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1. Biomedical articles (top 50; 2009 to 2014)
1. |||||||||. 100%  Winge R, Berg JO, Albret R, Krag C: VAC® for external fixation of flail chest. Clin Pract; 2012 May 29;2(3):e65
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] VAC® for external fixation of flail chest.
  • A large aterior chest wall defect following tumor resection was reconstructed with a Gore-Tex® membrane and a combined musculocutaneous rectus femoris and tensor fasciae latae free flap.
  • Appliance of Vacuum Assisted Closure® (VAC®) resulted in immediate chest wall stability and a decrease in the patient's need for respiratory support.
  • It is likely that external VAC® can improve thoracic stability and pulmonary function in a patient with flail chest and decrease the need for mechanical ventilation.

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  • (PMID = 24765464.001).
  • [ISSN] 2039-7275
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3981318
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; flail chest. / thoracic wall reconstruction
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2. ||||||||.. 82%  Lee SA, Hwang JJ, Chee HK, Kim YH, Lee WS: Flail chest stabilization with Nuss operation in presence of multiple myeloma. J Thorac Dis; 2014 May;6(5):E43-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Flail chest stabilization with Nuss operation in presence of multiple myeloma.
  • However, much debate and concern have been raised regarding its applicability in adults with pectus excavatum flail chest and other thoratic wall deformities, as compared with younger patients, in terms of complications after surgery.
  • To stabilize the segment of paradoxical chest wall movement we performed the Nuss operation on a patient with multiple myeloma who sustained blunt thoracic trauma.

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  • (PMID = 24822124.001).
  • [ISSN] 2072-1439
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of thoracic disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Thorac Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4015001
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Flail chest / Nuss operation / multiple myeloma
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3. |||||||... 67%  Kulaylat AN, Chesnut CH 3rd, Santos AP, Armen SB: Successful operative rib fixation of traumatic flail chest in a patient with osteogenesis imperfecta. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg; 2014 Sep;19(3):518-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Successful operative rib fixation of traumatic flail chest in a patient with osteogenesis imperfecta.
  • Increasing attention has been directed towards operative rib fixation of traumatic flail chest; reported benefits include more rapid weaning from the ventilator, decreased intensive care unit stays, decreased complications and improved functional results.
  • This case demonstrates that, in the management of traumatic flail chest in a patient with osteogenesis imperfecta, surgical fixation can be successful and should be considered early.

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  • [Copyright] © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 24899593.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-9285
  • [Journal-full-title] Interactive cardiovascular and thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Flail chest / Operative management / Osteogenesis imperfecta / Rib fixation / Rib fracture
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4. |......... 8%  Lanier ST, Wetterau M, Smith-Singares E, Bilfinger T, Vosswinkel J, Shapiro MJ, Dagum AB: Management of pulmonary hernia through a flail segment in closed thoracic trauma using open reduction, internal fixation and pectoralis major flap reconstruction: A case report. Can J Plast Surg; 2011;19(4):145-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of pulmonary hernia through a flail segment in closed thoracic trauma using open reduction, internal fixation and pectoralis major flap reconstruction: A case report.
  • The present article reports on the successful management of a large flail chest with traumatic pulmonary herniation in a patient who could not be weaned from mechanical ventilation following a course of conservative management.
  • Surgical intervention involved open reduction and internal fixation with tubular plates to stabilize the flail segment, followed by a pectoralis major myocutaneous flap to repair the chest wall defect.
  • To the authors' knowledge, the present report is the first to describe the use of open reduction and internal fixation of the chest wall and flap reconstruction to treat lung herniation with a flail chest segment.

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  • [Cites] J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino). 2000 Aug;41(4):641-2 [11052300.001]
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  • (PMID = 23204887.001).
  • [ISSN] 1918-1507
  • [Journal-full-title] The Canadian journal of plastic surgery = Journal canadien de chirurgie plastique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Plast Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3269203
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Flail chest / Pectoralis major myocutaneous flap / Pulmonary herniation
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5. ||||||.... 58%  Callaghan MA, Phelan D: Flail chest from blunt thoracic trauma. BMJ Case Rep; 2011;2011
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Flail chest from blunt thoracic trauma.
  • [MeSH-major] Flail Chest / etiology. Thoracic Injuries / complications. Wounds, Nonpenetrating / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Accidental Falls. Chest Tubes. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thoracostomy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Cites] Surgery. 2004 Aug;136(2):426-30 [15300210.001]
  • (PMID = 22687738.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-790X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3166588
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6. |||||..... 49%  Alexander P: Images in clinical medicine. Flail chest. N Engl J Med; 2010 Dec 2;363(23):e35
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Images in clinical medicine. Flail chest.
  • [MeSH-major] Flail Chest / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 21121828.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4406
  • [Journal-full-title] The New England journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] N. Engl. J. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Video-Audio Media
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. ||||||.... 59%  Zegg M, Kammerlander C, Schmid S, Roth T, Kammerlander-Knauer U, Gosch M, Luger TJ: Multidisciplinary Approach to Lifesaving Measures in the Elderly Individuals With Flail Chest Injury With ORIF of Rib Fractures: A Report of 2 Cases. Geriatr Orthop Surg Rehabil; 2012 Dec;3(4):164-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Multidisciplinary Approach to Lifesaving Measures in the Elderly Individuals With Flail Chest Injury With ORIF of Rib Fractures: A Report of 2 Cases.
  • In this case report, we present 2 cases of flail chest in geriatric patients after severe blunt chest trauma, which were treated at the University Hospital Innsbruck (Level I Trauma Center and Tyrolean Geriatric Fracture Center) by a multidisciplinary team of physicians from anesthesia, intensive care, trauma surgery, and acute geriatrics.
  • We want to point out the benefit of a multidisciplinary approach in geriatric patients with flail chest.

