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1. Biomedical articles (top 50; 2009 to 2014)
1. |||||||||. 100%  Blyton F, Chuter V, Burns J: Unknotting night-time muscle cramp: a survey of patient experience, help-seeking behaviour and perceived treatment effectiveness. J Foot Ankle Res; 2012;5:7
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  • [Title] Unknotting night-time muscle cramp: a survey of patient experience, help-seeking behaviour and perceived treatment effectiveness.
  • BACKGROUND: Night-time calf cramping affects approximately 1 in 3 adults.
  • The aim of this study was to explore the experience of night-time calf cramp; if and where people seek treatment advice; and perceived treatment effectiveness.
  • METHODS: 80 adults who experienced night-time calf cramp at least once per week were recruited from the Hunter region, NSW, Australia through newspaper, radio and television advertisements.
  • All participants completed a pilot-tested survey about muscle cramp.
  • RESULTS: Median recalled age of first night-time calf cramp was 50 years.
  • Most participants recalled being awoken from sleep by cramping, and experiencing cramping of either calf muscle, calf-muscle soreness in the days following cramp and cramping during day-time.
  • Participants described their cramps as being 'unbearable', 'unmanageable' and 'cruel'.
  • One participant stated that 'sometimes I just wish I could cut my legs open' and another reported 'getting about 2 h sleep a night due to cramps'.
  • Most participants had sought advice about their night-time calf cramps from a health professional.
  • Participants identified 49 different interventions used to prevent night-time calf cramp.
  • Of all treatment ratings, 68% described the intervention used to prevent cramp as being 'useless' or of 'a little help'.
  • Of 14 participants who provided additional information regarding their use of quinine, eight had a current prescription of quinine for muscle cramp at the time of the survey.
  • CONCLUSION: Night time calf cramps typically woke sufferers from sleep, affected either leg and caused ongoing pain.
  • Most participants experienced little or no relief with current therapies used to prevent muscle cramp.
  • Most people who were taking quinine for muscle cramp were unaware that the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration withdrew support of quinine for muscle cramp in 2004 due to the risk of thrombocytopaenia.
  • Case-control studies are required to identify therapeutic targets so that clinical trials can evaluate safe interventions to prevent recurrent cramp.

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  • (PMID = 22420923.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1146
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of foot and ankle research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Foot Ankle Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3361473
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2. |||||||||. 89%  Blyton F, Ryan MM, Ouvrier RA, Burns J: Muscle cramp in pediatric Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A: prevalence and predictors. Neurology; 2011 Dec 13;77(24):2115-8
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  • [Title] Muscle cramp in pediatric Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A: prevalence and predictors.
  • OBJECTIVES: To identify correlates of calf cramp in children with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A).
  • Post hoc logistic regression analyses were performed to identify independent predictors of calf cramp.
  • RESULTS: Of the 81 children, 26 (32%) reported calf cramp, and 1 child each reported toe, quadriceps, or arm cramp.
  • Calf cramp was associated (p < 0.05) with older age; the presence of hand tremor; stronger foot inversion, eversion, dorsiflexion, and plantarflexion; and better performance in long-jump and 9-hole peg tests.
  • Logistic regression analysis revealed only increasing age (odds ratio [OR] 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11-1.58; p = 0.002) and the presence of hand tremor (OR 3.81, 95% CI 1.18-12.56; p = 0.028) as independent predictors of calf cramp.
  • CONCLUSION: Calf cramps are common in children with CMT1A and worsen with age.
  • This study revealed a previously unrecognized link between cramp and hand tremor in children with CMT1A.
  • Further investigation of proposed mechanisms and risk factors common to both cramp and tremor will contribute to our understanding of these common complications of CMT1A.
  • [MeSH-major] Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease / complications. Muscle Cramp / complications


