloring agent concentration on bleaching gel and pulp chamber temperatures during dental bleaching.
  • This study evaluated the influence of the coloring agent concentration on the temperature of the gel layer and pulp chamber during dental bleaching with an LED/laser light source.
  • Each bleaching gel was used in four different concentrations: manipulated without coloring, with normal quantity recommended by the manufacturer, with double the recommended amount of coloring, and with triple the recommended amount of coloring.
  • The varying concentrations of coloring agent produced statistically significant differences in terms of temperature increase for both the gel layer and the pulp chamber during activation.
  • [MeSH-major] Body Temperature / drug effects. Coloring Agents / administration & dosage. Dental Pulp Cavity / drug effects. Hydrogen Peroxide / therapeutic use. Oxidants / therapeutic use. Tooth Bleaching / methods

  • HSDB. structure - HYDROGEN PEROXIDE.
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  • (PMID = 20129881.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-6771
  • [Journal-full-title] General dentistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gen Dent
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Gels; 0 / Oxidants; BBX060AN9V / Hydrogen Peroxide
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28. |......... 1%  Qi H, Takano H, Kato Y, Wu Q, Ogata C, Zhu B, Murata Y, Nakamura Y: Hydrogen [corrected] peroxide-dependent photocytotoxicity by phloxine B, a xanthene-type food colorant. Biochim Biophys Acta; 2011 Jul;1810(7):704-12
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  • [Title] Hydrogen [corrected] peroxide-dependent photocytotoxicity by phloxine B, a xanthene-type food colorant.
  • BACKGROUND: Phloxine B (PhB; 2',4',5',7'-tetrabromo-4,5,6,7-tetrachloro-fluorescein), an artificial xanthene colorant, has been used as a red coloring agent in drugs and cosmetics as well as foods in some countries.
  • However, little effort has been devoted to the study of this colorant as a potentially useful medicinal agent.
  • GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the PhB-induced apoptosis and also evaluated PhB as a promising PDT agent.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Survival / drug effects. Eosine I Bluish / pharmacology. Food Coloring Agents / pharmacology. Hydrogen Peroxide / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis / drug effects. Blotting, Western. Caspase 3 / metabolism. DNA Fragmentation / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Fluorescent Dyes / chemistry. Fluorescent Dyes / pharmacology. HL-60 Cells. Humans. Hypochlorous Acid / metabolism. Hypochlorous Acid / pharmacology. Jurkat Cells. Light. Molecular Structure. Xanthenes / chemistry

  • HSDB. structure - HYDROGEN PEROXIDE.
  • National BioResource Project. culture/stock collections - NBRP resources .
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  • [Copyright] 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • [ErratumIn] Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012 Jul;1820(7):1020
  • (PMID = 21565256.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-3002
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochimica et biophysica acta
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochim. Biophys. Acta
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fluorescent Dyes; 0 / Food Coloring Agents; 0 / Xanthenes; 712K4CDC10 / Hypochlorous Acid; BBX060AN9V / Hydrogen Peroxide; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 3; OMS4XQD1T0 / Eosine I Bluish
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29. |......... 1%  Mittal A, Kaur D, Malviya A, Mittal J, Gupta VK: Adsorption studies on the removal of coloring agent phenol red from wastewater using waste materials as adsorbents. J Colloid Interface Sci; 2009 Sep 15;337(2):345-54
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  • [Title] Adsorption studies on the removal of coloring agent phenol red from wastewater using waste materials as adsorbents.
  • Bottom ash, a waste of thermal power plants, and deoiled soya, an agricultural waste material, were employed for successful removal and recovery of hazardous phenol red dye from wastewaters.
  • The adsorption characteristics and operational parameters were determined by monitoring different parameters such as effect of pH, effect of concentration of the dye, amount of adsorbents, contact time, and temperature.

