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1. Biomedical articles (top 50; 2009 to 2014)
1. |||||||||. 100%  George TI: Malignant or benign leukocytosis. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program; 2012;2012:475-84
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant or benign leukocytosis.
  • Leukocytosis, or elevated WBC count, is a commonly encountered laboratory finding.
  • Distinguishing malignant from benign leukocytosis is a critical step in the care of a patient, which initiates a vastly different decision tree.
  • Confirmation of the complete blood cell count and the WBC differential is the first step.
  • Examination of the PB smear is essential to confirming the automated blood cell differential or affirming the manual differential performed on the PB smear.
  • Next is separation of the leukocytosis into a myeloid versus a lymphoid process.
  • Distinguishing a reactive lymphoid proliferation from a lymphoproliferative disorder requires examination of lymphocyte morphology for pleomorphic lymphocytes versus a monomorphic population, with the latter favoring a lymphoproliferative neoplasm.
  • Myeloid leukocytosis triggers a differential diagnosis of myeloid leukemoid reactions versus myeloid malignancies.
  • Myeloid leukemoid reactions commonly result from infections and show activated neutrophil changes on morphology; these should prompt evaluation for infection.
  • Other causes of reactive myeloid leukocytoses are also discussed herein.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Count / methods. Hematology / methods. Leukocytosis / diagnosis. Leukocytosis / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Automation. Bone Marrow Cells / cytology. Cell Proliferation. Cell Separation. Diagnosis, Differential. Flow Cytometry / methods. Humans. Leukemia, Myeloid / therapy. Leukemoid Reaction. Leukocyte Count. Leukocytes / cytology. Lymphocytes / cytology. Lymphoproliferative Disorders / blood. Lymphoproliferative Disorders / therapy. Myeloproliferative Disorders / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 23233622.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-4383
  • [Journal-full-title] Hematology / the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology. American Society of Hematology. Education Program
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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2. ||||||.... 64%  Furer V, Raveh D, Picard E, Goldberg S, Izbicki G: Absence of leukocytosis in bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia. Prim Care Respir J; 2011 Sep;20(3):276-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Absence of leukocytosis in bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia.
  • BACKGROUND: Evaluation of patients with respiratory symptoms in primary care medicine is often based on peripheral WBC count that dictates the extent of diagnostic investigation.
  • A normal WBC count may result in a limited investigation, often omitting chest radiography.
  • AIMS: To determine the extent to which patients hospitalised with bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia have no leukocytosis at presentation.
  • RESULTS: 21% of the patients presented with a normal WBC count (16.7% of the children and 25.6% of the adults).
  • Among this population with a normal WBC count at presentation, 90% of the adults and 70% of the children developed leukocytosis within a few days after admission.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this study, in as many as one-fifth of all the patients with bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia, there was no leukocytosis at presentation.
  • We therefore suggest that every patient with clinically suspected pneumonia should undergo chest radiography even if the WBC count is normal.
  • [MeSH-major] Bacteremia / blood. Bacteremia / diagnosis. Pneumonia, Pneumococcal / blood. Pneumonia, Pneumococcal / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Community-Acquired Infections / blood. Community-Acquired Infections / complications. Female. Humans. Infant. Leukocytosis / complications. Leukocytosis / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21509416.001).
  • [ISSN] 1475-1534
  • [Journal-full-title] Primary care respiratory journal : journal of the General Practice Airways Group
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prim Care Respir J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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3. |||||..... 53%  Asadollahi K, Hastings IM, Beeching NJ, Gill GV, Asadollahi P: Leukocytosis as an alarming sign for mortality in patients hospitalized in general wards. Iran J Med Sci; 2011 Mar;36(1):45-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Leukocytosis as an alarming sign for mortality in patients hospitalized in general wards.
  • There is some evidence that leukocytosis without infection is associated with increased hospital mortality, but data in this regard are very incomplete.
  • This study was designed to investigate the relationship between leukocytosis at the time of admission and mortality among patients hospitalized in general wards.
  • During July to Nov 2004, all deceased patients who had a white blood cell (WBC) count record for the first 24 hours of admission were selected as cases.
  • Among survivors, twice the number of cases was selected as controls.
  • Different levels of WBC counts were compared between cases and controls.
  • The median WBC for deceased and surviving patients was 9.4 and 11.4×10(9)/l, respectively.
  • Patients with a WBC >10×10(9)/l accounted for 804, among which 335 (42%) were deceased.
  • Leukocytosis and leukopoenia were more frequent among the deceased patients compared to the survivors.
  • The likelihood ratio for leukocytosis and leukopenia among the cases and controls was 1.4 and 2.3, respectively.
  • Leukocytosis was identified as an alarming sign for mortality among patients admitted to general hospital wards at early stages of admission.
  • A quick medical intervention for amendment of the causes related to leukocytosis should consequently reduce hospital mortality.

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  • (PMID = 23365478.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-0716
  • [Journal-full-title] Iranian journal of medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Iran J Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Iran
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3559113
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; General hospital / hospital mortality / inpatient / leukocytosis
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4. |||||..... 53%  Connolly GC, Khorana AA, Kuderer NM, Culakova E, Francis CW, Lyman GH: Leukocytosis, thrombosis and early mortality in cancer patients initiating chemotherapy. Thromb Res; 2010 Aug;126(2):113-8
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  • [Title] Leukocytosis, thrombosis and early mortality in cancer patients initiating chemotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: Leukocytosis has been associated with thrombosis and mortality in cancer patients.
  • We explored the association of leukocytosis with venous thromboembolism (VTE) and early mortality in cancer patients initiating chemotherapy.
  • The association of leukocytosis, VTE and mortality during the course of chemotherapy was evaluated in univariate and multivariate analysis.
  • Of 4391 patients with available baseline white blood cell (WBC) count, 561 (12.8%) had elevated pretreatment leukocyte counts, defined as WBC > 11 x 10(9) cells/L.
  • VTE occurred in 25 of 561 patients (4.5%) with baseline leukocytosis compared to 68 of 3830 (1.8%) with WBC <or= 11 x 10(9) cells/L (P < 0.0001).
  • Baseline leukocytosis was associated with VTE by multivariate analysis as well (HR 2.1, 95% confidence interval 1.3-3.4, p = 0.003).
  • Forty one patients (7.3%) with leukocytosis died compared to 92 (2.4%) with WBC <or= 11 x 10(9) cells/L (P < 0.0001).
  • Baseline leukocytosis was associated with early mortality by multivariate analysis as well (HR 2.2, 95% confidence interval 1.5-3.3, p < 0.0001).
  • Mortality was greatest in patients with both leukocytosis and VTE.
  • In multivariate analysis several factors were predictive of leukocytosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Elevated WBC, particularly neutrophils, is strongly associated with increased risk of VTE and mortality in cancer patients receiving systemic chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukocytosis / complications. Neoplasms / complications. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Venous Thromboembolism / complications

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 20684071.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-2472
  • [Journal-full-title] Thrombosis research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thromb. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / 1R01HL095109-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K23 CA120587-01; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL095109; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / UC2 CA148041
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS453607; NLM/ PMC3635827
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5. |||||..... 52%  Ohsawa I, Nagamachi S, Suzuki H, Honda D, Sato N, Ohi H, Horikoshi S, Tomino Y: Leukocytosis and high hematocrit levels during abdominal attacks of hereditary angioedema. BMC Gastroenterol; 2013;13:123
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  • [Title] Leukocytosis and high hematocrit levels during abdominal attacks of hereditary angioedema.
  • BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of hereditary angioedema (HAE) is often delayed due to the low awareness of this condition.
  • The correct diagnosis of HAE was made 22.7 ± 14.2 years after the initial symptoms.
  • In the patients with severe abdominal pain, significant leukocytosis with neutrophilia along with increased levels of hematocrit were observed while levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) remained low.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Consideration of the likelihood of a HAE attack is important when patients present with acute abdominal pain and leukocytosis without elevation of CRP.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Pain / etiology. Angioedemas, Hereditary / blood. Angioedemas, Hereditary / diagnosis. Delayed Diagnosis. Leukocytosis / etiology

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  • (PMID = 23915279.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-230X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
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  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3735392
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6. |||||..... 52%  Richards JR, Farias VF, Clingan CS: Association of leukocytosis with amphetamine and cocaine use. ScientificWorldJournal; 2014;2014:207651
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  • [Title] Association of leukocytosis with amphetamine and cocaine use.
  • Objective. Determining the etiology of unexplained leukocytosis in asymptomatic patients may incur unnecessary testing, cost, and prolonged emergency department stay.
  • Results. With a total of 1,206 patients, 877 (72.7%) amphetamines/cocaine-negative drug screen controls had mean WBC 8.4 ± 2.6 × 10(3)/µL.
  • The 240 (19.9%) amphetamines-positive, cocaine-negative, patients had WBC 9.4 ± 3.3 × 10(3)/µL (P < 0.0001).
  • The 72 (6.0%) amphetamines-negative, cocaine-positive, patients had WBC 7.1 ± 1.8 × 10(3)/µL (P < 0.0001).
  • The remaining 17 (1.4%) amphetamines/cocaine-positive patients had WBC 10.0 ± 4.2 × 10(3)/µL (P = 0.01).
  • Amphetamines-positive patients had a supranormal WBC ratio significantly higher than controls (23.8% versus 14.8%, P = 0.001), whereas only one cocaine-positive patient had a supranormal WBC count, with significantly lower ratio (1.4%, P = 0.0003).
  • Conclusion. Use of amphetamines, not cocaine, may be associated with idiopathic leukocytosis.