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  • (PMID = 23569711.001).
  • [ISSN] 2151-4585
  • [Journal-full-title] Geriatric orthopaedic surgery & rehabilitation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Geriatr Orthop Surg Rehabil
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3598516
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; anesthesia / fragility fractures / geriatric medicine / geriatric trauma / trauma surgery
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8. |......... 9%  Cooper IF, Siadaty MS: 'Findings' associated with 'Chest Flailed': Top Publications. BioMedLib Review; Finding;ChestFlailed:707112695. ISSN: 2331-5717. 2014/10/5
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  • [Title] 'Findings' associated with 'Chest Flailed': Top Publications.
  • [Transliterated title]
  • Background: There are articles published each month which present 'Finding' for 'chest flailed'.
  • Finding such articles is important for researchers, clinicians, and patients.
  • However these articles are spread across thousands of journals, and there are many types of 'Finding'.
  • This makes searching and locating the relevant publications a challenge.
  • We have used BioMedLib's semantic search technology to address the issue, and gathered all the pertinent publications in this review article.
  • Methods: We categorized the publications we found into two groups.
  • We used the strength of textual-association to separate the groups.
  • In group one there are publications with the strongest evidence of association. We focused finding the most relevant publications pertinent to our goal, rather than combining them into a conclusion section. Such textual synthesis will be the focus of our next project.
  • Results: Group one includes 33 publications, and group two 132 publications.
  • Here are the top 10.
  • Zegg M et al: Multidisciplinary Approach to Lifesaving Measures in the Elderly Individuals With Flail Chest Injury With ORIF of Rib Fractures: A Report of 2 Cases.
  • Winge R et al: VAC® for external fixation of flail chest.
  • Cooper IF et al: 'Steroids' associated with 'Chest Flailed': Top Publications.
  • Callaghan MA et al: Flail chest from blunt thoracic trauma.
  • Lee SA et al: Flail chest stabilization with Nuss operation in presence of multiple myeloma.
  • Alexander P: Images in clinical medicine. Flail chest.
  • Vana PG et al: Contemporary management of flail chest.
  • Bhatnagar A et al: Rib fracture fixation for flail chest: what is the benefit?.
  • Ke S et al: Thoracoscopy-assisted minimally invasive surgical stabilization of the anterolateral flail chest using Nuss bars.
  • Kilic D et al: Factors affecting morbidity and mortality in flail chest: comparison of anterior and lateral location.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2014 Siadaty and Cooper; licensee BioMedLib LLC.
  • (UID = 707112695.001).
  • [ISSN] 2331-5717
  • [Journal-full-title] BioMedLib Review
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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9. |||||||||. 147%  Athanassiadi K, Theakos N, Kalantzi N, Gerazounis M: Prognostic factors in flail-chest patients. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg; 2010 Oct;38(4):466-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prognostic factors in flail-chest patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: The records of 250 patients presenting with flail-chest injury in a level I trauma centre were reviewed and analysed in order to determine prognostic factors.
  • METHODS: There were 250 consecutive trauma patients with flail chest, 183 men (73.2%) and 67 women (26.8%) ranging in age from 18 to 91 years, admitted to our hospital.
  • Patients were divided into three groups: group I consisted of 105 patients (70/35) with an isolated flail chest (Injury Severity Score (ISS): 16); group II included 58 cases (48/10) with extrathoracic fractures (ISS: 25-30); and group III comprised 87 patients (65/22) with injuries to the brain or to thoracic or abdominal organs requiring thoracotomy and/or laparotomy (ISS: >40).
  • (1) ISS is the strongest predictor of outcome associated with increased mortality; and (2) mechanical support was not considered a necessity for the treatment of flail chest.
  • [MeSH-major] Flail Chest / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Accidents, Traffic. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Drainage. Epidemiologic Methods. Female. Hemopneumothorax / etiology. Humans. Injury Severity Score. Male. Middle Aged. Multiple Trauma / diagnosis. Multiple Trauma / therapy. Prognosis. Respiration, Artificial. Thoracic Injuries / pathology. Thoracotomy. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • [CommentIn] Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2012 Jul;42(1):192 [22290914.001]
  • (PMID = 20363148.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-734X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Cardiothorac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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10. |||||||||. 126%  Vana PG, Neubauer DC, Luchette FA: Contemporary management of flail chest. Am Surg; 2014 Jun;80(6):527-35
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Contemporary management of flail chest.
  • Flail chest, as defined by fracture of three or more ribs in two or more places, continues to be a clinically challenging problem.
  • We review the history of management for flail chest alone and when combined with pulmonary contusion.
  • [MeSH-major] Disease Management. Flail Chest. Fracture Fixation, Internal / methods. Rib Fractures

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  • (PMID = 24887787.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-9823
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. |||||||||. 115%  Poirier WJ, Vacca VM Jr: Flail chest. Nursing; 2013 Dec;43(12):10-1
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Flail chest.
  • [MeSH-major] Emergency Nursing. Flail Chest / nursing

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  • (PMID = 24257520.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-8689
  • [Journal-full-title] Nursing
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nursing
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. |||||||||. 111%  Cannon RM, Smith JW, Franklin GA, Harbrecht BG, Miller FB, Richardson JD: Flail chest injury: are we making any progress? Am Surg; 2012 Apr;78(4):398-402
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Flail chest injury: are we making any progress?
  • Flail chest represents a severe injury with mortality historically reported at up to 30 per cent.
  • With Institutional Review Board approval, a retrospective review of all patients with flail chest admitted from January 2001 through May 2010 was undertaken.
  • There were 41 deaths (25%), for which flail chest contributed to 15 (9.1%).
  • Of the patients with flail chest-related death, the majority (n = 10 [66.7%]) died within 48 hours of presentation.
  • There were only five deaths (3.0%) related to flail chest after 48 hours.
  • The mortality associated with flail chest has greatly improved; however, the rate of pneumonia remains high.
  • [MeSH-major] Flail Chest / mortality

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  • (PMID = 22472394.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-9823
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. |||||||||. 91%  Kilic D, Findikcioglu A, Akin S, Akay TH, Kupeli E, Aribogan A, Hatipoglu A: Factors affecting morbidity and mortality in flail chest: comparison of anterior and lateral location. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2011 Feb;59(1):45-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Factors affecting morbidity and mortality in flail chest: comparison of anterior and lateral location.
  • OBJECTIVE: Flail chest is most often accompanied by significant underlying pulmonary parenchymal injuries and may constitute a life-threatening thoracic injury.
  • In this study we evaluated the treatment modalities for flail chest depending on the effect of trauma localization on mortality and morbidity.
  • METHODS: Between 2003 and 2008, 23 patients (20 males/3 females) were treated for flail chest.
  • Location of the trauma in the chest wall, mechanical ventilation support, prognosis and injury severity score (ISS) were recorded for all patients.
  • RESULTS: The major cause of flail chest was a car crash in 18 of 23 patients (76 %).
  • The patients with flail chest who had bilateral costochondral separation (anterior chest location) (group I, n = 10) had a significantly higher ISS than those with single-side posterolateral flail chest (group II, n = 13; ISS: 70/55; P = 0.02).
  • Patients with a cranial trauma and flail chest had a higher mortality (19 %) than patients with only flail chest (no mortality).
  • The mean ISS was 75 for patients with cranial trauma and flail chest and 55.7 ( P = 0.001) for patients with only flail chest.
  • CONCLUSION: Early intubation and mechanical ventilation is of paramount importance in patients with flail chest.
  • Advanced age was a major risk factor for flail chest trauma mortality, together with the severity of the injury.
  • When cranial trauma was accompanied by flail chest, mortality and morbidity rates increased.
  • Bilateral costochondral separation also increased the risk of morbidity and the need for mechanical ventilation in patients with flail chest.
  • [MeSH-major] Flail Chest / mortality. Flail Chest / pathology. Thoracic Surgical Procedures