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  • (PMID = 19541322.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-7103
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of colloid and interface science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Colloid Interface Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. |......... 1%  He Z: Hierarchical colorant-based direct binary search halftoning. IEEE Trans Image Process; 2010 Jul;19(7):1824-36
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  • [Title] Hierarchical colorant-based direct binary search halftoning.
  • Colorant-based direct binary search (CB-DBS) halftoning proposed in provides an image quality benchmark for dispersed-dot halftoning algorithms.
  • An algorithm called hierarchical colorant-based direct binary search (HCB-DBS) is developed in this paper.
  • By appropriately integrating yellow colorant into dot-overlapping and dot-positioning controls, it is demonstrated that HCB-DBS can achieve better halftone texture of both individual and joint dot-color planes, without compromising the dot distribution of more visible halftone of cyan and magenta colorants.
  • The input color specification is first converted from colorant space to dot-color space with minimum brightness variation principle for full dot-overlapping control.
  • And dot-coloring is decided recursively with joint monochrome DBS halftoning constrained on the related total dot distribution.
  • Experiments show HCB-DBS improves halftone texture for both individual and joint dot-color planes.
  • And it reduces the halftone graininess and free of color mottle artifacts, comparing to CB-DBS.

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  • (PMID = 20236895.001).
  • [ISSN] 1941-0042
  • [Journal-full-title] IEEE transactions on image processing : a publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] IEEE Trans Image Process
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. |......... 1%  Aceto M, Agostino A, Fenoglio G, Baraldi P, Zannini P, Hofmann C, Gamillscheg E: First analytical evidences of precious colourants on Mediterranean illuminated manuscripts. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc; 2012 Sep;95:235-45
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] First analytical evidences of precious colourants on Mediterranean illuminated manuscripts.
  • The analytical study was performed to have a better knowledge on the colourants used by ancient miniature painters, a subject known more on the basis of traditional sources (i.e. medieval treatises) than of analytical evidences.
  • Indeed these illuminated manuscripts are, to the authors' knowledge, among the oldest ever being analysed, so that the colourants found in them can be considered among the oldest evidences of their use.
  • Other colourants include azurite and indigo, red lead, orpiment, red and yellow ochres, while a mixture of blue and yellow colourants, known as vergaut, was used to render green hues.
  • Organic colourants were also used, such as madder and Tyrian purple, the latter employed to dye the parchment of Vienna Genesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Coloring Agents / analysis. Lighting. Manuscripts as Topic
  • [MeSH-minor] Austria. Color. Mediterranean Region. Optical Fibers. Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission. Spectrum Analysis, Raman

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 22634416.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-3557
  • [Journal-full-title] Spectrochimica acta. Part A, Molecular and biomolecular spectroscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coloring Agents
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32. |......... 1%  Astete CE, Sabliov CM, Watanabe F, Biris A: Ca(2+) cross-linked alginic acid nanoparticles for solubilization of lipophilic natural colorants. J Agric Food Chem; 2009 Aug 26;57(16):7505-12
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  • [Title] Ca(2+) cross-linked alginic acid nanoparticles for solubilization of lipophilic natural colorants.
  • The trend followed into the colorant arena, with consumers worried about potential health problems associated with synthetic colorants and demanding food products that use natural pigments.
  • The goal of this study was to entrap a lipophilic natural pigment (beta-carotene) in a water-soluble matrix made of Ca(2+) cross-linked alginic acid, to allow its use as a colorant in water-based foods.
  • [MeSH-major] Alginates / chemistry. Food Coloring Agents / chemistry. Nanoparticles / chemistry. beta Carotene / chemistry

  • HSDB. structure - BETA-CAROTENE.
  • HSDB. structure - CALCIUM, ELEMENTAL.
  • HSDB. structure - ALGINIC ACID.
  • NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .
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  • (PMID = 19645512.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-5118
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of agricultural and food chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Agric. Food Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Alginates; 0 / Cross-Linking Reagents; 0 / Food Coloring Agents; 0 / Hexuronic Acids; 01YAE03M7J / beta Carotene; 8A5D83Q4RW / Glucuronic Acid; 9005-32-7 / alginic acid; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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33. |......... 1%  Romieu OJ, Zimányi L, Warszyński P, Levallois B, Cuisinier FJ, de Périère DD, Jacquot B: Modeling colorant leakage techniques: application to endodontics. Dent Mater; 2010 Sep;26(9):881-90
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  • [Title] Modeling colorant leakage techniques: application to endodontics.
  • For wet interfaces, the laws of diffusion were used to model colorant penetration.
  • RESULTS: In both cases penetration is influenced by the width of the interface and by the size of the colorant.
  • In vitro colorant penetration tests should be performed in both of these conditions avoiding cases where the slit contains both air and water.
  • [MeSH-major] Coloring Agents / diagnostic use. Dental Leakage / diagnosis. Dental Pulp Cavity. Dentin Permeability. Models, Biological