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  • (PMID = 24578625.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-744X
  • [Journal-full-title] TheScientificWorldJournal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ScientificWorldJournal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3919105
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7. |||||..... 52%  Hoekstra M, Frodermann V, van den Aardweg T, van der Sluis RJ, Kuiper J: Leukocytosis and enhanced susceptibility to endotoxemia but not atherosclerosis in adrenalectomized APOE knockout mice. PLoS One; 2013;8(11):e80441
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  • [Title] Leukocytosis and enhanced susceptibility to endotoxemia but not atherosclerosis in adrenalectomized APOE knockout mice.
  • ADX mice exhibited 91% decreased corticosterone levels (P<0.001), leukocytosis (WBC count: 10.0 ± 0.4 x 10E9/L vs 6.5 ± 0.5 x 10E9/L; P<0.001) and an increased spleen weight (P<0.01).
  • FACS analysis on blood leukocytes revealed increased B-lymphocyte numbers (55 ± 2% vs 46 ± 1%; P<0.01).
  • T-cell populations in blood appeared to be more immature (CD62L+: 26 ± 2% vs 19 ± 1% for CD4+ T-cells, P<0.001 and 58 ± 7% vs 47 ± 4% for CD8+ T-cells, P<0.05), which coincided with immature CD4/CD8 double positive thymocyte enrichment.
  • This could be attributed to a decrease in pro-atherogenic very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) as a result of a diminished hepatic VLDL secretion rate (-24%; P<0.05).
  • In conclusion, our studies show that adrenalectomy induces leukocytosis and enhances the susceptibility for endotoxemia in APOE knockout mice.
  • The adrenalectomy-associated rise in white blood cells, however, does not alter atherosclerotic lesion development probably due to the parallel decrease in plasma levels of pro-atherogenic lipoproteins.

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  • (PMID = 24265824.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3827228
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8. |||||||||. 101%  Fonda P, de Santiago E, Guijarro M, Gamallo C: Mediastinal myelolipoma with leukocytosis. BMJ Case Rep; 2013;2013
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  • [Title] Mediastinal myelolipoma with leukocytosis.
  • We report the case of a 64-year-old woman who presented a heterogeneous 1.4×2.5×3 cm paravertebral thoracic mass detected by chest tomography during the study of a leukocytosis of unknown aetiology.
  • The CT findings and pathology revealed the diagnosis of myelolipoma.

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  • (PMID = 23813520.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-790X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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9. ||||||||.. 79%  Worley MJ Jr, Nitschmann CC, Shoni M, Vitonis AF, Rauh-Hain JA, Feltmate CM: The significance of preoperative leukocytosis in endometrial carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol; 2012 Jun;125(3):561-5
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  • [Title] The significance of preoperative leukocytosis in endometrial carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of preoperative leukocytosis among patients with endometrial carcinoma.
  • Patients were separated into two groups based on the presence or absence of preoperative leukocytosis (WBC ≥ 10,000 cells per μl).
  • RESULTS: 1144 patients were identified, 156 (13.6%) with preoperative leukocytosis and 988 (86.4%) without leukocytosis.
  • The leukocytosis group had a greater percentage of patients with stage 3 (15.4% vs. 9.8%, crude p=0.02) and 4 (7.1% vs. 3.0%, crude p=0.007) disease.
  • Leukocytosis was associated with a greater mean tumor size (4.4 vs. 3.4 cm, p=0.0002) and a greater percentage of patients with cervical stromal involvement (14.8% vs. 8.7%, crude p=0.02), adnexal involvement (14.1% vs. 7.5%, crude p=0.007) and lymphvascular space invasion (24% vs. 16.3%, crude p=0.02).
  • On multivariate analysis, mean tumor size (OR, 95% CI; 1.10, 1.02-1.18) remained significantly associated with preoperative leukocytosis.
  • However, leukocytosis was independently associated with an increased risk of death (HR, 95% CI; 1.69, 1.07-2.68).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative leukocytosis, among endometrial cancer patients, was independently associated with increasing tumor size and independently imposed an increased risk of death.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / blood. Endometrial Neoplasms / surgery. Leukocytosis / complications

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 22465698.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. ||||||||.. 77%  Kuznik BI, Morozova IIu, Rodnina OS, Strambovskaia NN, Shirshov IuA: [Leukocytosis and outcomes of acute stroke]. Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova; 2010;110(3):10-4
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  • [Title] [Leukocytosis and outcomes of acute stroke].
  • We carried out the retrospective analysis of 300 disease histories of patients with stroke hospitalized in the first 24 h of the disease.
  • The presence of leukocytosis and its severity were evaluated as predictors of outcome.
  • The level of leukocyte-erythrocyte aggregations in the blood film was determined in some patients.
  • The analysis revealed that the higher was leukocytosis, the more severe was the course of stroke and the higher was frequency of fatal outcomes.
  • Patients with stroke more often had neutrophilic leukocytosis than monocytosis, the former was the predictor of worse prognosis.
  • The most unfavorable prognosis was observed in patients with hemorrhagic stroke and leukocytosis.
  • The higher was the number of leukocytes, the higher was the probability of fatal outcome in the first month of stroke.
  • The level of leukocyte-erythrocyte aggregations dramatically increased in the blood of stroke patients that promoted the disturbance of microcirculation and worsened significantly the disease prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukocytosis / blood. Leukocytosis / etiology. Stroke / blood. Stroke / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Leukocyte Count. Male. Monocytes. Neutrophils. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 20517219.001).
  • [ISSN] 1997-7298
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhurnal nevrologii i psikhiatrii imeni S.S. Korsakova / Ministerstvo zdravookhraneniia i meditsinskoĭ promyshlennosti Rossiĭskoĭ Federatsii, Vserossiĭskoe obshchestvo nevrologov [i] Vserossiĭskoe obshchestvo psikhiatrov
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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11. |||||..... 51%  Barbui T, Carobbio A, Rambaldi A, Finazzi G: Perspectives on thrombosis in essential thrombocythemia and polycythemia vera: is leukocytosis a causative factor? Blood; 2009 Jul 23;114(4):759-63
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  • [Title] Perspectives on thrombosis in essential thrombocythemia and polycythemia vera: is leukocytosis a causative factor?
  • Leukocyte (WBC) count has been recently identified as an independent predictor of major thrombosis in both essential thrombocythemia (ET) and polycythemia vera (PV).
  • However, whether leukocytosis should be simply considered a marker for vascular disease or whether elevated WBC levels actually contribute directly to causing such disorders is presently matter of many studies.
  • Our conclusion supports the notion that baseline leukocytosis in ET and PV patients adds prognostic significance to existing risk factors and that may be considered causative of vascular events.
  • These developments could induce clinicians to incorporate WBC count into standard clinical practice.
  • However, we need prospective clinical studies with stratification of patients according to their baseline leukocyte counts.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukocytosis / complications. Polycythemia Vera / complications. Thrombocythemia, Essential / complications. Thrombosis / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cohort Studies. Disease Susceptibility. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Leukocyte Count. Middle Aged. Platelet Count. Risk Factors. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19372254.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-0020
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2716019
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12. |||||..... 51%  Jia J, Ren J, Gu J, Di L, Song G: Predominant sarcomatoid carcinoma of the lung concurrent with jejunal metastasis and leukocytosis. Rare Tumors; 2010;2(3):e44
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  • [Title] Predominant sarcomatoid carcinoma of the lung concurrent with jejunal metastasis and leukocytosis.
  • Sarcomatoid carcinoma is an extremely rare biphasic tumor characterized by a combination of malignant epithelial and mesenchymal cells.
  • Limited data on sarcomatoid carcinoma showed that most cases occurred with advanced local disease and metastasis, and paraneoplastic syndromes were rare.
  • We present the case of a 63-year-old man with lung sarcomatoid carcinoma associated with jejunum metastasis and leukocytosis, and its clinical, macroscopic, and histopathological features.
  • This case emphasizes the importance of recognizing paraneoplastic syndromes and metastasis of sarcomatoid carcinoma at diagnosis.

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  • (PMID = 21139960.001).
  • [ISSN] 2036-3613
  • [Journal-full-title] Rare tumors
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rare Tumors
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2994519
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; leukocytosis / lung cancer / sarcomatoid carcinoma
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13. |||||..... 51%  Sand KL, Flatebo T, Andersen MB, Maghazachi AA: Effects of exercise on leukocytosis and blood hemostasis in 800 healthy young females and males. World J Exp Med; 2013 Feb 20;3(1):11-20
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  • [Title] Effects of exercise on leukocytosis and blood hemostasis in 800 healthy young females and males.
  • Blood samples were collected before and after exercise.
  • RESULTS: We observed that in the first group a significant increase of the total white blood cells, segmented neutrophils, band neutrophils, eosinophils and to a lesser extent lymphocytes but not monocytes in the blood circulation.
  • However, all cell types were increased in the circulation after 5 min intense exercise.
  • No differences in the pattern of cell increase were observed among the genders.
  • Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and D-dimer were also measured in the blood of individuals who cycled intensely for 5 min to determine the coagulation and fibrinolytic activities in the blood.
  • APTT is reduced and D-dimer values significantly increased after intense exercise.
  • CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that exercise whether leisure or strenuous affects leukocytosis and hemostasis in both genders.
  • A major advantage of this study is the high numbers of individuals involved and the inclusion of both females and males values.