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  • [Copyright] © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
  • (PMID = 21243572.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-1902
  • [Journal-full-title] The Thoracic and cardiovascular surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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14. |||||||||. 90%  Marasco S, Cooper J, Pick A, Kossmann T: Pilot study of operative fixation of fractured ribs in patients with flail chest. ANZ J Surg; 2009 Nov;79(11):804-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pilot study of operative fixation of fractured ribs in patients with flail chest.
  • BACKGROUND: Flail chest is a serious injury in trauma with a significant mortality rate, and long-term pain and disability.
  • The aim of this study was to assess the safety of operative fixation of broken ribs in flail chest using absorbable prostheses.
  • METHODS: Thirteen consecutive patients with severe flail chest injury were enrolled in this pilot study.
  • Surgery was planned after viewing three-dimensional reconstructions of the computed tomography scans of the chest.
  • Segmentally fractured ribs were usually plated only once to convert the flail segment to simple fractured ribs and correct the paradoxical wall motion abnormality.
  • In all patients, the flail chest was successfully stabilized and paradoxical chest wall movement was eliminated.
  • CONCLUSION: This pilot study of operative fixation of broken ribs in patients with flail chest, using absorbable plates and screws, has shown the technique to be safe and effective.
  • [MeSH-major] Absorbable Implants. Flail Chest / surgery. Fracture Fixation, Internal / methods. Rib Fractures / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20078530.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-2197
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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15. |||||||||. 89%  Bhatnagar A, Mayberry J, Nirula R: Rib fracture fixation for flail chest: what is the benefit? J Am Coll Surg; 2012 Aug;215(2):201-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Rib fracture fixation for flail chest: what is the benefit?
  • BACKGROUND: Recently, rib fracture fixation for flail chest has been used increasingly at both academic and nonacademic trauma centers.
  • We therefore sought to determine if open reduction and internal fixation of ribs for flail chest (ORIF-FC) represents a cost-effective means for managing these patients.
  • STUDY DESIGN: A Markov transition state analysis was performed modeling the outcomes of the standard of care or ORIF-FC for flail chest.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Despite the additional cost of surgery, rib fracture fixation dominates the standard of care and should be considered in the management of appropriate flail chest patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Flail Chest / surgery. Fracture Fixation, Internal / economics. Rib Fractures / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2012 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • [CommentIn] J Am Coll Surg. 2012 Nov;215(5):743-4 [23084501.001]
  • (PMID = 22560319.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1190
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Coll. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. |||||||||. 88%  Ke S, Duan H, Cai Y, Kang J, Feng Z: Thoracoscopy-assisted minimally invasive surgical stabilization of the anterolateral flail chest using Nuss bars. Ann Thorac Surg; 2014 Jun;97(6):2179-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Thoracoscopy-assisted minimally invasive surgical stabilization of the anterolateral flail chest using Nuss bars.
  • Flail chest is caused by complex fractures of multiple ribs as a result of severe chest injuries, which results in paradoxical chest movements that severely compromise respiratory function.
  • We report our experience of thoracoscopically assisted, minimally invasive surgical stabilization of massive anterolateral flail chest using a Nuss bar in three patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Flail Chest / surgery. Orthopedic Procedures. Surgical Procedures, Minimally Invasive / methods. Thoracoscopy / methods

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 24882301.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6259
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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17. |||||||||. 87%  Marasco SF, Davies AR, Cooper J, Varma D, Bennett V, Nevill R, Lee G, Bailey M, Fitzgerald M: Prospective randomized controlled trial of operative rib fixation in traumatic flail chest. J Am Coll Surg; 2013 May;216(5):924-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prospective randomized controlled trial of operative rib fixation in traumatic flail chest.
  • BACKGROUND: Traumatic flail chest injury is a potentially life threatening condition traditionally treated with invasive mechanical ventilation to splint the chest wall.
  • STUDY DESIGN: A prospective randomized study compared operative fixation of fractured ribs in the flail segment with current best practice mechanical ventilator management.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Operative fixation of fractured ribs reduces ventilation requirement and intensive care stay in a cohort of multitrauma patients with severe flail chest injury.
  • [MeSH-major] Flail Chest / etiology. Flail Chest / surgery. Fracture Fixation, Internal. Rib Fractures / etiology. Rib Fractures / surgery. Thoracic Injuries / complications

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  • [Copyright] Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 23415550.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1190
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Coll. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. |||||||||. 86%  Messing JA, Gall V, Sarani B: Successful management of severe flail chest via early operative intervention. J Trauma Nurs; 2014 Mar-Apr;21(2):83-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Successful management of severe flail chest via early operative intervention.
  • A review on the role of open reduction and internal fixation of flail chest injuries is presented.
  • Through our case, we are able to demonstrate successful management of pain and chest wall instability associated with flail chest through the use of rib plating.

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  • (PMID = 24614298.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-7496
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of trauma nursing : the official journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Trauma Nurs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. |||||||||. 86%  Althausen PL, Shannon S, Watts C, Thomas K, Bain MA, Coll D, O'mara TJ, Bray TJ: Early surgical stabilization of flail chest with locked plate fixation. J Orthop Trauma; 2011 Nov;25(11):641-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Early surgical stabilization of flail chest with locked plate fixation.
  • OBJECTIVES: To compare the results of surgical stabilization with locked plating to nonoperative care of flail chest injuries.
  • PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS: From January 2005 to January 2010, 22 patients with flail chest treated with locked plate fixation were compared with a matched cohort of 28 nonoperatively managed patients at our institution.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the potential benefits of surgical stabilization of flail chest with locked plate fixation.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Plates. Flail Chest / surgery. Fracture Fixation, Internal / instrumentation. Fracture Fixation, Internal / methods. Multiple Trauma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 22008858.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of orthopaedic trauma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Orthop Trauma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. ||||||||.. 84%  Doben AR, Eriksson EA, Denlinger CE, Leon SM, Couillard DJ, Fakhry SM, Minshall CT: Surgical rib fixation for flail chest deformity improves liberation from mechanical ventilation. J Crit Care; 2014 Feb;29(1):139-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical rib fixation for flail chest deformity improves liberation from mechanical ventilation.
  • PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to determine the impact of surgical rib fixation (SRF) in a treatment protocol for severe blunt chest trauma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with flail chest admitted between September 2009 and June 2010 to our level I trauma center who failed traditional management and underwent SRF were matched with an historical group.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Surgical rib fixation resulted in a significant decrease in ventilator days and may represent a novel approach to decreasing morbidity in flail chest patients when used as a rescue therapy in patients with declining pulmonary status.
  • [MeSH-major] Flail Chest / surgery. Fracture Fixation, Internal / methods. Respiration, Artificial / methods. Rib Fractures / surgery. Wounds, Nonpenetrating / surgery

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  • [Copyright] © 2013.
  • (PMID = 24075300.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-8615
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of critical care
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Crit Care
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Flail chest / Mechanical ventilation / Outcome / Rib fracture / Surgical rib fixation / Trauma
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21. ||||||||.. 83%  Yang Y, Dong LW, Wang J: Memory alloy embracing fixator in treatment of multiple fractured ribs and flail chest. World J Emerg Med; 2010;1(3):212-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Memory alloy embracing fixator in treatment of multiple fractured ribs and flail chest.
  • The present study was to explore curative effect and postoperative results of Ti-Ni shape memory alloy embracing fixator in patients with multiple fractured ribs and flail chest.
  • METHODS: The curative effect and long-term follow-up results were observed after internal fixation with a shape memory alloy embracing fixator in patients with multiple fractured ribs and flail chest from January 2006 to December 2009.