  • HSDB. structure - CARBON BLACK.
  • HSDB. structure - METHYLENE BLUE.
  • HSDB. structure - CARBON.
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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20580419.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Dental materials : official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dent Mater
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Root Canal Filling Materials; 0 / chinese ink; 7440-44-0 / Carbon; 9000-32-2 / Gutta-Percha; T42P99266K / Methylene Blue
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34. |......... 1%  Pereira OC, Bernardin AM: Ceramic colorant from untreated iron ore residue. J Hazard Mater; 2012 Sep 30;233-234:103-11
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  • [Title] Ceramic colorant from untreated iron ore residue.
  • This work deals with the development of a ceramic colorant for glazes from an untreated iron ore residue.
  • The results showed that the colorant embedded in the transparent glaze results in a reddish glaze (like pine nut) suitable for the ceramic roof tile industry.
  • For the matte and white glazes, the residue has changed the color of the tiles with temperature.
  • [MeSH-major] Ceramics. Coloring Agents / chemistry. Industrial Waste. Iron / chemistry. Recycling / methods

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Iron.
  • HSDB. structure - IRON.
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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 22795839.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-3336
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hazardous materials
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Hazard. Mater.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ceramics; 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Industrial Waste; E1UOL152H7 / Iron
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35. |......... 1%  Sowbhagya HB, Chitra VN: Enzyme-assisted extraction of flavorings and colorants from plant materials. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr; 2010 Feb;50(2):146-61
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  • [Title] Enzyme-assisted extraction of flavorings and colorants from plant materials.
  • From times immemorial, colorants, and flavorings have been used in foods.
  • Color and flavor are the major attributes to the quality of a food product, affecting the appearance and acceptance of the product.
  • As a consequence of the increased demand of natural flavoring and colorant from industries, there is a renewed interest in the research on the composition and recovery of natural food flavors and colors.
  • Various enzyme combinations are used to loosen the structural integrity of botanical material thereby enhancing the extraction of the desired flavor and color components.
  • Recently enzymes have been used for the extraction of flavor and color from plant materials, as a pre-treatment of the raw material before subjecting the plant material to hydro distillation/solvent extraction.
  • Advantages of enzyme-assisted extraction of flavor and color in some of the plant materials in comparison with conventional methods are dealt with in this reveiw.
  • [MeSH-major] Coloring Agents / isolation & purification. Enzymes. Flavoring Agents / isolation & purification. Plants / chemistry