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  • (PMID = 24520541.001).
  • [ISSN] 2220-315X
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of experimental medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Exp Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3905589
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Activated partial thromboplastin time / D-dimer / Exercise / Leukocytosis
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14. |||||..... 51%  Heffernan DS, Monaghan SF, Thakkar RK, Machan JT, Cioffi WG, Ayala A: Failure to normalize lymphopenia following trauma is associated with increased mortality, independent of the leukocytosis pattern. Crit Care; 2012;16(1):R12
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  • [Title] Failure to normalize lymphopenia following trauma is associated with increased mortality, independent of the leukocytosis pattern.
  • INTRODUCTION: Following trauma and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), the typical response is an elevation of the total complete blood count (CBC) and a reduction of the lymphocyte count.
  • This leukocytosis typically returns to normal within 48 hours.
  • The persistence of a leukocytosis following trauma is associated with adverse outcomes.
  • Although lymphocyte anergy and dysfunction following trauma is associated with increased risk for infection and sepsis, there is a paucity of data regarding the impact of a persistence of a low lymphocyte count in trauma patients.
  • Leukocyte, neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were extracted from the daily complete blood count (CBC).
  • Patients were then grouped based on response (elevation/depression) of each component of the CBC, and their return, or failure thereof, to normal.
  • When adjusting for age, gender and ISS the relative risk of death was elevated with a persistent leukocytosis (2.501 (95% CI=1.477-4.235)) or failure to normalize lymphopenia (1.639 (95% CI=10.17-2.643)) within the first 4 days following admission.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukocytosis / mortality. Leukocytosis / therapy. Lymphopenia / mortality. Lymphopenia / therapy. Trauma Centers

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  • (PMID = 22264310.001).
  • [ISSN] 1466-609X
  • [Journal-full-title] Critical care (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Crit Care
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3396248
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15. |||||..... 50%  Canzoneri BJ, Lewis DF, Groome L, Wang Y: Increased neutrophil numbers account for leukocytosis in women with preeclampsia. Am J Perinatol; 2009 Nov;26(10):729-32
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  • [Title] Increased neutrophil numbers account for leukocytosis in women with preeclampsia.
  • We evaluated the leukocyte differentials in women with normal pregnancies and in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia (PE).
  • Leukocyte total and neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil, basophil, hemoglobin, and platelet counts were analyzed by analysis of variance and pairwise comparison.
  • The total leukocyte count was significantly increased in women with severe PE compared with women with mild PE and normal pregnant controls: 10.66 +/- 3.70 ( P < 0.0001) versus 9.47 +/- 2.59 and 8.55 +/- 1.93 (1 x 10 (3)/microL), respectively.
  • The increased total leukocyte count was mainly due to the increase in neutrophil numbers: 8.05 +/- 4.01 (severe; P < 0.0001) versus 6.69 +/- 2.23 (mild) and 5.90 +/- 1.79 (controls), respectively.
  • The total neutrophil count was further increased 48 hours after delivery in the group with severe PE.
  • Increased neutrophil numbers account for the leukocytosis in women with PE.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukocytosis / blood. Leukocytosis / epidemiology. Neutrophils / metabolism. Pre-Eclampsia / blood. Pre-Eclampsia / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Causality. Comorbidity. Erythrocyte Count. Female. Humans. Louisiana. Lymphocyte Count. Platelet Count. Pregnancy. Reference Values. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Severity of Illness Index

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  • [Copyright] (c) Thieme Medical Publishers.
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  • (PMID = 19452432.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-8785
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of perinatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Perinatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD036822-08; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL065997-08
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS266056; NLM/ PMC3062252
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16. ||||||||.. 76%  Grant R, Youm YH, Ravussin A, Dixit VD: Quantification of adipose tissue leukocytosis in obesity. Methods Mol Biol; 2013;1040:195-209
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  • [Title] Quantification of adipose tissue leukocytosis in obesity.
  • The infiltration of immune cell subsets in adipose tissue termed "adipose tissue leukocytosis" is a critical event in the development of chronic inflammation and obesity-associated comorbidities.
  • Given that a significant proportion of cells in adipose tissue of obese patients are of hematopoietic lineage, the distinct adipose depots represent an uncharacterized immunological organ that can impact metabolic functions.
  • Here, we describe approaches to characterize and isolate leukocytes from the complex adipose tissue microenvironment, to aid mechanistic studies to better understand the role of specific pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as inflammasomes in adipose-immune cross talk.
  • [MeSH-major] Adipose Tissue / pathology. Leukocytosis / diagnosis. Obesity / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Intra-Abdominal Fat / pathology. Leukocytes / cytology. Leukocytes / metabolism. Mice

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  • (PMID = 23852606.001).
  • [ISSN] 1940-6029
  • [Journal-full-title] Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Methods Mol. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / 8P20 GM103528; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG31797; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK090556; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK072476; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R01 AG031797; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK090556; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / T32DK064584-10S1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. |||||||... 67%  Sopko MA, Caley CF: Chronic leukocytosis associated with clozapine treatment. Clin Schizophr Relat Psychoses; 2010 Jul;4(2):141-4
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  • [Title] Chronic leukocytosis associated with clozapine treatment.
  • Unfortunately, clozapine is also associated with a number of adverse effects, with agranulocytosis being one of the chief concerns.
  • Interestingly, patients who receive clozapine treatment may occasionally experience elevations in their total white blood cell count (WBC).
  • In some of these patients, the leukocytosis may be persistent.
  • We report the case of a patient with refractory schizophrenia who is treated with clozapine and who experienced chronic leukocytosis.
  • A brief review of the literature addressing clozapine-associated leukocytosis follows the case report.
  • [MeSH-major] Antipsychotic Agents / adverse effects. Clozapine / adverse effects. Leukocytosis / chemically induced. Schizophrenia, Paranoid / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chronic Disease. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Therapy, Combination. Humans. Leukocyte Count. Male

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  • (PMID = 20643637.001).
  • [ISSN] 1935-1232
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical schizophrenia & related psychoses
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Schizophr Relat Psychoses
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antipsychotic Agents; J60AR2IKIC / Clozapine
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18. |||||||... 66%  Cerny J, Rosmarin AG: Why does my patient have leukocytosis? Hematol Oncol Clin North Am; 2012 Apr;26(2):303-19, viii
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  • [Title] Why does my patient have leukocytosis?
  • Leukocytosis is one of the most common laboratory abnormalities in medicine, and one of the most frequent reasons for hematologic consultation.
  • Effective evaluation of leukocytosis requires an attentive history, careful physical examination, meticulous review of the complete blood count and peripheral blood smear, judicious application of laboratory and radiologic testing, and thoughtful analysis.
  • Definitive diagnosis may require bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, imaging studies, and specialized molecular tests.
  • The differential diagnosis of leukocytosis includes physiologic responses to a broad range of infectious and inflammatory processes, as well as numerous primary hematologic disorders such as leukemias, lymphomas, and myeloproliferative neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukocytosis / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Differentiation. Humans. Leukocytes / cytology. Leukocytes / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 22463829.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Hematology/oncology clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hematol. Oncol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. |||||||... 65%  Njølstad TS, Engerud H, Werner HM, Salvesen HB, Trovik J: Preoperative anemia, leukocytosis and thrombocytosis identify aggressive endometrial carcinomas. Gynecol Oncol; 2013 Nov;131(2):410-5
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  • [Title] Preoperative anemia, leukocytosis and thrombocytosis identify aggressive endometrial carcinomas.
  • OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to investigate preoperative hematological parameters for anemia, leukocytosis and thrombocytosis in relation to established prognostic factors and survival in endometrial cancer.
  • METHODS: 557 patients treated for endometrial carcinoma were prospectively included in a study focusing on the relationship between preoperative hemoglobin, leukocyte and platelet counts, and a panel of clinicopathological characteristics and outcome.
  • RESULTS: Preoperative anemia was present in 15.8%, leukocytosis in 11.2% and thrombocytosis in 12.1%.
  • Among patients with localized disease (FIGO stage I/II), 18.1% had anemia and/or thrombocytosis at diagnosis.
  • Patients with advanced disease (high FIGO stage and lymph-node metastasis) had significantly lower hemoglobin count, higher leukocyte count and higher platelet count (all p<0.008).
  • Patients with anemia, leukocytosis and thrombocytosis had significantly shorter 5-year disease-specific survival of 61.3%, 66.0% and 61.0% respectively, compared to 87.7%, 86.3% and 87.3% for patients with normal counts (all p<0.001).
  • CONCLUSION: Preoperative anemia, leukocytosis or thrombocytosis in women with endometrial carcinoma is associated with advanced disease and poor disease-specific survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Anemia / etiology. Endometrial Neoplasms / blood. Leukocytosis / etiology. Thrombocytosis / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cohort Studies. Female. Hemoglobins / metabolism. Humans. Leukocyte Count. Middle Aged. Platelet Count. Preoperative Period. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] © 2013.
  • (PMID = 24004646.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hemoglobins
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Endometrial cancer / Leukocytosis / Preoperative anemia / Prognosis / Thrombocytosis
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20. ||||||.... 64%  Kondoh E, Shimizu M, Kakui K, Mikami Y, Tatsumi K, Konishi I: Deciduosis can cause remarkable leukocytosis and obscure abdominal pain. J Obstet Gynaecol Res; 2012 Dec;38(12):1376-8
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  • [Title] Deciduosis can cause remarkable leukocytosis and obscure abdominal pain.
  • Remarkable leukocytosis with obscure abdominal pain during pregnancy is clinically challenging for obstetricians.
  • A 31-year-old pregnant woman developed persistently elevated white blood cell (approximately 30 000/µL) and C-reactive protein (3.0 mg/dL) with occasional moderate abdominal pain.
  • White blood cells rose 87200/µL, and C-reactive protein peaked at 44.9mg/dL after surgery.
  • Pathologically, biopsies showed deciduosis, and decidual cells on the omental surface showed immunohistochemical staining for granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF).
  • G-CSF-producing deciduosis can induce leukocytosis as well as abdominal pain during pregnancy and postpartum.