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  • (PMID = 25214971.001).
  • [ISSN] 1920-8642
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of emergency medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Emerg Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4129686
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Flail chest / Internal fixation / Multiple fractured ribs / Postoperative evaluation
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22. ||||||||.. 81%  Lozano-Corona R, Loyola-Garcia U, Partida IC, Rodriguez-Ortega F: Successful treatment of flail chest with chondrosternal disruption and traumatic parasternal lung hernia with titanium rib bridges. BMJ Case Rep; 2013;2013
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Successful treatment of flail chest with chondrosternal disruption and traumatic parasternal lung hernia with titanium rib bridges.
  • The surgical principles for the treatment of flail chest have yet to be fully established.
  • Furthermore, the relationship between flail chest and lung hernias is unclear.
  • We report here a rare case of chondrosternal traumatic disruption and lung hernia that was treated with a novel technique using titanium rib bridges and clips, which successfully reduced the hernia defect and provided stability to the chest wall.
  • [MeSH-major] Flail Chest / surgery. Herniorrhaphy / methods. Prostheses and Implants. Thoracic Wall / surgery

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  • (PMID = 23608852.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-790X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] D1JT611TNE / Titanium
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23. ||||||||.. 80%  Dutta B, Kashyap L: Pneumatic stabilization of iatrogenic flail chest with CPAP: a case report. Acta Anaesthesiol Belg; 2010;61(1):25-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pneumatic stabilization of iatrogenic flail chest with CPAP: a case report.
  • Iatrogenic flail chest following resection of part of the chest wall in postoperative patients is a challenging scenario for the anesthetist.
  • We describe the management of postoperative flail chest, following resection of upper two-third of the sternum along with costal cartilages for a malignant thymoma invading the sternum in an adult male with the use of continuous epidural analgesia and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), which provided pneumatic stabilization and an excellent recovery.
  • [MeSH-major] Continuous Positive Airway Pressure. Flail Chest / therapy. Thoracic Surgical Procedures / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 20593640.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5164
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta anaesthesiologica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Anaesthesiol Belg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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24. ||||||||.. 80%  Slobogean GP, MacPherson CA, Sun T, Pelletier ME, Hameed SM: Surgical fixation vs nonoperative management of flail chest: a meta-analysis. J Am Coll Surg; 2013 Feb;216(2):302-11.e1
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical fixation vs nonoperative management of flail chest: a meta-analysis.
  • BACKGROUND: Flail chest is a life-threatening injury typically treated with supportive ventilation and analgesia.
  • The purpose of this study was to compare the results of surgical fixation and nonoperative management for flail chest injuries.
  • STUDY DESIGN: A systematic review of previously published comparative studies using operative and nonoperative management of flail chest was performed.
  • Additional benefits included decreased ICU days (mean 5 days, 95% CI 2 to 8 days), mortality (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.48), septicemia (OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.71), tracheostomy (OR 0.06, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.20), and chest deformity (OR 0.11, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.60).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results of this meta-analysis suggest surgical fixation of flail chest injuries may have substantial critical care benefits; however, the analyses are based on the pooling of primarily small retrospective studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Critical Care / methods. Flail Chest / therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2013 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 23219148.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1190
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Coll. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. ||||||||.. 79%  Sen S, Sen S, Sentürk E, Pabuşcu E, Savk O: [Operative stabilization of traumatic flail chest using a reconstruction plaque]. Tuberk Toraks; 2009;57(3):342-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Operative stabilization of traumatic flail chest using a reconstruction plaque].
  • Flail chest is the most serious form of blunt thoracic trauma that occurs as a result of fracture of three or more ribs from at least two places or sternal fractures and/or separation of costochondral junctions.
  • Typically the fractured segment moves in the interior and exterior directions during inspirations and expirations, respectively and this paradoxical motion is called as flail chest.
  • Non-operative treatment approaches are usually preferred for the flail chest cases.
  • However, surgery constitutes the unavoidable treatment procedure in the existence of severe chest wall deformities, unstable ventilation dynamics, lung and diaphragmatic injuries and prolonged mechanical ventilation.
  • Here we present a case of traumatic flail chest in a patient with traumatic severe chest wall deformity treated by chest wall reconstruction with AO-ASIF [Arbeitsgemeindschaft fur Osteosynthesefragen (Association for the Study of Internal Fixation)] osteosynthesis plaque.
  • [MeSH-major] Flail Chest / surgery. Fracture Fixation, Internal / methods

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  • (PMID = 19787475.001).
  • [ISSN] 0494-1373
  • [Journal-full-title] Tüberküloz ve toraks
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tuberk Toraks
  • [Language] tur
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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26. ||||||||.. 78%  Konstantinov IE, Saxena P, Wood DJ: Stabilisation of chronic flail chest: a novel approach of surgical fixation and osteogenesis. Thorax; 2009 Mar;64(3):265-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Stabilisation of chronic flail chest: a novel approach of surgical fixation and osteogenesis.
  • A patient with chronic flail chest, severe persistent pain and chest wall deformity was successfully managed with open reduction and internal fixation of the ribs and application of a novel osteogenic protein.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Morphogenetic Proteins / therapeutic use. Flail Chest / surgery. Fracture Fixation, Internal / methods. Fractures, Bone / surgery. Osteogenesis / drug effects. Rib Fractures / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19252022.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-3296
  • [Journal-full-title] Thorax
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thorax
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Morphogenetic Proteins; 0 / osteogenic protein 1 putty, recombinant human
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27. ||||||||.. 78%  Dunlop RL, Tiong W, Veerasingam D, Kelly JL: Novel use of hand fracture fixation plates in the surgical stabilisation of flail chest. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg; 2010 Jan;63(1):e51-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Novel use of hand fracture fixation plates in the surgical stabilisation of flail chest.
  • In this case, we performed surgical stabilisation of a large flail chest fragment in conjunction with the cardiothoracic surgical team, using the mini-plating set more commonly used for hand fracture fixation.
  • The use of this fixation system for flail chest has not previously been described, but offers advantages over other reported methods, primarily by dispensing with the need for an extensive thoracotomy incision and by providing robust stabilisation without the presence of prominent hardware.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Plates. Flail Chest / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19527946.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-0539
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of plastic, reconstructive & aesthetic surgery : JPRAS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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28. ||||||||.. 76%  Sekizawa A, Yanagawa Y, Nishi K, Takasu A, Sakamoto T: A case of thoracic degloving injury with flail chest. Am J Emerg Med; 2011 Sep;29(7):841.e1-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A case of thoracic degloving injury with flail chest.
  • A 75-year-old male patient suffered a chest degloving injury when he fell on his back and was run over by a small farm tractor he was pulling.
  • At the time of patient admission, the paradoxical motion of the right chest wall was remarkable; and he had an open fracture of the right humerus, a dislocation of the right ankle, and a laceration of the right forearm.
  • Chest computed tomography revealed fractures of the fifth to seventh ribs and detachment of both the right pectoralis major muscle and serratus anterior muscle from the chest wall, with a disconnected right thoracic cavity.
  • Because the right flail chest was severe and there was a large amount of air leakage that continued under positive-pressure ventilation for pneumatic stabilization, we performed surgical fixation of the ribs and repaired the lung injury on the fifth hospital day.
  • [MeSH-major] Flail Chest / etiology

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  • (PMID = 20934295.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8171
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of emergency medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Emerg Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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29. ||||||||.. 75%  Marasco S, Liew S, Edwards E, Varma D, Summerhayes R: Analysis of bone healing in flail chest injury: Do we need to fix both fractures per rib? J Trauma Acute Care Surg; 2014 Sep;77(3):452-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Analysis of bone healing in flail chest injury: Do we need to fix both fractures per rib?
  • An unanswered question in SRF for flail chest injury is whether it is sufficient to fix one fracture per rib, on successive ribs, thus converting a flail chest injury into simple fractured ribs, or whether both ends of the floating segment of the chest wall should be fixed.
  • This study aimed to analyze SRF in flail chest injury, assessing 3-month outcomes for nonfixed fractured rib ends in the flail segment.
  • METHODS: This is a retrospective review (2005-2013) of 60 consecutive patients who underwent SRF for flail chest injury admitted to the Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Australia.
  • Imaging by three-dimensional computed tomography (3D CT) of the chest at admission was compared with follow-up 3D CT at 3 months after injury.
  • Callus formation and bony bridging between adjacent ribs was often noted in the rib fractures not fixed (28 of 52 patients, 54%) CONCLUSION: This retrospective review of 3D CT chest at 3 months after rib fixation indicates that a philosophy of fixing only one fracture per rib in a flail segment does not avoid deformity and displacement, particularly in posterior rib fractures.