  • HSDB. structure - P-TOLUENESULFONIC ACID.
  • ExactAntigen/Labome. author profiles.
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  • (PMID = 20112157.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-7852
  • [Journal-full-title] Critical reviews in food science and nutrition
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Enzymes; 0 / Flavoring Agents; 0 / Pigments, Biological; 0 / Solvents; EC 3.- / Hydrolases; EC 3.2.1.- / Glycoside Hydrolases; EC 3.2.1.15 / Polygalacturonase; EC 3.2.1.4 / Cellulase
  • [Number-of-references] 77
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36. |......... 1%  Ahammad SZ, Yakubu A, Dolfing J, Mota C, Graham DW: Feasibility tests for treating shampoo and hair colorant wastewaters using anaerobic processes. Water Sci Technol; 2012;65(2):303-8
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  • [Title] Feasibility tests for treating shampoo and hair colorant wastewaters using anaerobic processes.
  • To assess the amenability of PCP wastes to anaerobic treatment, methane yields and rates were quantified in different anaerobic reactors treating typical PCP wastes, including wastes from shampoo and hair colorant products.
  • Although colour wastes were less amenable to anaerobic treatment than shampoo wastes, differences cannot be explained by relative microbial abundances and probably result from the presence of inhibiting compounds in hair colorants (e.g., oxidants) at higher levels.
  • Results showed that anaerobic technologies have great potential for treating PCP wastes, but additional work is needed to establish the basis of elevated methane yields and inhibition, especially when colorant wastes are present.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anaerobiosis. Bacteria / classification. Bacteria / genetics. Bacteria / metabolism. Carbohydrates / analysis. DNA, Archaeal / genetics. DNA, Bacterial / genetics. Fatty Acids, Volatile / analysis. Feasibility Studies. Hair Dyes. Industrial Waste. Lipids / analysis. Methane / biosynthesis. Methanomicrobiales / classification. Methanomicrobiales / genetics. Methanomicrobiales / metabolism. Methanosarcinales / classification. Methanosarcinales / genetics. Methanosarcinales / metabolism. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Proteins / analysis. Water Pollutants, Chemical / metabolism

  • HSDB. structure - METHANE.
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  • (PMID = 22233909.001).
  • [ISSN] 0273-1223
  • [Journal-full-title] Water science and technology : a journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Water Sci. Technol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carbohydrates; 0 / DNA, Archaeal; 0 / DNA, Bacterial; 0 / Fatty Acids, Volatile; 0 / Hair Dyes; 0 / Hair Preparations; 0 / Industrial Waste; 0 / Lipids; 0 / Proteins; 0 / Water Pollutants, Chemical; OP0UW79H66 / Methane
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37. |......... 1%  Azer SS, Hague AL, Johnston WM: Effect of bleaching on tooth discolouration from food colourant in vitro. J Dent; 2011 Dec;39 Suppl 3:e52-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effect of bleaching on tooth discolouration from food colourant in vitro.
  • OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of bleaching on tooth discolouration from neutral food colourant media (NFCM).
  • Bleached teeth specimens were subjected to 20% carbamide peroxide bleaching agent for 10h.
  • [MeSH-major] Food Coloring Agents / adverse effects. Tooth Bleaching / adverse effects. Tooth Discoloration / etiology. Tooth Discoloration / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Analysis of Variance. Humans. Molar, Third. Peroxides / therapeutic use. Radiometry. Statistics, Nonparametric. Tooth Bleaching Agents / therapeutic use. Urea / analogs & derivatives. Urea / therapeutic use

  • HSDB. structure - UREA.
  • ExactAntigen/Labome. author profiles.
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  • [Copyright] Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • (PMID = 21958473.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-176X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of dentistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dent
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Food Coloring Agents; 0 / Peroxides; 0 / Tooth Bleaching Agents; 31PZ2VAU81 / carbamide peroxide; 8W8T17847W / Urea
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38. |......... 1%  Xie Y, Li Y, Niu L, Wang H, Qian H, Yao W: A novel surface-enhanced Raman scattering sensor to detect prohibited colorants in food by graphene/silver nanocomposite. Talanta; 2012 Oct 15;100:32-7
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  • [Title] A novel surface-enhanced Raman scattering sensor to detect prohibited colorants in food by graphene/silver nanocomposite.
  • A novel surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensor made up of a graphene and silver nanocomposite was developed for detecting prohibited colorants in food.
  • This SERS platform exhibited an excellent enrichment effect between the colorant molecules and the graphene and an ability to enhance the Raman spectra of the silver nanoparticles.
  • Detection of different concentrations of each prohibited colorant was carried out by SERS measurements on this novel substrate.
  • In addition, from the SERS spectra of a mixture of four kinds of prohibited colorants, it was possible to easily distinguish each colorant by its characteristic peaks.
  • The results showed that the SERS nanocomposite was better for detecting prohibited colorants.
  • The proposed method has advantages in terms of providing a simple and rapid method for the sensitive analysis of prohibited additive colorants in food.
  • [MeSH-major] Food Coloring Agents / analysis. Food Contamination / analysis. Food Contamination / legislation & jurisprudence. Graphite / chemistry. Metal Nanoparticles / chemistry. Silver / chemistry. Spectrum Analysis, Raman / methods