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  • [Copyright] © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
  • (PMID = 22612308.001).
  • [ISSN] 1447-0756
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of obstetrics and gynaecology research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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21. ||||||.... 63%  Saaiq M, Niaz-Ud-Din, Jalil A, Zubair M, Shah SA: Diagnostic accuracy of leukocytosis in prediction of acute appendicitis. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak; 2014 Jan;24(1):67-9
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  • [Title] Diagnostic accuracy of leukocytosis in prediction of acute appendicitis.
  • An analytical study was conducted to find out the diagnostic accuracy of leukocytosis in predicting acute appendicitis in patients undergoing emergency appendicectomy.
  • The operative findings were correlated with leukocyte counts using 2 x 2 table.
  • Out of 233 appendicectomies, with exclusion of the negative appendicectomies (17.59%, n = 41), there were 67.38% patients (n = 157) with elevated leukocyte count.
  • The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of elevated leukocyte counts for inflamed appendix were 91.81%, 43.55%, 81.77% and 65.85% respectively.

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  • (PMID = 24411549.001).
  • [ISSN] 1681-7168
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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22. ||||||.... 63%  Ishii T, Sakamoto A, Matsuda S, Matsumoto Y, Harimaya K, Takahashi Y, Oda Y, Iwamoto Y: Leiomyosarcoma in the humerus with leukocytosis and elevation of serum G-CSF. Skeletal Radiol; 2012 Jun;41(6):719-23
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  • [Title] Leiomyosarcoma in the humerus with leukocytosis and elevation of serum G-CSF.
  • Leukocytosis associated with secretion of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been reported in various tumors, primarily poorly differentiated epithelial tumors, but is extremely rare in bone tumors.
  • Leukocytosis and elevated serum G-CSF were observed, but resolved following tumor resection.
  • A diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma of the bone with expression of G-CSF was confirmed immunohistochemically.
  • Histological diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma showed it to be differentiated, which is unusual for G-CSF-secreting tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / blood. Humerus / pathology. Leiomyosarcoma / diagnosis. Leukocytosis / blood. Leukocytosis / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 22167228.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2161
  • [Journal-full-title] Skeletal radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skeletal Radiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor
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23. ||||||.... 58%  Munoz J, Guo Y: Leukocytosis: the mysteries within. Am J Hematol; 2012 Feb;87(2):197
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  • [Title] Leukocytosis: the mysteries within.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Benzamides / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / diagnosis. Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / diagnosis. Leukocytosis / diagnosis. Piperazines / therapeutic use. Pyrimidines / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Humans. Leukocyte Count. Male. Remission Induction

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  • (PMID = 21815181.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-8652
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; BKJ8M8G5HI / imatinib
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25. |||||..... 54%  Lee F, Yu MC: Association between peritoneal dialysate effluent leukocytosis and amlodipine besylate. Am J Kidney Dis; 2009 Mar;53(3):e1-3
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  • [Title] Association between peritoneal dialysate effluent leukocytosis and amlodipine besylate.
  • Dialysate effluent leukocytosis is consistent with a greater degree of infection or inflammation in patients receiving peritoneal dialysis.
  • This study describes a girl aged 2 years 9 months with end-stage renal disease resulting from crescent glomerulonephritis and severe interstitial nephritis who developed leukocytosis with a predominance of lymphocytes in the dialysate effluent, and in whom the effluent cell count normalized 1 week after discontinuation of amlodipine besylate therapy.
  • Rechallenge confirmed that amlodipine was the offending agent causing effluent leukocytosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Amlodipine / adverse effects. Calcium Channel Blockers / adverse effects. Dialysis Solutions. Kidney Failure, Chronic / complications. Kidney Failure, Chronic / therapy. Leukocytosis / chemically induced. Peritoneal Dialysis, Continuous Ambulatory

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  • (PMID = 19167800.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-6838
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Kidney Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calcium Channel Blockers; 0 / Dialysis Solutions; 1J444QC288 / Amlodipine
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26. |||||..... 54%  [Iron metabolism regulatory mechanisms in initial leukocytosis in patients with acute leukemia]. Ter Arkh; 2011;83(10):22-7
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  • [Title] [Iron metabolism regulatory mechanisms in initial leukocytosis in patients with acute leukemia].
  • AIM: To study levels of hepsidine (Hp), hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha), erythropoietin (EP) and ferritin in patients with acute leukemia (AL), effects of protein fractions of homogenate of blastic cells (BC) on regulatory proteins studied.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Depending on leukocyte count in the onset of AL, 70 patients with first ever diagnosed AL were divided into two groups: group 1 - 17 patients with leukocyte count > 30 x 10(9)/l, group 2 - 53 patients with leukocyte count < 30 x 10(9)/l.
  • Serum and leukocyte parameters were studied before treatment, during the treatment with cytostatic drugs, in the course of myelotoxic agranulocytosis (MTA), after normalization of hemograms.
  • EP was detected with enzyme immunoassay, serum and leukocyte ferritin - with radioimmunoassay; HIF-1alpha, Hp - sandwich enzyme immunoassay using monospecific antisera and monoclonal antibodies against relevant antigens.
  • Leukocytes were isolated in ficol and verografin solutions density gradient.
  • Chromatographic division of the protein fractions in 3 patients with leukocytosis in AL onset and leukocytes of 3 donors was made by the method of preparative isoelectrofocusing of BC and leukocytes on LKB colon (Sweden).
  • RESULTS: Leukocytosis patients with initial AL have serum ferritin, Hp and HIF-1alpha levels about 2-5 times lower than patients without leukocytosis.
  • It is detected that protein fractions isolated from leukocytes of patients with leukocytosis in the disease onset raise HIF-1alpha content irrespective of HIF-1alpha presence in the fraction.
  • CONCLUSION: Great difficulties exist in ferritin and Hp levels between AL patients with leukocytosis in the onset of the disease and without of leukocytosis.
  • The study of leukocytes suggests that tumor cells of such patients contain compounds which can regulate production of HIF-1alpha, Hp and ferritin.
  • [MeSH-major] Iron / metabolism. Leukemia / blood. Leukocytosis / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Erythropoietin / blood. Erythropoietin / metabolism. Ferritins / blood. Ferritins / metabolism. Humans. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit / blood. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit / metabolism. Radioimmunoassay

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  • (PMID = 22185020.001).
  • [ISSN] 0040-3660
  • [Journal-full-title] Terapevticheskiĭ arkhiv
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ter. Arkh.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit; 11096-26-7 / Erythropoietin; 9007-73-2 / Ferritins; E1UOL152H7 / Iron
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27. |||||..... 53%  Weber KS, Defosse JM, Wappler F, Sakka SG: [Case report. Leukocytosis in the course of Clostridium difficile infection]. Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther; 2013 Jun;48(6):386-90
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  • [Title] [Case report. Leukocytosis in the course of Clostridium difficile infection].
  • [Transliterated title] Kasuistik. Leukozytose im Zuge einer Clostridium-difficile-Infektion.
  • Leukocytosis is a sign of severe CDI and is predictive for a complicated course.
  • In this case report, we describe 2 patients with CDI who developed leukocytosis within a leukemoid range.
  • In both cases high white blood cell counts returned totally to normal range under CDI therapy according to guidelines.
  • Leukemia-related therapy patterns were not needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Clostridium difficile. Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous / complications. Leukocytosis / etiology