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  • (PMID = 25159250.001).
  • [ISSN] 2163-0763
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of trauma and acute care surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Trauma Acute Care Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. |||||||... 74%  Ivancić A, Saftić I, Cicvarić T, Spanjol J, Stalekar H, Marinović M, Markić D: Initial experience with external thoracic stabilization by the "figure of eight" osteosynthesis in polytraumatized patients with flail chest injury. Coll Antropol; 2009 Mar;33(1):51-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Initial experience with external thoracic stabilization by the "figure of eight" osteosynthesis in polytraumatized patients with flail chest injury.
  • The aim of this study was to describe initial experience with external thoracic stabilization by the "figure of eight" osteosynthesis in polytraumatized patients with flail chest injury.
  • [MeSH-major] Flail Chest / surgery. Fracture Fixation, Internal / methods

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  • (PMID = 19408603.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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31. |||||||... 66%  Bottlang M, Long WB, Phelan D, Fielder D, Madey SM: Surgical stabilization of flail chest injuries with MatrixRIB implants: a prospective observational study. Injury; 2013 Feb;44(2):232-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical stabilization of flail chest injuries with MatrixRIB implants: a prospective observational study.
  • BACKGROUND: Surgical stabilization of flail chest injury with generic osteosynthesis implants remains challenging.
  • A novel implant system comprising anatomic rib plates and intramedullary splints may improve surgical stabilization of flail chest injuries.
  • METHODS: Twenty consecutive patients that underwent stabilization of flail chest injury with anatomic plates and intramedullary splints were prospectively enrolled at two Level I trauma centres.
  • RESULTS: Patients had an Injury Severity Score of 28±10, a chest Abbreviated Injury Score of 4.2±0.4 and 8.5±2.9 fractured ribs.
  • These early clinical results indicate that the novel implant system provides reliable fixation and accommodates the wide range of fractures encountered in flail chest injury.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Plates. Flail Chest / surgery. Fracture Fixation, Intramedullary / methods. Rib Fractures / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 22910817.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0267
  • [Journal-full-title] Injury
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Injury
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biocompatible Materials
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32. |||||||... 66%  Simon B, Ebert J, Bokhari F, Capella J, Emhoff T, Hayward T 3rd, Rodriguez A, Smith L, Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma: Management of pulmonary contusion and flail chest: an Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma practice management guideline. J Trauma Acute Care Surg; 2012 Nov;73(5 Suppl 4):S351-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of pulmonary contusion and flail chest: an Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma practice management guideline.
  • BACKGROUND: Despite the prevalence and recognized association of pulmonary contusion and flail chest (PC-FC) as a combined, complex injury pattern with interrelated pathophysiology, the mortality and morbidity of this entity have not improved during the last three decades.
  • The use of optimal analgesia and aggressive chest physiotherapy should be applied to minimize the likelihood of respiratory failure.
  • Epidural catheter is the preferred mode of analgesia delivery in severe flail chest injury.
  • Independent lung ventilation may also be considered in severe unilateral pulmonary contusion when shunt cannot be otherwise corrected.Surgical fixation of flail chest may be considered in cases of severe flail chest failing to wean from the ventilator or when thoracotomy is required for other reasons.
  • Self-activating multidisciplinary protocols for the treatment of chest wall injuries may improve outcome and should be considered where feasible.Steroids should not be used in the therapy of pulmonary contusion.
  • [MeSH-major] Contusions / therapy. Flail Chest / therapy. Lung Injury / therapy

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  • (PMID = 23114493.001).
  • [ISSN] 2163-0763
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of trauma and acute care surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Trauma Acute Care Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Practice Guideline
  • [Publication-country] United States
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33. |||||||... 66%  Chittawatanarat K, Chotirodniramit N, Chandacham K, Molloy R, Laokul C: Frame-composite mesh: a new method to treat complex unstable flail chest: a case report. J Med Assoc Thai; 2010 Jan;93(1):123-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Frame-composite mesh: a new method to treat complex unstable flail chest: a case report.
  • A middle aged Thai male was admitted suffering from a severely unstable flail chest caused by an elephant having trampled on the upper right part of his chest.
  • He failed to respond to conservative treatment and conventional surgery could not be performed due to the bony defect in the chest wall.
  • [MeSH-major] Flail Chest / surgery. Surgical Mesh

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  • (PMID = 20196421.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-2208
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Assoc Thai
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Polymers; 0 / Polypropylenes; D1JT611TNE / Titanium
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34. ||||||.... 62%  Leinicke JA, Elmore L, Freeman BD, Colditz GA: Operative management of rib fractures in the setting of flail chest: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Surg; 2013 Dec;258(6):914-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Operative management of rib fractures in the setting of flail chest: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
  • BACKGROUND: Flail chest (FC) results in paradoxical chest wall movement, altered respiratory mechanics, and frequent respiratory failure.
  • Operative fixation of the flail segment has been advocated as an adjunct to supportive care, but no definitive clinical trial exists to delineate the role of surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Flail Chest / complications. Rib Fractures / complications. Rib Fractures / surgery

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  • (PMID = 23511840.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1140
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / 5T32GM00879510; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / T32 GM008795
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS448983 [Available on 12/01/14]; NLM/ PMC3694995 [Available on 12/01/14]
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35. ||||||.... 58%  Dehghan N, de Mestral C, McKee MD, Schemitsch EH, Nathens A: Flail chest injuries: a review of outcomes and treatment practices from the National Trauma Data Bank. J Trauma Acute Care Surg; 2014 Feb;76(2):462-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Flail chest injuries: a review of outcomes and treatment practices from the National Trauma Data Bank.
  • BACKGROUND: Flail chest injuries are associated with severe pulmonary restriction, a requirement for intubation and mechanical ventilation, and high rates of morbidity and mortality.
  • Our goals were to investigate the prevalence, current treatment practices, and outcomes of flail chest injuries in polytrauma patients.
  • METHODS: The National Trauma Data Bank was used for a retrospective analysis of the injury patterns, management, and clinical outcomes associated with flail chest injuries.
  • Patients with a flail chest injury admitted from 2007 to 2009 were included in the analysis.
  • Outcomes included the number of days on mechanical ventilation, days in the intensive care unit (ICU), days in the hospital, and rates of pneumonia, sepsis, tracheostomy, chest tube placement, and death.
  • RESULTS: Flail chest injury was identified in 3,467 patients; the mean age was 52.5 years, and 77% of the patients were male.
  • Treatment practices included epidural catheters in 8% and surgical fixation of the chest wall in 0.7% of the patients.
  • Chest tubes were used in 44%, and 21% required a tracheostomy.
  • CONCLUSION: Patients who have sustained a flail chest have significant morbidity and mortality.
  • Given the high rates of morbidity and mortality in patients with a flail chest injury, alternate methods of treatment including more consistent use of epidural catheters for pain or surgical fixation need to be investigated with large randomized controlled trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Flail Chest / mortality. Flail Chest / therapy. Intensive Care Units. Length of Stay. Respiration, Artificial / methods