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Foodborne Illness.
  • HSDB. structure - SILVER, ELEMENTAL.
  • HSDB. structure - GRAPHITE.
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  • [Copyright] Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 23141308.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-3573
  • [Journal-full-title] Talanta
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Talanta
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Food Coloring Agents; 3M4G523W1G / Silver; 7782-42-5 / Graphite
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39. |......... 1%  Dabas D, Elias RJ, Lambert JD, Ziegler GR: A colored avocado seed extract as a potential natural colorant. J Food Sci; 2011 Nov-Dec;76(9):C1335-41
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  • [Title] A colored avocado seed extract as a potential natural colorant.
  • There is an increasing consumer demand for and scientific interest in new natural colorants.
  • Avocado (Persea americana) seed when crushed with water develops an orange color (= 480 nm) in a time-dependent manner.
  • Heat treatment of the seed prevented color development, whereas the addition of exogenous polyphenol oxidase (PPO), but not peroxidase restored color development.
  • Color development was also inhibited by the addition of tropolone, an inhibitor of PPO.
  • Color formation resulted in a decrease in the concentration of polyphenols indicating utilization for color formation.
  • The orange color intensified as the pH was adjusted from 2.0 to 11.0, and these changes were only partially reversible when pH was adjusted from 7.5 to 11.0 in the presence of oxygen, but completely reversible when the pH was changed in the absence of oxygen.
  • The color was found to be stable in solution at -18 °C for 2 mo.
  • These results suggest that the avocado seed may be a potential source of natural colorant, and that color development is PPO-dependent.
  • PRACTICAL APPLICATION: There is growing public and scientific interest in the development of natural alternatives to synthetic colorants in foods.
  • Extracts of turmeric, paprika, and beets are examples of food-derived natural colorants.
  • Avocado seeds, which represent an under-utilized waste stream, form a stable orange color when crushed in the presence of air.
  • Our data indicate that avocado seed represents a potential source of new natural colorants for use in foods.
  • [MeSH-major] Food Coloring Agents / analysis. Food Coloring Agents / chemistry. Persea / chemistry. Plant Extracts / analysis. Plant Extracts / chemistry. Seeds / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Catechol Oxidase / metabolism. Color. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Polyphenols / analysis