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  • [Copyright] © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.
  • (PMID = 23828079.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-1074
  • [Journal-full-title] Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie : AINS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 140QMO216E / Metronidazole
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28. |||||..... 53%  Worley MJ Jr, Nitschmann CC, Shoni M, Rauh-Hain JA, Williams KA, Feltmate CM: Preoperative leukocytosis imposes an increased risk of recurrence and death among patients with nonendometrioid endometrial carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2013 Feb;23(2):312-7
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  • [Title] Preoperative leukocytosis imposes an increased risk of recurrence and death among patients with nonendometrioid endometrial carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of preoperative leukocytosis among patients with nonendometrioid endometrial carcinoma.
  • The patients were separated into 2 groups based on the presence or absence of preoperative leukocytosis (white blood cell count ≥ 10,000/μL).
  • RESULTS: A total of 222 patients were identified, and preoperative leukocytosis was observed in 33 patients (14.9%).
  • The leukocytosis group was associated with a larger mean size of the primary tumor (6.8 vs 4.6 cm, P = 0.016) and a greater percentage of patients with cervical stromal involvement (36.4% vs 20.1%, P = 0.039), adnexal involvement (42.4% vs. 22.8%, P = 0.017), and pelvic/para-aortic lymph node involvement (50% vs 27.4%, P = 0.025).
  • On multivariate analysis, preoperative leukocytosis was independently associated with an increased risk of recurrence (hazard ratio, 2.07; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-3.84) and an increased risk of death (hazard ratio, 3.33; 95% confidence interval, 2.01-5.53).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with nonendometrioid endometrial carcinoma, preoperative leukocytosis is independently associated with an increased risk of recurrence and death.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Endometrial Neoplasms / mortality. Leukocytosis / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 23358179.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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29. |||||..... 53%  Paul DA, Zook K, Mackley A, Locke RG: Reduced mortality and increased BPD with histological chorioamnionitis and leukocytosis in very-low-birth-weight infants. J Perinatol; 2010 Jan;30(1):58-62
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  • [Title] Reduced mortality and increased BPD with histological chorioamnionitis and leukocytosis in very-low-birth-weight infants.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between leukocytosis, mortality and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in very-low-birth-weight infants (VLBW) born to mothers with histological chorioamnionitis.
  • Total white blood cells (WBCs) after birth were measured.
  • Leukocytosis was defined as a total WBC count >30 000 per mm(3) in the first 2 days of life.
  • RESULT: After controlling for potential confounding variables, infants who developed a leukocytosis after birth had increased odds of BPD (4.6, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2.0 to 10.3), but decreased odds of death (0.3, 95% CI: 0.1 to 0.90).
  • CONCLUSION: In our population of VLBW infants born to mothers with histological chorioamnionitis, leukocytosis after birth is associated with a decrease in mortality but an increase in BPD.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia / blood. Chorioamnionitis / mortality. Infant, Very Low Birth Weight / blood. Leukocytosis / complications

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  • (PMID = 19710675.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5543
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of perinatology : official journal of the California Perinatal Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Perinatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. |||||..... 52%  Petterino C, Luzio E, Baracchini L, Ferrari A, Ratto A: Paraneoplastic leukocytosis in a dog with a renal carcinoma. Vet Clin Pathol; 2011 Mar;40(1):89-94
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  • [Title] Paraneoplastic leukocytosis in a dog with a renal carcinoma.
  • Nonregenerative anemia, mild leukocytosis, marked hypoalbuminemia, and hematuria were observed.
  • Cytologic examination of fine-needle aspirates and imprints of the right kidney revealed a neoplastic cell population suggestive of renal carcinoma.
  • The histopathologic diagnosis was chromophobic cystic-papillary renal carcinoma.
  • The tumor cells expressed granulocytic/macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), detected by immunohistochemical staining, and elaboration of GM-CSF by the tumor may have mediated the leukocytosis in this dog.
  • Following excision of the tumor, neutrophil and monocyte counts were only mildly increased.
  • The dog died 135 days after initial presentation, and a necropsy was not permitted.
  • Paraneoplastic neutrophilic leukocytosis is an uncommon finding and may be caused by elaboration of CSF by neoplastic cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / veterinary. Dog Diseases / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / veterinary. Leukocytosis / veterinary. Paraneoplastic Syndromes / veterinary

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  • [Copyright] ©2011 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
  • [CommentIn] Vet Clin Pathol. 2011 Jun;40(2):137; author reply 137 [21631565.001]
  • (PMID = 21291490.001).
  • [ISSN] 1939-165X
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary clinical pathology / American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Clin Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 83869-56-1 / Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
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31. |||||..... 52%  Claridge JA, Golob JF Jr, Fadlalla AM, Malangoni MA, Blatnik J, Yowler CJ: Fever and leukocytosis in critically ill trauma patients: it is not the blood. Am Surg; 2009 May;75(5):405-10
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  • [Title] Fever and leukocytosis in critically ill trauma patients: it is not the blood.
  • The diagnosis of bacteremia in critically ill patients is classically based on fever and/or leukocytosis.
  • The objectives of this study were to determine 1) if our intensive care unit obtains blood cultures based on fever and/or leukocytosis over the initial 14 days of hospitalization after trauma; and 2) the efficacy of this diagnostic workup.
  • Data collected included demographics, injuries, and the first 14 days maximal daily temperature, leukocyte count, and results of blood and catheter tip cultures.
  • Fever was defined as a maximum daily temperature of 38.5 degrees C or greater and leukocytosis as a leukocyte count 12,000/mm3 or greater of blood.
  • Four hundred twenty-five blood culture episodes were obtained and 25 (6%) bacteremias were identified in 23 patients (5%).
  • A significant association was found between obtaining blood cultures in patients with fever (relative risk [RR], 7.7), leukocytosis (RR, 1.3), and fever + leukocytosis (RR, 3.2).
  • However, no significant association was found between these clinical signs and the diagnosis of bacteremia.
  • Our intensive care unit follows the common "fever workup" practice and obtains blood cultures based on the presence of fever and leukocytosis.
  • However, fever and leukocytosis were not associated with bacteremia, suggesting inefficiency and that other factors are more important after trauma.
  • [MeSH-major] Bacteremia / microbiology. Critical Illness. Fever / etiology. Leukocytosis / etiology. Wounds and Injuries / complications

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  • (PMID = 19445292.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 1KL2RR024990; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / KL2 RR024990
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. |||||..... 52%  Cooper ES, Berry MP, McMurray RG, Hosick PA, Hackney AC: Core temperature influences on the relationship between exercise-induced leukocytosis and cortisol or TNF-alpha. Aviat Space Environ Med; 2010 May;81(5):460-6
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  • [Title] Core temperature influences on the relationship between exercise-induced leukocytosis and cortisol or TNF-alpha.
  • INTRODUCTION: The extent to which exercise in the heat modifies leukocytosis and the relationship between the leukocytosis and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) or cortisol is not well understood.
  • Thus, this study attempted to determine the combined effect of exercise and differing elevations in core temperature on exercise-induced leukocytosis and to examine associations between any leukocytosis and cortisol orTNF-alpha.
  • Leukocytes, TNF-alpha, and cortisol were determined at baseline, immediately post-, and 2 h post-exercise.
  • RESULTS: Both trials resulted in significant 13-33% increases in total leukocytes, mostly driven by a 24-30% increase in neutrophils.
  • A significant relationship was found between the change in core temperature (T(re)) during exercise and the increase in total leukocytes (r = 0.561).
  • Yet the exercise-induced change in cortisol was not significantly correlated to any changes in leukocytes.
  • There was a trend for the relationships between the exercise-induced change in TNF-alpha and the changes in total leukocytes (r = 0.491) and neutrophils (r = 0.479).
  • DISCUSSION: These results suggest that although neither cortisol nor TNF-alpha are strong predictors of the leukocyte response during exercise or recovery, each factor may be one of many potential modifiers of the total leukocyte response.
  • [MeSH-major] Body Temperature / physiology. Exercise / physiology. Hot Temperature. Hydrocortisone / blood. Leukocytosis. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / blood

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  • (PMID = 20464812.001).
  • [ISSN] 0095-6562
  • [Journal-full-title] Aviation, space, and environmental medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aviat Space Environ Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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33. |||||..... 52%  Qiu MZ, Xu RH, Ruan DY, Li ZH, Luo HY, Teng KY, Wang ZQ, Li YH, Jiang WQ: Incidence of anemia, leukocytosis, and thrombocytosis in patients with solid tumors in China. Tumour Biol; 2010 Dec;31(6):633-41
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  • [Title] Incidence of anemia, leukocytosis, and thrombocytosis in patients with solid tumors in China.
  • We identified all patients in Cancer Center of Sun Yat-sen University who were diagnosed as solid tumors (breast carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, esophageal carcinoma, gastric cancer, cervical carcinoma, endometrial cancer, renal cell carcinoma, and non-small cell lung cancer) between January 2000 and August 2009.
  • All subjects were investigated regarding levels of white blood cells, platelets, and hemoglobin concentration.
  • The percentages of leukocytosis, anemia, and thrombocytosis in patients with solid tumors ranged from 4.0% to 25.6%, 3.3% to 29.2%, and 2.1% to 9.7%, respectively.
  • Leukocytosis was an independent prognostic factor in patients with cervical cancer (P = 0.007).
  • A pretreatment anemia or leukocytosis can serve as a useful marker to predict outcome of patients in some of the solid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Anemia / epidemiology. Breast Neoplasms / complications. Esophageal Neoplasms / complications. Leukocytosis / epidemiology. Liver Neoplasms / complications. Stomach Neoplasms / complications. Thrombocytosis / epidemiology


34. |||||..... 51%  Patel T, Wambi C, Berg WT, Bergman A, Shapiro EY, Badani KK: Characterization of perioperative leukocytosis in patients undergoing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: effects of Gleason score and race. J Endourol; 2013 Dec;27(12):1463-7
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  • [Title] Characterization of perioperative leukocytosis in patients undergoing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: effects of Gleason score and race.
  • INTRODUCTION: Our objective was to determine the impact of race and tumor grade on perioperative leukocytosis on patients undergoing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP).
  • White blood cell (WBC) counts were captured preoperatively, 1 hour postoperatively, and on postoperative day 1.
  • We assessed the differences in leukocyte responses according to the race and Gleason score using ANOVA testing.
  • RESULTS: Preoperative WBC was lowest in black men and comparable between white and Hispanic men.
  • At 1 hour, postoperative WBC remained lowest in Black men (p<0.001).
  • Post-RARP leukocytosis varied significantly depending on the race (p<0.001).
  • At 1 hour, patients with Gleason 8-10 tumors had decreased WBC compared to Gleason 6 patients (p<0.05) despite similar preoperative WBC and Charlson comorbidity index values.