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  • (PMID = 24458051.001).
  • [ISSN] 2163-0763
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of trauma and acute care surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Trauma Acute Care Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Analgesics
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36. |||||..... 48%  Mayberry J: Early stabilization of flail chest with locked plate fixation. J Orthop Trauma; 2011 Nov;25(11):648
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Early stabilization of flail chest with locked plate fixation.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Plates. Flail Chest / surgery. Fracture Fixation, Internal / methods. Rib Fractures / surgery

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  • (PMID = 22008859.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of orthopaedic trauma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Orthop Trauma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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37. |||||..... 48%  Ramponi F, Meredith GT, Bendinelli C, Söderlund T: Operative management of flail chest with anatomical locking plates (MatrixRib). ANZ J Surg; 2012 Sep;82(9):658-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Operative management of flail chest with anatomical locking plates (MatrixRib).
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Plates. Flail Chest / surgery. Fracture Fixation, Internal / instrumentation. Rib Fractures / surgery

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  • (PMID = 22943086.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-2197
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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38. ||||...... 43%  Peters N, Upadhyay S, Grewal S, Saini N: Spinal epidural abscess following epidural cannulation for flail chest analgesia: a case report. Neurol Neurochir Pol; 2011 Jan-Feb;45(1):80-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Spinal epidural abscess following epidural cannulation for flail chest analgesia: a case report.
  • [MeSH-major] Analgesia, Epidural / adverse effects. Catheterization, Peripheral / adverse effects. Epidural Abscess / microbiology. Flail Chest / surgery. Spinal Diseases / microbiology. Staphylococcal Infections / microbiology

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Spine Injuries and Disorders.
  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Staphylococcal Infections.
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  • (PMID = 21384298.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3843
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia i neurochirurgia polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Neurochir. Pol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents
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39. ||||...... 39%  Paydar S, Mousavi SM, Niakan H, Abbasi HR, Bolandparvaz S: Appropriate management of flail chest needs proper injury classification. J Am Coll Surg; 2012 Nov;215(5):743-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Appropriate management of flail chest needs proper injury classification.
  • [MeSH-major] Flail Chest / surgery. Fracture Fixation, Internal / economics. Rib Fractures / surgery

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  • [CommentOn] J Am Coll Surg. 2012 Aug;215(2):201-5 [22560319.001]
  • (PMID = 23084501.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1190
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Coll. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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40. |||....... 35%  Pacheco PE, Orem AR, Vegunta RK, Anderson RC, Pearl RH: The novel use of Nuss bars for reconstruction of a massive flail chest. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2009 Nov;138(5):1239-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The novel use of Nuss bars for reconstruction of a massive flail chest.
  • [MeSH-major] Flail Chest / surgery. Prosthesis Implantation / methods

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  • (PMID = 19837223.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-685X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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41. |||....... 34%  Paydar S, Mousavi SM, Akerdi AT: Flail chest: are common definition and management protocols still useful? Eur J Cardiothorac Surg; 2012 Jul;42(1):192
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Flail chest: are common definition and management protocols still useful?
  • [MeSH-major] Flail Chest / diagnosis

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  • [CommentOn] Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2010 Oct;38(4):466-71 [20363148.001]
  • (PMID = 22290914.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-734X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Cardiothorac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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42. ||........ 25%  Hasenboehler EA, Bernard AC, Bottiggi AJ, Moghadamian ES, Wright RD, Chang PK, Boulanger BR, Kearney PA: Treatment of traumatic flail chest with muscular sparing open reduction and internal fixation: description of a surgical technique. J Trauma; 2011 Aug;71(2):494-501
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment of traumatic flail chest with muscular sparing open reduction and internal fixation: description of a surgical technique.
  • [MeSH-major] Flail Chest / surgery. Thoracotomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 21825950.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-8809
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of trauma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Trauma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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43. ||........ 15%  le Roex R: So many years ago. S Afr Med J; 2013 Mar;103(3):153
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • A case of flail chest treated before availability of electrically driven respirators.
  • [MeSH-major] Airway Management / history. Flail Chest