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  • [Copyright] © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®
  • (PMID = 22416696.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-3841
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of food science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Food Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCCAM NIH HHS / AT / AT 004678
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Food Coloring Agents; 0 / Plant Extracts; 0 / Polyphenols; EC 1.10.3.1 / Catechol Oxidase
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40. |......... 1%  Rizzo A, Shibayama N, Kirby DP: A multi-analytical approach for the identification of aloe as a colorant in oil-resin varnishes. Anal Bioanal Chem; 2011 Mar;399(9):3093-107
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  • [Title] A multi-analytical approach for the identification of aloe as a colorant in oil-resin varnishes.
  • Aloe plants have been widely documented in artists' treatises dating from the sixteenth to the nineteenth century as a source of colorant to achieve lustrous golden glazes on tin- and silver-foiled objects and warm-toned finishes on musical instruments, such as violins.
  • Because of the low concentration of colorant in the coatings and its probable degradation by high temperature during manufacture, the identification of aloe in heated oil-resin mixtures represents an analytical challenge.
  • [MeSH-major] Aloe / chemistry. Chemistry Techniques, Analytical / methods. Coloring Agents / analysis. Paint / analysis. Plant Extracts / chemistry. Resins, Plant / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 21107825.001).
  • [ISSN] 1618-2650
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal Bioanal Chem
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Plant Extracts; 0 / Resins, Plant
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41. |......... 1%  Ganesan L, Margolles-Clark E, Song Y, Buchwald P: The food colorant erythrosine is a promiscuous protein-protein interaction inhibitor. Biochem Pharmacol; 2011 Mar 15;81(6):810-8
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  • [Title] The food colorant erythrosine is a promiscuous protein-protein interaction inhibitor.
  • We found erythrosine, a poly-iodinated xanthene dye, to be a non-specific promiscuous inhibitor of a number of PPIs within the tumor necrosis factor superfamily (TNF-R-TNFα, CD40-CD154, BAFF-R-BAFF, RANK-RANKL, OX40-OX40L, 4-1BB-4-1BBL) as well as outside of it (EGF-R-EGF) with a remarkably consistent median inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) in the 2-20 μM (approximately 2-20mg/L) range.
  • Among the seven FDA-approved food colorants, only erythrosine showed consistent PPI inhibitory activity in the sub-100 μM range, which might also explain (at least partially) why it also has the lowest approved acceptable daily intake (ADI) (0.1 mg/kg body weight/day).
  • Among a number of xanthene structural analogs of erythrosine tested for activity, rose Bengal, a food colorant approved in Japan, showed similar, maybe even more pronounced, promiscuous inhibitory activity, whereas fluorescein was inactive and gallein, phloxine, and eosin were somewhat active in some of the assays.
  • [MeSH-major] Erythrosine / metabolism. Food Coloring Agents / metabolism. Myeloid Cells / metabolism. Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs / physiology. Tumor Necrosis Factors / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21219880.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-2968
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Food Coloring Agents; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factors; 1ZPG1ELY14 / Rose Bengal; PN2ZH5LOQY / Erythrosine
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42. |......... 1%  Azer SS, Hague AL, Johnston WM: Effect of pH on tooth discoloration from food colorant in vitro. J Dent; 2010;38 Suppl 2:e106-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effect of pH on tooth discoloration from food colorant in vitro.
  • OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of acidic, neutral and alkaline food colorant media (FCM) on tooth discoloration in vitro.
  • METHODS: Treatment (n=24) and control (n=24) sterile, hydrated human molars were prepared in individual, impervious holders and their color measured (pretest) using a non-contact spectroradiometer system.
  • Red food color (Red 40) was added to the treatment buffer solutions at 0.025%.
  • Color was also measured after immersion/incubation (posttest) and again after subsequent 2-min of polish using plain-pumice slurry with a slow-speed handpiece (post-polish).
  • No significant change in color was observed between the control and treatment groups for neutral and alkaline FCM.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The degree and type of tooth discoloration are influenced by both the low pH and food color rather than the dietary pigment alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Dental Enamel / drug effects. Food Coloring Agents / adverse effects. Tooth Discoloration / chemically induced

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  • [Copyright] Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • (PMID = 20692318.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-176X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of dentistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dent
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Food Coloring Agents
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43. |......... 1%  Maier E, Kurz K, Jenny M, Schennach H, Ueberall F, Fuchs D: Food preservatives sodium benzoate and propionic acid and colorant curcumin suppress Th1-type immune response in vitro. Food Chem Toxicol; 2010 Jul;48(7):1950-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Food preservatives sodium benzoate and propionic acid and colorant curcumin suppress Th1-type immune response in vitro.
  • Food preservatives sodium benzoate and propionic acid and colorant curcumin are demonstrated to suppress in a dose-dependent manner Th1-type immune response in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in vitro.
  • [MeSH-major] Curcumin / pharmacology. Food Coloring Agents / pharmacology. Food Preservatives / pharmacology. Immunosuppressive Agents. Propionates / pharmacology. Sodium Benzoate / pharmacology. Th1 Cells / drug effects. Th1 Cells / immunology