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  • (PMID = 24074199.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-900X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology / Endourological Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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35. |||||..... 51%  Tompkins C, Cheng A, Brinker JA, Marine JE, Nazarian S, Spragg DD, Sinha S, Halperin H, Tomaselli GF, Berger RD, Calkins H, Henrikson CA: Significance of leukocytosis after cardiac device implantation. Am J Cardiol; 2013 Jun 1;111(11):1608-12
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  • [Title] Significance of leukocytosis after cardiac device implantation.
  • Whether early postprocedural leukocytosis, a recognized marker of infection, is an indicator of impending infection is unclear and was the focus of this study.
  • The association between change in white blood cell (WBC) count and development of infection after device implantation was assessed.
  • Pre- and postprocedural WBC counts were obtained within 48 hours of the procedure.
  • Significant leukocytosis was defined as a ≥50% increase in WBC count; 1,245 device implantations met inclusion criteria.
  • A modest 17.6 ± 30.2% increase in WBC count was observed for the entire cohort.
  • Cases resulting in infection demonstrated minimal change in WBC count (mean +5.5 ± 26.5%).
  • No infections occurred in patients with ≥50% increases in WBC count or postprocedural WBC counts >15,000/μl.
  • Subjects with significant leukocytosis were younger (mean age 61.9 ± 16.5 vs 65.6 ± 15.1 years, p <0.01), had longer procedure times (mean 198 ± 97 vs 170 ± 77 minutes, p <0.001), and received biventricular implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (25% vs 13.9%, p <0.001).
  • In conclusion, after device implantation, a ≥50% increase in WBC count occurred in about 10% to 15% of patients.
  • Age, race, type of device, and procedure time influenced the development of significant leukocytosis.
  • Elevation in WBC count after cardiac device implantation was not associated with an increased risk for early infection.
  • [MeSH-major] Arrhythmias, Cardiac / therapy. Bacteremia / complications. Defibrillators, Implantable / adverse effects. Leukocytosis / etiology. Pacemaker, Artificial / adverse effects. Prosthesis-Related Infections / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidence. Leukocyte Count. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Severity of Illness Index. United States / epidemiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 23523060.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1913
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of cardiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Cardiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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36. |||||..... 50%  Chou YS, Gau JP, Yu YB, Pai JT, Hsiao LT, Liu JH, Hong YC, Liu CY, Yang CF, Chen PM, Chiou TJ, Tzeng CH: Leukocytosis in polycythemia vera and splenomegaly in essential thrombocythemia are independent risk factors for hemorrhage. Eur J Haematol; 2013 Mar;90(3):228-36
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  • [Title] Leukocytosis in polycythemia vera and splenomegaly in essential thrombocythemia are independent risk factors for hemorrhage.
  • BACKGROUND: Long-term outcomes are favorable for patients with polycythemia vera (PV) and for patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET).
  • METHODS: We retrospectively recruited 247 patients who had received a diagnosis of PV (n = 101) or ET (n = 146) during the period 2001-2010.
  • RESULTS: After a median follow-up period of 36.2 months, the cumulative incidence of hemorrhage was 39.6% in patients with PV (6.2% per person-year) and 29.7% in patients with ET (5.9% person-years).
  • Episodes of major bleeding occurred in 9.9% of patients with PV and in 14.4% of patients with ET.
  • Overall survival was significantly shorter among patients with hemorrhage than among those without said complication (P < 0.001 for overall patients; P = 0.002 for patients with PV; P = 0.026 for patients with ET).
  • In the univariate analysis, age ≥ 60 yr (OR: 4.77, P = 0.046) and WBC ≥ 16 × 10(9) /L (OR: 4.15, P = 0.010) were predictors of hemorrhage in patients with PV, and age ≥ 60 yr (OR: 3.25, P = 0.040), WBC ≥ 16 × 10(9) /L (OR: 2.89, P = 0.024), albumin <4.0 g/dL (OR: 4.10, P = 0.002), and splenomegaly (OR: 5.19, P = 0.002) were predictors of hemorrhage in patients with ET.
  • Multivariate analysis showed that WBC ≥ 16 × 10(9) /L was the only significant risk factor for hemorrhage in patients with PV (OR: 3.51, P = 0.026) and that splenomegaly was the only risk factor for hemorrhage in patients with ET (OR: 3.00, P = 0.048).
  • CONCLUSION: Leukocytosis in PV and splenomegaly in ET are independent risk factors for hemorrhage.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemorrhage / complications. Leukocytosis / complications. Polycythemia Vera / complications. Splenomegaly / complications. Thrombocythemia, Essential / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Incidence. Leukocyte Count. Leukocytes / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Survival Rate

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  • [Copyright] © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
  • (PMID = 23281576.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0609
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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37. |||||..... 48%  Asadollahi K, Beeching NJ, Gill GV: Leukocytosis as a predictor for non-infective mortality and morbidity. QJM; 2010 May;103(5):285-92
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  • [Title] Leukocytosis as a predictor for non-infective mortality and morbidity.
  • Leukocytosis (raised concentration of white cells in the blood) is commonly associated with infection or inflammation, but can occur in a wide variety of other conditions.
  • Leukocytosis has also been linked with increased mortality and morbidity in a number of studies.
  • We have systematically reviewed the relevant literature, which clearly demonstrates an association between leukocytosis and mortality-particularly due to cardiovascular or cerebrovascular causes.
  • The mechanisms of this effect are uncertain but, when combined with other markers predictive of death, leukocytosis may contribute to modelling systems to predict in-patient mortality risk.
  • [MeSH-major] Cardiovascular Diseases / mortality. Leukocytosis / mortality

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  • (PMID = 20056764.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2393
  • [Journal-full-title] QJM : monthly journal of the Association of Physicians
  • [ISO-abbreviation] QJM
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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38. |||||..... 48%  Mabuchi S, Matsumoto Y, Isohashi F, Yoshioka Y, Ohashi H, Morii E, Hamasaki T, Aozasa K, Mutch DG, Kimura T: Pretreatment leukocytosis is an indicator of poor prognosis in patients with cervical cancer. Gynecol Oncol; 2011 Jul;122(1):25-32
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  • [Title] Pretreatment leukocytosis is an indicator of poor prognosis in patients with cervical cancer.
  • OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of pretreatment leukocytosis in patients with cervical cancer in relation to well-established conventional risk factors.
  • Subsequently, the prognostic significance of pretreatment WBC count was prospectively investigated in 156 patients newly diagnosed cervical cancer from 2007 April to 2010 March.
  • RESULTS: In a retrospective analysis, patients with leukocytosis (WBC ≥ 10,000/μl) showed significantly higher treatment failure rate (P < 0.0001) and shorter OS (P < 0.0001) than the patients without leukocytosis.
  • Tumors from patients with leukocytosis showed significantly stronger immunoreactivity for G-CSF than those obtained from patients without leukocytosis.
  • Multivariate analyses revealed that clinical stage, tumor diameter, histology, and elevated WBC count (≥ 10,000/μl) were significant prognostic factors in terms of overall survival.
  • In a prospective investigation, patients with leukocytosis showed significantly higher treatment failure rate (P < 0.0001), shorter PFS (P < 0.0001), and higher serum G-CSF concentrations (p = 0.001) than the patients without leukocytosis.
  • Multivariate analyses revealed that clinical stage, tumor diameter, and elevated WBC count were significant prognostic factors in terms of PFS.
  • CONCLUSION: Pretreatment leukocytosis is an independent prognostic factor in patients with cervical cancer.
  • Our finding can be used to identify patients with poor prognosis and to design future tailored clinical trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukocytosis / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / biosynthesis. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / blood. Humans. Leukocyte Count. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Neutrophils / pathology. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors