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  • (PMID = 23472689.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-9574
  • [Journal-full-title] South African medical journal = Suid-Afrikaanse tydskrif vir geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] S. Afr. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article; Personal Narratives
  • [Publication-country] South Africa
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44. |......... 9%  Cooper IF, Siadaty MS: 'Diseases or Syndromes' associated with 'Chest Flailed': Top Publications. BioMedLib Review; DiseaseOrSyndrome;ChestFlailed:707057885. ISSN: 2331-5717. 2014/8/4
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  • [Title] 'Diseases or Syndromes' associated with 'Chest Flailed': Top Publications.
  • [Transliterated title]
  • Background: There are articles published each month which present 'Disease or Syndrome' for 'chest flailed'.
  • Finding such articles is important for researchers, clinicians, and patients.
  • However these articles are spread across thousands of journals, and there are many types of 'Disease or Syndrome'.
  • This makes searching and locating the relevant publications a challenge.
  • We have used BioMedLib's semantic search technology to address the issue, and gathered all the pertinent publications in this review article.
  • Methods: We categorized the publications we found into two groups.
  • We used the strength of textual-association to separate the groups.
  • In group one there are publications with the strongest evidence of association. We focused finding the most relevant publications pertinent to our goal, rather than combining them into a conclusion section. Such textual synthesis will be the focus of our next project.
  • Results: Group one includes 34 publications, and group two 132 publications.
  • Here are the top 10.
  • Winge R et al: VAC® for external fixation of flail chest.
  • Zegg M et al: Multidisciplinary Approach to Lifesaving Measures in the Elderly Individuals With Flail Chest Injury With ORIF of Rib Fractures: A Report of 2 Cases.
  • Cooper IF et al: 'Steroids' associated with 'Chest Flailed': Top Publications.
  • Callaghan MA et al: Flail chest from blunt thoracic trauma.
  • Lee SA et al: Flail chest stabilization with Nuss operation in presence of multiple myeloma.
  • Alexander P: Images in clinical medicine. Flail chest.
  • Athanassiadi K et al: Prognostic factors in flail-chest patients.
  • Vana PG et al: Contemporary management of flail chest.
  • Bhatnagar A et al: Rib fracture fixation for flail chest: what is the benefit?.
  • Ke S et al: Thoracoscopy-assisted minimally invasive surgical stabilization of the anterolateral flail chest using Nuss bars.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2014 Siadaty and Cooper; licensee BioMedLib LLC.
  • (UID = 707057885.001).
  • [ISSN] 2331-5717
  • [Journal-full-title] BioMedLib Review
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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45. |......... 9%  Cooper IF, Siadaty MS: 'Medical Devices' associated with 'Chest Flailed': Top Publications. BioMedLib Review; MedicalDevice;ChestFlailed:706759676. ISSN: 2331-5717. 2014/7/31
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  • [Title] 'Medical Devices' associated with 'Chest Flailed': Top Publications.
  • [Transliterated title]
  • Background: There are articles published each month which present 'Medical Device' for 'chest flailed'.
  • Finding such articles is important for researchers, clinicians, and patients.
  • However these articles are spread across thousands of journals, and there are many types of 'Medical Device'.
  • This makes searching and locating the relevant publications a challenge.
  • We have used BioMedLib's semantic search technology to address the issue, and gathered all the pertinent publications in this review article.
  • Methods: We categorized the publications we found into two groups.
  • We used the strength of textual-association to separate the groups.
  • In group one there are publications with the strongest evidence of association. We focused finding the most relevant publications pertinent to our goal, rather than combining them into a conclusion section. Such textual synthesis will be the focus of our next project.
  • Results: Group one includes 16 publications, and group two 485 publications.
  • Here are the top 9.
  • Menard A et al: Treatment of flail chest with Judet's struts.
  • Borrelly J et al: [Surgical treatment of flail chest by sliding staples].
  • Albrecht F et al: [The fixation of the flail chest with tension band wires (author's transl)].
  • Eastridge CE et al: The flail chest: its management with the Mueller-Mörch piston respirator.
  • Ramponi F et al: Operative management of flail chest with anatomical locking plates (MatrixRib).
  • Reber PU et al: Reconstruction plates for internal fixation of flail chest.
  • Dunlop RL et al: Novel use of hand fracture fixation plates in the surgical stabilisation of flail chest.
  • Keohane M et al: Differential lung physiotherapy using a double lumen tube in flail chest and refractory lung atelectasis.
  • Oyarzun JR et al: Use of 3.5-mm acetabular reconstruction plates for internal fixation of flail chest injuries.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2014 Siadaty and Cooper; licensee BioMedLib LLC.
  • (UID = 706759676.001).
  • [ISSN] 2331-5717
  • [Journal-full-title] BioMedLib Review
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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46. |......... 9%  Cooper IF, Siadaty MS: 'Quantitative Concepts' associated with 'Chest Flailed': Top Publications. BioMedLib Review; QuantitativeConcept;ChestFlailed:706789846. ISSN: 2331-5717. 2014/10/31
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  • [Title] 'Quantitative Concepts' associated with 'Chest Flailed': Top Publications.
  • [Transliterated title]
  • Background: There are articles published each month which present 'Quantitative Concept' for 'chest flailed'.
  • Finding such articles is important for researchers, clinicians, and patients.
  • However these articles are spread across thousands of journals, and there are many types of 'Quantitative Concept'.
  • This makes searching and locating the relevant publications a challenge.
  • We have used BioMedLib's semantic search technology to address the issue, and gathered all the pertinent publications in this review article.
  • Methods: We categorized the publications we found into two groups.
  • We used the strength of textual-association to separate the groups.
  • In group one there are publications with the strongest evidence of association. We focused finding the most relevant publications pertinent to our goal, rather than combining them into a conclusion section. Such textual synthesis will be the focus of our next project.
  • Results: Group one includes 16 publications, and group two 579 publications.
  • Here are the top 9.
  • Olujohungbe A et al: Spontaneous flail chest in multiple myeloma.
  • Lee SA et al: Flail chest stabilization with Nuss operation in presence of multiple myeloma.
  • Abisheganaden J et al: Use of bilevel positive airway pressure ventilatory support for pathological flail chest complicating multiple myeloma.
  • Iwasaki Y et al: [Surgical stabilization of multiple rib fracture and flail chest].
  • Ivancić A et al: Initial experience with external thoracic stabilization by the "figure of eight" osteosynthesis in polytraumatized patients with flail chest injury.
  • Fleegler B et al: Pathologic flail chest complicating multiple myeloma.
  • Athanassiadi K et al: Management of 150 flail chest injuries: analysis of risk factors affecting outcome.
  • Mansouri A: Flail chest and multiple myeloma.
  • Perry JF Jr: Flail chest and multiple injuries.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2014 Siadaty and Cooper; licensee BioMedLib LLC.
  • (UID = 706789846.001).
  • [ISSN] 2331-5717
  • [Journal-full-title] BioMedLib Review
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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47. |......... 9%  Cooper IF, Siadaty MS: 'Injuries or Poisonings' associated with 'Chest Flailed': Top Publications. BioMedLib Review; InjuryOrPoisoning;ChestFlailed:707358480. ISSN: 2331-5717. 2014/7/9
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  • [Title] 'Injuries or Poisonings' associated with 'Chest Flailed': Top Publications.
  • [Transliterated title]
  • Background: There are articles published each month which present 'Injury or Poisoning' for 'chest flailed'.
  • Finding such articles is important for researchers, clinicians, and patients.
  • However these articles are spread across thousands of journals, and there are many types of 'Injury or Poisoning'.
  • This makes searching and locating the relevant publications a challenge.
  • We have used BioMedLib's semantic search technology to address the issue, and gathered all the pertinent publications in this review article.
  • Methods: We categorized the publications we found into two groups.
  • We used the strength of textual-association to separate the groups.
  • In group one there are publications with the strongest evidence of association. We focused finding the most relevant publications pertinent to our goal, rather than combining them into a conclusion section. Such textual synthesis will be the focus of our next project.
  • Results: Group one includes 25 publications, and group two 266 publications.
  • Here are the top 10.
  • Zegg M et al: Multidisciplinary Approach to Lifesaving Measures in the Elderly Individuals With Flail Chest Injury With ORIF of Rib Fractures: A Report of 2 Cases.
  • Hountis P et al: Bilateral pulmonary contusion, flail chest and respiratory failure on late iatrogenic diaphragmatic eventration and severe kyphoskoliosis: a case report.
  • Bastos R et al: Flail chest and pulmonary contusion.
  • Marasco S et al: Pilot study of operative fixation of fractured ribs in patients with flail chest.
  • Balci AE et al: [Flail chest due to blunt trauma: clinical features and factors affecting prognosis].
  • Simon B et al: Management of pulmonary contusion and flail chest: an Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma practice management guideline.
  • Bottlang M et al: Surgical stabilization of flail chest injuries with MatrixRIB implants: a prospective observational study.
  • Tanaka H et al: Pneumatic stabilization for flail chest injury: an 11-year study.
  • Bhatnagar A et al: Rib fracture fixation for flail chest: what is the benefit?.
  • Iwasaki Y et al: [Surgical stabilization of multiple rib fracture and flail chest].