  • HSDB. structure - SODIUM PROPIONATE.
  • HSDB. structure - CALCIUM PROPIONATE.
  • HSDB. structure - CURCUMIN.
  • HSDB. structure - SODIUM BENZOATE.
  • HSDB. structure - ZINC PROPIONATE.
  • HSDB. structure - PROPIONIC ACID.
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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20435078.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-6351
  • [Journal-full-title] Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Food Chem. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] In Vitro; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Food Coloring Agents; 0 / Food Preservatives; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Indoleamine-Pyrrole 2,3,-Dioxygenase; 0 / Mitogens; 0 / Propionates; 79-09-4 / propionic acid; IT942ZTH98 / Curcumin; OJ245FE5EU / Sodium Benzoate
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44. |......... 1%  Shahabadi N, Maghsudi M, Rouhani S: Study on the interaction of food colourant quinoline yellow with bovine serum albumin by spectroscopic techniques. Food Chem; 2012 Dec 1;135(3):1836-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Study on the interaction of food colourant quinoline yellow with bovine serum albumin by spectroscopic techniques.
  • The interaction of a food colourant, quinoline yellow (Qy), and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated by spectrophotometry, spectrofluorometry, FT-IR and circular dichroism (CD) techniques.
  • The experimental results indicated that the quenching mechanism of BSA by the dye was a static procedure.
  • The results of CD and UV-vis spectroscopy showed that this dye could bind to BSA and the conformation of BSA changed.
  • [MeSH-major] Food Coloring Agents / chemistry. Quinolines / chemistry. Spectrum Analysis / methods

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 22953930.001).
  • [ISSN] 0308-8146
  • [Journal-full-title] Food chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Food Chem
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Food Coloring Agents; 0 / Quinolines; 0 / Serum Albumin, Bovine; 8004-92-0 / quinoline yellow
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45. |......... 1%  Poowakanjana S, Park JW: Controlling the bleeding of carmine colorant in crabstick. J Food Sci; 2009 Nov-Dec;74(9):C707-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Controlling the bleeding of carmine colorant in crabstick.
  • Carmine used to color surimi seafood often seeps or bleeds from red-colored meat to white meat when vacuum-packed products go through high-temperature long-time pasteurization.
  • Optimum carmine concentration in color paste was 0.1%.
  • Color bleeding was also affected by moisture content of surimi paste.
  • Carmine bleeding was minimized as pH of color solution decreased.
  • The degree of bleeding was controlled as calcium compounds were added in color solution in a descending order of calcium chloride, calcium acetate, and calcium hydroxide.
  • Minimal inhibition was obtained when color solutions contained calcium citrate, tricalcium phosphate, and calcium lactate.
  • Various means to control carmine bleeding or color transfer under high temperature for long time pasteurization were demonstrated.
  • [MeSH-major] Carmine. Fish Products / analysis. Food Coloring Agents. Food Handling / methods

  • HSDB. structure - CALCIUM COMPOUNDS.
  • HSDB. structure - CARMINIC ACID.
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  • (PMID = 20492104.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-3841
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of food science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Food Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calcium Compounds; 0 / Food Coloring Agents; 0 / Gels; 059QF0KO0R / Water; CID8Z8N95N / Carmine
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46. |......... 1%  Yang TS, Min DB: Quenching mechanism and kinetics of ascorbic acid on the photosensitizing effects of synthetic food colorant FD&C Red Nr 3. J Food Sci; 2009 Nov-Dec;74(9):C718-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Quenching mechanism and kinetics of ascorbic acid on the photosensitizing effects of synthetic food colorant FD&C Red Nr 3.
  • The pH effect on the oxidative stability of ascorbic acid in the presence of food colorant FD&C Red Nr 3 during storage with or without light was investigated.
  • [MeSH-major] Ascorbic Acid / chemistry. Erythrosine / chemistry. Food Coloring Agents / chemistry. Free Radical Scavengers / chemistry. Photosensitizing Agents / chemistry