39. |||||..... 48%  Díaz-Rosales Jde D, Enríquez-Domínguez L, Castillo-Moreno JR, Herrera-Ramírez F: [Preoperative leukocytosis as a predictor of intrabdominal injury in penetrating abdominal trauma]. Cir Cir; 2012 Nov-Dec;80(6):516-22
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  • [Title] [Preoperative leukocytosis as a predictor of intrabdominal injury in penetrating abdominal trauma].
  • [Transliterated title] Leucocitosis prequirúrgica como factor predictivo de lesión a órgano intrabdominal en trauma penetrante abdominal.
  • Is possible use some grade of leukocytosis suspect in-trabdominal lesion?
  • Dependent variables were; age, gender, type of injury, number of lesions, peripheral lesions, time between injury and, from a laboaratory blood sample, leukocytosis mean, percentage of neutrophils, leukocytosis ≥ 12,500 /mm(3), and hemoperitoneum.
  • Leukocytosis global was 13.2 mil/mm(3) and neutrophil range of 70.3%.
  • 26% of patients did not have leukocytosis at arrival and evaluation, however they were laparotomized because of present peritoneal irritation.
  • Leukocytosis ≥ 12.5 mil/mm(3) was statistically significant in patients with intrabdominal lesions (74.2% vs 27.7%, p < 0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: leukocytosis ≥ 12.5 mil/mm(3) could be an early serum marker abdominal penetrating trauma.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Injuries / blood. Leukocytosis / etiology. Peritoneum / injuries. Preoperative Care. Viscera / injuries. Wounds, Penetrating / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Female. Hemoperitoneum / epidemiology. Hemoperitoneum / etiology. Humans. Laparotomy / methods. Laparotomy / utilization. Length of Stay / statistics & numerical data. Leukocyte Count. Male. Mexico / epidemiology. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies. Trauma Centers / statistics & numerical data. Triage. Wounds, Gunshot / blood. Wounds, Gunshot / diagnosis. Wounds, Gunshot / epidemiology. Wounds, Gunshot / surgery. Wounds, Stab / blood. Wounds, Stab / diagnosis. Wounds, Stab / epidemiology. Wounds, Stab / surgery. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 23336145.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-7411
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugia y cirujanos
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Cir
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
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40. |||||..... 47%  Hurtado-Cordovi J, Pathak P, Avezbakiyev B, Frieri M: Inflammatory malignant fibrous histiocytoma associated with leukemoid reaction or leukocytosis: a comprehensive review. ISRN Oncol; 2012;2012:946019
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  • [Title] Inflammatory malignant fibrous histiocytoma associated with leukemoid reaction or leukocytosis: a comprehensive review.
  • Inflammatory malignant fibrous histiocytoma (IMFH) associated with leukemoid reaction (LR)/leukocytosis is a rare entity.
  • In this paper, we search PubMed for all known cases of IMFH associated with LR/leukocytosis in an attempt to draw conclusions about this variant's response to treatments and its pathophysiology.
  • Medline electronic database was searched using key words such as malignant fibrous histiocytoma, leukemoid reaction, and leukocytosis.
  • Of the 12 patients that expired, death occurred approximately 92 days after the onset of LR or leukocytosis, ranging from 3 to 334 days.
  • We conclude that IMFH associated with LR/leukocytosis does not completely respond to chemoradiation.
  • Overproduction of growth factors and cytokines by IMFH cells and their interactions with the inflammatory infiltrate seem to promote immunological effector cell's dysfunction and substantiate the development and growth of this neoplasm.

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  • (PMID = 23097722.001).
  • [ISSN] 2090-567X
  • [Journal-full-title] ISRN oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ISRN Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3477745
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41. |||||..... 47%  Deirmengian GK, Zmistowski B, Jacovides C, O'Neil J, Parvizi J: Leukocytosis is common after total hip and knee arthroplasty. Clin Orthop Relat Res; 2011 Nov;469(11):3031-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Leukocytosis is common after total hip and knee arthroplasty.
  • Although leukocytosis may be a sign of a developing infection in the early postoperative period, it may also be part of a normal surgical response.
  • QUESTIONS AND PURPOSES: We determined (1) the natural history of white blood cell values after primary THA and TKA, (2) factors associated with early postoperative leukocytosis, and (3) the predictive value of white blood cell count for early postoperative periprosthetic joint infection.
  • We determined the incidence of leukocytosis and characterized the natural history of postoperative white blood cell counts.
  • We then investigated potential indicators of postoperative leukocytosis, including development of early periprosthetic infection.
  • RESULTS: The average postoperative white blood cell count increased to approximately 3 × 10(6) cells/μL over the first 2 postoperative days and then declined to a level slightly higher than the preoperative level by Postoperative Day 4.
  • The incidence of postoperative leukocytosis for all patients was 38%.
  • Factors associated with postoperative leukocytosis included TKA, bilateral procedures, older age, and higher modified Charlson Comorbidity Index.
  • The sensitivity and specificity of white blood cell count for diagnosing early periprosthetic infection were 79% and 46%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative leukocytosis is common after THA and TKA and represents a normal physiologic response to surgery.
  • In the absence of abnormal clinical signs and symptoms, postoperative leukocytosis may not warrant further workup for infection.
  • [MeSH-major] Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip / adverse effects. Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee / adverse effects. Leukocytosis / diagnosis. Prosthesis-Related Infections / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Comorbidity. Databases, Factual. Female. Humans. Leukocyte Count. Male. Middle Aged. Pennsylvania / epidemiology. Postoperative Complications. Predictive Value of Tests. Young Adult

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  • [Cites] J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1999 Oct;81(10):1434-45 [10535593.001]
  • [Cites] Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1999 Oct;(367):181-9 [10546613.001]
  • [Cites] J Clin Epidemiol. 1992 Jun;45(6):613-9 [1607900.001]
  • [Cites] J Arthroplasty. 2010 Sep;25(6 Suppl):43-8 [20452174.001]
  • [Cites] J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1999 May;81(5):672-83 [10360695.001]
  • [Cites] Br J Biomed Sci. 2006;63(4):166-70 [17201205.001]
  • [Cites] Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2010 Mar;468(3):762-8 [19768513.001]
  • [Cites] J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1996 Apr;78(4):512-23 [8609130.001]
  • (PMID = 21461866.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1132
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical orthopaedics and related research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3183208
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42. |||||..... 47%  Gangat N, Wolanskyj AP, Schwager SM, Hanson CA, Tefferi A: Leukocytosis at diagnosis and the risk of subsequent thrombosis in patients with low-risk essential thrombocythemia and polycythemia vera. Cancer; 2009 Dec 15;115(24):5740-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Leukocytosis at diagnosis and the risk of subsequent thrombosis in patients with low-risk essential thrombocythemia and polycythemia vera.
  • BACKGROUND: Advanced age and a history of thrombosis were well-established risk factors for thrombosis in essential thrombocythemia (ET) and polycythemia vera (PV); cytoreductive therapy was indicated in their presence.
  • Recent studies have suggested leukocytosis as an additional risk factor; however, such an association would be treatment-relevant in the context of low-risk disease.
  • METHODS: In this retrospective study, a Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine the impact of various clinical and laboratory variables, including leukocytosis, on thrombosis-free survival (TFS).
  • Arterial-specific or venous-specific TFS curves for different leukocyte count-defined risk groups were constructed by the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log-rank test.
  • RESULTS: A total of 407 low-risk patients (254 with ET and 153 with PV) were considered.
  • After a respective median follow-up of 104 months and 130 months, respectively, 47 (19%) patients with ET and 41 (27%) with PV experienced a total of 55 (41 arterial and 14 venous) and 46 (22 arterial and 24 venous) thrombotic events, respectively.
  • Leukocytosis at the time of diagnosis, defined by a cutoff level of either 15 or 9.4x10(9)/L, did not appear to be predictive of either arterial or venous thrombosis during follow-up; similar results were obtained when analysis was restricted to patients with platelet counts of <1000x10(9)/L.
  • Instead, advanced age was found to be significantly associated with arterial thrombosis in patients with PV and higher hemoglobin level with venous thrombosis in patients with ET.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In the current retrospective study, leukocytosis at diagnosis did not appear to influence the risk of thrombosis in either ET or PV.
  • However, a prospective study is required before leukocytosis is taken into account during treatment decisions in these disorders.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukocytosis / complications. Polycythemia Vera / complications. Thrombocythemia, Essential / complications. Thrombosis / complications