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2014 Siadaty and Cooper; licensee BioMedLib LLC.
  • (UID = 707358480.001).
  • [ISSN] 2331-5717
  • [Journal-full-title] BioMedLib Review
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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48. |......... 9%  Cooper IF, Siadaty MS: 'Steroids' associated with 'Chest Flailed': Top Publications. BioMedLib Review; Steroid;ChestFlailed:705542800. ISSN: 2331-5717. 2014/6/8
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  • [Title] 'Steroids' associated with 'Chest Flailed': Top Publications.
  • [Transliterated title]
  • Background: There are articles published each month which present 'Steroid' for 'chest flailed'.
  • Finding such articles is important for researchers, clinicians, and patients.
  • However these articles are spread across thousands of journals, and there are many types of 'Steroid'.
  • This makes searching and locating the relevant publications a challenge.
  • We have used BioMedLib's semantic search technology to address the issue, and gathered all the pertinent publications in this review article.
  • Methods: We categorized the publications we found into two groups.
  • We used the strength of textual-association to separate the groups.
  • In group one there are publications with the strongest evidence of association. We focused finding the most relevant publications pertinent to our goal, rather than combining them into a conclusion section. Such textual synthesis will be the focus of our next project.
  • Results: Group one includes 25 publications, and group two 380 publications.
  • Here are the top 10.
  • Davignon K et al: Pathophysiology and management of the flail chest.
  • Granetzny A et al: Surgical versus conservative treatment of flail chest. Evaluation of the pulmonary status.
  • Zegg M et al: Multidisciplinary Approach to Lifesaving Measures in the Elderly Individuals With Flail Chest Injury With ORIF of Rib Fractures: A Report of 2 Cases.
  • Mangete ED et al: Modern concepts in the management of flail chest.
  • Karev DV: Operative management of the flail chest.
  • Cappello M et al: Actions of the inspiratory intercostal muscles in flail chest.
  • Kakegawa S et al: [Surgical fixation of the ribs for flail chest injuries].
  • Ivancić A et al: Initial experience with external thoracic stabilization by the "figure of eight" osteosynthesis in polytraumatized patients with flail chest injury.
  • Bhatnagar A et al: Rib fracture fixation for flail chest: what is the benefit?.
  • Simon B et al: Management of pulmonary contusion and flail chest: an Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma practice management guideline.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2014 Siadaty and Cooper; licensee BioMedLib LLC.
  • (UID = 705542800.001).
  • [ISSN] 2331-5717
  • [Journal-full-title] BioMedLib Review
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  •  go-up   go-down


49. |......... 9%  Cooper IF, Siadaty MS: 'Hormones' associated with 'Chest Flailed': Top Publications. BioMedLib Review; Hormone;ChestFlailed:705151005. ISSN: 2331-5717. 2014/7/8
PDF icon [Fulltext service] Download fulltext PDF of this article.

  • [Title] 'Hormones' associated with 'Chest Flailed': Top Publications.
  • [Transliterated title]
  • Background: There are articles published each month which present 'Hormone' for 'chest flailed'.
  • Finding such articles is important for researchers, clinicians, and patients.
  • However these articles are spread across thousands of journals, and there are many types of 'Hormone'.
  • This makes searching and locating the relevant publications a challenge.
  • We have used BioMedLib's semantic search technology to address the issue, and gathered all the pertinent publications in this review article.
  • Methods: We categorized the publications we found into two groups.
  • We used the strength of textual-association to separate the groups.
  • In group one there are publications with the strongest evidence of association. We focused finding the most relevant publications pertinent to our goal, rather than combining them into a conclusion section. Such textual synthesis will be the focus of our next project.
  • Results: Group one includes 25 publications, and group two 381 publications.
  • Here are the top 10.
  • Davignon K et al: Pathophysiology and management of the flail chest.
  • Granetzny A et al: Surgical versus conservative treatment of flail chest. Evaluation of the pulmonary status.
  • Zegg M et al: Multidisciplinary Approach to Lifesaving Measures in the Elderly Individuals With Flail Chest Injury With ORIF of Rib Fractures: A Report of 2 Cases.
  • Mangete ED et al: Modern concepts in the management of flail chest.
  • Karev DV: Operative management of the flail chest.
  • Cappello M et al: Actions of the inspiratory intercostal muscles in flail chest.
  • Kakegawa S et al: [Surgical fixation of the ribs for flail chest injuries].
  • Ivancić A et al: Initial experience with external thoracic stabilization by the "figure of eight" osteosynthesis in polytraumatized patients with flail chest injury.
  • Bhatnagar A et al: Rib fracture fixation for flail chest: what is the benefit?.
  • Simon B et al: Management of pulmonary contusion and flail chest: an Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma practice management guideline.

  • [Email] Email this result item
    Email the results to the following email address:   [X] Close
  • [Copyright] Copyright 2014 Siadaty and Cooper; licensee BioMedLib LLC.
  • (UID = 705151005.001).
  • [ISSN] 2331-5717
  • [Journal-full-title] BioMedLib Review
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  •  go-up   go-down


50. |......... 8%  Cooper IF, Siadaty MS: 'Diseases or Syndromes' associated with 'Flail': Top Publications. BioMedLib Review; DiseaseOrSyndrome;Flail:705258535. ISSN: 2331-5717. 2014/5/4
PDF icon [Fulltext service] Download fulltext PDF of this article.

  • [Title] 'Diseases or Syndromes' associated with 'Flail': Top Publications.
  • [Transliterated title]
  • Background: There are articles published each month which present 'Disease or Syndrome' for 'flail'.
  • Finding such articles is important for researchers, clinicians, and patients.
  • However these articles are spread across thousands of journals, and there are many types of 'Disease or Syndrome'.
  • This makes searching and locating the relevant publications a challenge.
  • We have used BioMedLib's semantic search technology to address the issue, and gathered all the pertinent publications in this review article.
  • Methods: We categorized the publications we found into two groups.
  • We used the strength of textual-association to separate the groups.
  • In group one there are publications with the strongest evidence of association. We focused finding the most relevant publications pertinent to our goal, rather than combining them into a conclusion section. Such textual synthesis will be the focus of our next project.
  • Results: Group one includes 33 publications, and group two 180 publications.
  • Here are the top 10.
  • Winge R et al: VAC® for external fixation of flail chest.
  • Cooper IF et al: 'Steroids' associated with 'Chest Flailed': Top Publications.
  • Zegg M et al: Multidisciplinary Approach to Lifesaving Measures in the Elderly Individuals With Flail Chest Injury With ORIF of Rib Fractures: A Report of 2 Cases.
  • Guerrero WR et al: Encephalopathy, hypoglycemia, and flailing extremities: a case of bilateral chorea-ballism associated with diabetic ketoacidosis.
  • Lee SA et al: Flail chest stabilization with Nuss operation in presence of multiple myeloma.
  • Vana PG et al: Contemporary management of flail chest.
  • Cannon RM et al: Flail chest injury: are we making any progress?.
  • Bhatnagar A et al: Rib fracture fixation for flail chest: what is the benefit?.
  • Ke S et al: Thoracoscopy-assisted minimally invasive surgical stabilization of the anterolateral flail chest using Nuss bars.
  • Doben AR et al: Surgical rib fixation for flail chest deformity improves liberation from mechanical ventilation.

  • [Email] Email this result item
    Email the results to the following email address:   [X] Close
  • [Copyright] Copyright 2014 Siadaty and Cooper; licensee BioMedLib LLC.
  • (UID = 705258535.001).
  • [ISSN] 2331-5717
  • [Journal-full-title] BioMedLib Review
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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