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Vitamin C.
  • HSDB. structure - SODIUM ASCORBATE.
  • HSDB. structure - ASCORBIC ACID.
  • HSDB. structure - OXYGEN.
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  • (PMID = 20492106.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-3841
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of food science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Food Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Food Coloring Agents; 0 / Food Preservatives; 0 / Free Radical Scavengers; 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 17778-80-2 / Singlet Oxygen; PN2ZH5LOQY / Erythrosine; PQ6CK8PD0R / Ascorbic Acid; S88TT14065 / Oxygen
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47. |......... 1%  Mapari SA, Thrane U, Meyer AS: Fungal polyketide azaphilone pigments as future natural food colorants? Trends Biotechnol; 2010 Jun;28(6):300-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fungal polyketide azaphilone pigments as future natural food colorants?
  • The recent approval of fungal carotenoids as food colorants by the European Union has strengthened the prospects for fungal cell factories for the production of polyketide pigments.
  • Fungal production of colorants has the main advantage of making the manufacturer independent of the seasonal supply of raw materials, thus minimizing batch-to-batch variations.
  • Penicillium and Epicoccum spp.) to serve as food colorants.
  • Thus, there is tremendous potential for the development of robust fungal production systems for polyketide pigments, both to tailor functionality and to expand the color palette of contemporary natural food colorants.
  • [MeSH-major] Benzopyrans / metabolism. Biotechnology / methods. Food Coloring Agents / metabolism. Food Microbiology. Fungi / metabolism. Macrolides / metabolism. Pigments, Biological / metabolism

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Molds.
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  • (PMID = 20452692.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-3096
  • [Journal-full-title] Trends in biotechnology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Trends Biotechnol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzopyrans; 0 / Food Coloring Agents; 0 / Macrolides; 0 / Pigments, Biological; 0 / azaphilone
  • [Number-of-references] 61
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48. |......... 1%  Karapanagiotis I, Minopoulou E, Valianou L, Daniilia S, Chryssoulakis Y: Investigation of the colourants used in icons of the Cretan School of iconography. Anal Chim Acta; 2009 Aug 11;647(2):231-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Investigation of the colourants used in icons of the Cretan School of iconography.
  • The results reveal the extensive use of coccid dyes by the Cretan painters: kermes (Kermes vermilio Planchon) is found in icons dated before the middle 16th century and cochineal in icons created several decades after the discovery of the New World.
  • Other dyestuffs detected in the historical samples are madder (possibly Rubia tinctorum L., according to HPLC profiles), soluble redwood and indigoid dyes.
  • Organic dyes were used by the painters as exclusive colouring matters (or glazes) or in mixtures with inorganic pigments, such as red ochre, cinnabar, minium, azurite lead white and carbon black.
  • Liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) coupled to a negative electrospray ionization mode is employed to provide information on the identity of some unknown colouring components, of the aforementioned dyes, detected in the historical samples.
  • [MeSH-major] Coloring Agents / analysis. Paint / analysis. Paintings / history

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  • NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .
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  • (PMID = 19591711.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4324
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytica chimica acta
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Chim. Acta
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coloring Agents
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49. |......... 1%  Klupp Taylor RN, Seifrt F, Zhuromskyy O, Peschel U, Leugering G, Peukert W: Painting by numbers: nanoparticle-based colorants in the post-empirical age. Adv Mater; 2011 Jun 17;23(22-23):2554-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Painting by numbers: nanoparticle-based colorants in the post-empirical age.
  • Over the past century and a half, the optical properties of such materials have been scrutinized and a broad range of colorant products, based mostly on empirical microstructural improvements, developed.
  • This progress report reviews the development in our understanding of this relationship and indicates recent examples of how theoretical design is taking an ever increasingly important role in the search for enhanced or multifunctional colorants.
  • [MeSH-minor] Color. Particle Size. Zinc Oxide / chemistry

  • HSDB. structure - ZINC OXIDE.
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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
  • (PMID = 21538592.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-4095
  • [Journal-full-title] Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv. Mater. Weinheim
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] SOI2LOH54Z / Zinc Oxide
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50. |......... 1%  Chen JR, Yang DY: Design and synthesis of an o-hydroxyphenyl-containing spiropyran thermochromic colorant. Org Lett; 2009 Apr 16;11(8):1769-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Design and synthesis of an o-hydroxyphenyl-containing spiropyran thermochromic colorant.
  • An o-hydroxyphenyl-containing spiropyran thermochromic colorant was designed and synthesized.
  • The prepared compound is sensitive to temperature and has a reversible color change with temperature variation.

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  • (PMID = 19354320.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-7052
  • [Journal-full-title] Organic letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Org. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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