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 19806641.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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43. |||||..... 47%  Banerjee R, Roxin G, Eliasziw M, Joseph K, Maclean A, Buie WD, Doll C: The prognostic significance of pretreatment leukocytosis in patients with anal cancer treated with radical chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy. Dis Colon Rectum; 2013 Sep;56(9):1036-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The prognostic significance of pretreatment leukocytosis in patients with anal cancer treated with radical chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: There are emerging data showing the prognostic significance of pretreatment leukocytosis in patients with cervical cancer; it is generally associated with adverse outcome.
  • However, the prognostic impact of leukocytosis in patients with anal cancer has not been previously reported.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between pretreatment leukocytosis and clinical outcomes in patients with anal cancer treated with radical chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcomes were disease-free and overall survival.
  • Pretreatment leukocytosis (white blood cell count >10 × 10/L) was identified in 15.9% (20/126) of patients.
  • After adjusting for sex, tumor size, and stage in a multivariate analysis, leukocytosis remained significantly associated with worse disease-free survival (HR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.1-4.8; p = 0.045) and worse overall survival (HR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.1-7.9; p = 0.036).
  • Patients with both leukocytosis and anemia (pretreatment hemoglobin <125 g/L) had the worst prognosis: 2-year disease-free survival 42.1% versus 72.9% for patients without these factors (HR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.1-6.8; p = 0.033); 2-year overall survival 60.9% versus 89.8% (HR, 4.5; 95% CI, 1.5-13.2; p = 0.006).
  • LIMITATIONS: The study was limited by its retrospective nature and lack of patients with multiple hematologic abnormalities (ie, both anemia and leukocytosis).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Pretreatment leukocytosis in patients with anal cancer is associated with significantly worse disease-free and overall survival, which appears to be exacerbated with the presence of pretreatment anemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Chemoradiotherapy. Leukocytosis / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 23929012.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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44. |||||..... 46%  Nikanfar M, Shaafi S, Hashemilar M, Oskouii DS, Goldust M: Evaluating role of leukocytosis and high sedimentation rate as prognostic factors in acute ischemic cerebral strokes. Pak J Biol Sci; 2012 Apr 15;15(8):386-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Evaluating role of leukocytosis and high sedimentation rate as prognostic factors in acute ischemic cerebral strokes.
  • Leukocytosis and increased Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) during the early phases of acute ischemic stroke has been proposed to be related with poor prognosis.
  • The White Blood Cell (WBC) count and ESR were determined on admitting and after 3 days.
  • Any history of Diabetes Mellitus (DM), Hypertension (HTN), Heart Disease (HD), Hyperlipidemia (HLP), smoking, CT scan findings, level of consciousness and the condition of patient on admission and discharge (according to Rankin's scale) were assessed.
  • Leukocytosis on day one was significantly more prevalent in patients passed away during hospitalization or discharged in not-so-well condition.
  • High WBC and ESR levels, altered consciousness, diffused lesions in CT scan and imperfect neurological condition on day one, as well as positive history of DM and HTN were significantly related with higher in-hospital death rate and/or poor condition at discharge.
  • Raised WBC count and ESR just after an ischemic stroke attack might be related with a poor prognosis and necessitate immediate and meticulous monitoring and therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Ischemia / physiopathology. Leukocytosis / physiopathology. Stroke / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 24199468.001).
  • [ISSN] 1028-8880
  • [Journal-full-title] Pakistan journal of biological sciences: PJBS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pak. J. Biol. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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45. |||||..... 46%  Tomizawa M, Shinozaki F, Sugiyama T, Yamamoto S, Sueishi M, Yoshida T: Ultrasonography for leukocytosis or elevated C-reactive protein. Hepatogastroenterology; 2011 Jul-Aug;58(109):1156-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ultrasonography for leukocytosis or elevated C-reactive protein.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Patients with abdominal symptoms and leukocytosis or elevated C-reactive protein were subjected to abdominal ultrasonography (US) for correct diagnosis.
  • METHODOLOGY: Patients with abdominal symptoms, leukocytosis and elevated C-reactive protein were enrolled.
  • Those with abnormal liver enzymes or radiographs were excluded since either of them might be a clue to proper diagnosis, such as hepatobiliary diseases or bowel obstruction.
  • RESULTS: Total number of patients was 38.
  • Number of acute diverticulitis, colitis, acute appendicitis and enteritis were 8, 7, 7 and 6, respectively.
  • Colon cancers were confirmed and pelvis tumor was diagnosed as ovarian squamous cell carcinoma with surgical specimens.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our data clearly recommended that abdominal US be performed carefully for patients with abdominal symptoms and leukocytosis or elevated CRP since potentially they had malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdomen / ultrasonography. C-Reactive Protein / analysis. Leukocytosis / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 21937369.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9007-41-4 / C-Reactive Protein
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46. |||||..... 45%  Kumar AD, Boehme AK, Siegler JE, Gillette M, Albright KC, Martin-Schild S: Leukocytosis in patients with neurologic deterioration after acute ischemic stroke is associated with poor outcomes. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis; 2013 Oct;22(7):e111-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Leukocytosis in patients with neurologic deterioration after acute ischemic stroke is associated with poor outcomes.
  • BACKGROUND: Neurologic deterioration (ND) after acute ischemic stroke (AIS) has been shown to result in poor outcomes.
  • ND is thought to arise from penumbral excitotoxic cell death caused in part by leukocytic infiltration.
  • Elevated admission peripheral leukocyte levels are associated with poor outcomes in stroke patients who suffer ND, but little is known about the dynamic changes that occur in leukocyte counts around the time of ND.
  • We sought to determine if peripheral leukocyte levels in the days surrounding ND are correlated with poor outcomes.
  • Demographics, daily leukocyte counts, and poor functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale score 3-6) were investigated.
  • Patients with a poor functional outcome had significantly higher leukocyte and neutrophil levels 1 day before ND (P = .048 and P = .026, respectively), and on the day of ND (P = .013 and P = .007, respectively), compared to patients with good functional outcome.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Leukocytosis at the time of ND correlates with poor functional outcomes and may represent a marker of greater cerebral damage through increased parenchymal inflammation.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 23031742.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8511
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases : the official journal of National Stroke Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Deterioration / National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale / leukocytosis / outcome / prognosis / stroke
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47. ||||...... 45%  Pilger D, Heukelbach J, Diederichs A, Schlosser B, Pereira Leite Costa Araújo C, Keysers A, Liesenfeld O, Feldmeier H: Anemia, leukocytosis and eosinophilia in a resource-poor population with helmintho-ectoparasitic coinfection. J Infect Dev Ctries; 2011 Apr;5(4):260-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anemia, leukocytosis and eosinophilia in a resource-poor population with helmintho-ectoparasitic coinfection.
  • Stool and blood samples were collected and individuals were clinically examined for the presence of ectoparasites.
  • Leukocytosis was found in 13%, eosinophilia in 74%, and hypereosinophilia in 44% of the participants.
  • Our study confirms in a population with high prevalence of intestinal helminthiases and ectoparasites that eosinophilia can be used to accurately diagnose current parasitic infection and initiate treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Anemia / epidemiology. Ectoparasitic Infestations / complications. Ectoparasitic Infestations / epidemiology. Eosinophilia / epidemiology. Helminthiasis / complications. Helminthiasis / epidemiology. Leukocytosis / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 21537067.001).
  • [ISSN] 1972-2680
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of infection in developing countries
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Infect Dev Ctries
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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48. ||||...... 45%  Deibener-Kaminsky J, Lesesve JF, Grosset S, Pruna L, Schmall-Laurain MC, Benetos A, Kaminsky P: [Clinical relevance of leukocyte differential in patients with marked leukocytosis in the emergency room]. Rev Med Interne; 2011 Jul;32(7):406-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Clinical relevance of leukocyte differential in patients with marked leukocytosis in the emergency room].
  • [Transliterated title] Signification d'une hyperleucocytose marquée et de la formule sanguine dans les situations d'urgence.
  • PURPOSE: We analyzed the characteristics of the leukocyte differential and the clinical outcome in patients admitted in an emergency department with marked leukocytosis greater than 20×10(9)G/L.
  • Admission in intensive care unit (ICU), consciousness impairment or death defined the subgroup S of high severity.
  • Leukocyte and neutrophil counts were significantly higher and basophil count significantly lower in subgroup S.
  • CONCLUSION: Marked leukocytosis indicated severe illness.
  • [MeSH-major] Emergency Service, Hospital. Leukocytosis / mortality

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21292359.001).
  • [ISSN] 1768-3122
  • [Journal-full-title] La Revue de médecine interne / fondée ... par la Société nationale francaise de médecine interne
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Interne
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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49. ||||...... 45%  Nidimusili AJ, Alraies MC, Eisa N, Alraiyes AH, Shaheen K: Leukocytosis of unknown origin: gangrenous cholecystitis. Case Rep Med; 2013;2013:418014
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Leukocytosis of unknown origin: gangrenous cholecystitis.
  • The current case is unique, since our patient denied any prior episodes of abdominal pain and the only tip off was leukocytosis.
  • A high index of suspicion is essential for the early diagnosis and treatment of GC.
  • The radiological investigations may not be conclusive.
  • There is a need for an early (if not urgent) surgical intervention in acute cholecystitis (whether laparoscopic or open surgery) in order to decrease the time elapsed from the start of symptoms to admission and treatment.

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  • (PMID = 23606852.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-9627
  • [Journal-full-title] Case reports in medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Case Rep Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3628491
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50. ||||...... 45%  Caramazza D, Caracciolo C, Barone R, Malato A, Saccullo G, Cigna V, Berretta S, Schinocca L, Quintini G, Abbadessa V, Di Raimondo F, Siragusa S: Correlation between leukocytosis and thrombosis in Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms. Ann Hematol; 2009 Oct;88(10):967-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Correlation between leukocytosis and thrombosis in Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms.
  • The evidence that leukocytes may contribute to the pathogenesis of thrombosis in Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms is increasing but not definitive.
  • To further enforces whether an increased leukocyte count is associated with thrombosis and whether this effect can be modulated by cytoreductive therapy, we analyzed the clinical course of 187 patients with Polycythemia Vera (PV) and Essential Thrombocythemia (ET) followed at two Italian Institutions over a period of 7 years.
  • The association was measured at diagnosis or before thrombotic events: a multivariable analysis was carried out using data at baseline and time-dependent covariates.
  • We found that white blood cells (WBC) count above 9.5 x 10(9)/L at diagnosis (baseline analysis) was associated with thrombosis during the follow-up (Hazard Ratio [HR] of 1.8, p 0.03).
  • At the time-dependent analysis, therapy with hydroxyurea (HU), lowering by 35% the baseline WBC level, reduced such strength of association giving a HR of 1.3 (p value non significant).
  • We found a trend between WBC level and thrombosis in untreated low-risk patients (RR of 1.9, 95% CI 0.9 to 3.1); in high-risk patients treated with HU this correlation was clearly lost (RR 1.1, 95% CI 0.2 to 2.7).
  • Finally, we could not identify the presence of JAK2 (V617F) as a risk factor for thrombosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukocytosis / complications. Polycythemia Vera / complications. Thrombocythemia, Essential / complications. Thrombosis / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Hydroxyurea / pharmacology. Hydroxyurea / therapeutic use. Janus Kinase 2 / genetics. Leukemia, Myeloid, Chronic, Atypical, BCR-ABL Negative / complications. Leukocyte Count. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis

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  • (PMID = 19214510.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0584
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.2 / JAK2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.2 / Janus Kinase 2; X6Q56QN5QC / Hydroxyurea
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