3. |......... 11%  Senapin S, Phiwsaiya K, Gangnonngiw W, Flegel TW: False rumours of disease outbreaks caused by infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) in the whiteleg shrimp in Asia. J Negat Results Biomed; 2011;10:10
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  • [Title] False rumours of disease outbreaks caused by infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) in the whiteleg shrimp in Asia.
  • BACKGROUND: Infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) disease outbreaks in cultivated whiteleg shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei are characterized by gross signs of whitened abdominal muscles and by slow mortality reaching up to 70%.
  • In 2006 the first disease outbreaks caused by IMNV in Asia occurred in Indonesia.
  • Since then rumours have periodically circulated about IMNV disease outbreaks in other Asian countries.
  • In most cases, our shrimp samples for which tissue sections were possible showed signs of muscle cramp syndrome that also commonly causes muscle whitening in stressed whiteleg shrimp.
  • Thus, we suspect that most of the false rumours in Asia about IMNV outside of Indonesia have resulted because of muscle cramp syndrome.
  • We suspect that confusion has arisen because muscle cramp syndrome causes similar signs of whitened tail muscles in whiteleg shrimp.

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  • (PMID = 21813002.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-5751
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of negative results in biomedicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Negat Results Biomed
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Viral
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3199911
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4. |......... 6%  Ge HY, Fernández-de-Las-Peñas C, Yue SW: Myofascial trigger points: spontaneous electrical activity and its consequences for pain induction and propagation. Chin Med; 2011;6:13
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  • The spontaneous electrical activity represents focal muscle fiber contraction and/or muscle cramp potentials depending on trigger point sensitivity.
  • Nociceptor and non-nociceptor sensitization at myofascial trigger points may be part of the process of muscle ischemia associated with sustained focal muscle contraction and/or muscle cramps.

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  • (PMID = 21439050.001).
  • [ISSN] 1749-8546
  • [Journal-full-title] Chinese medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chin Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3070691
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5. |......... 5%  Tayebi Khosroshahi H, Habibi Asl B, Habibzadeh A, Chaichi P, Ghanbarpour A, Hossein Badie A: Comparison of vitamin e and L-carnitine, separately or in combination in patients with intradialytic complications. Nephrourol Mon; 2013 Sep;5(4):862-5
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  • BACKGROUND: The most common complications during dialysis are hypotension and muscle cramps.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a prospective study, 20 patients with end stage renal disease on chronic hemodialysis that had intradialytic complications such as hypotension, muscle cramp, nausea, vomiting and headache were studied.
  • RESULTS: All three treatments significantly reduced frequency of muscle cramps in comparison to baseline values.
  • Vitamin E alone and in combination with L-carnitine reduced the frequency of muscle cramps more effectively.

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  • (PMID = 24350082.001).
  • [ISSN] 2251-7006
  • [Journal-full-title] Nephro-urology monthly
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nephrourol Mon
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Iran
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3842554
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Carnitine / Kidney Failure, Chronic / Renal Dialysis / Vitamin E
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6. |......... 4%  Chatrath H, Liangpunsakul S, Ghabril M, Otte J, Chalasani N, Vuppalanchi R: Prevalence and morbidity associated with muscle cramps in patients with cirrhosis. Am J Med; 2012 Oct;125(10):1019-25
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  • [Title] Prevalence and morbidity associated with muscle cramps in patients with cirrhosis.
  • PURPOSE: Patients with cirrhosis often experience muscle cramps with varying severity.
  • We investigated the factors associated with the prevalence and morbidity associated with muscle cramps.
  • Cramp questionnaire with visual analogue scale for pain, Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire (CLDQ), and blood for measurement of 25-(OH) vitamin D levels were obtained after informed consent.
  • RESULTS: A total of 101 patients (67%) reported muscle cramps in the preceding 3 months.
  • Patients with cramps had significantly lower serum albumin (3.1±0.6 g/dL vs 3.3±0.7 g/dL, P=.04) and CLDQ scores (107±37 vs 137±34, P<.0001) compared with those without cramps.
  • The median composite symptom score, defined as product of frequency and severity of cramps, in the study cohort was 12 with a range of 0.3 to 200.
  • There were no clinical or biochemical predictors for occurrence of any cramps or severe cramps (composite symptom score>12).
  • Muscle cramps (P<.001) and hepatic encephalopathy (P=.009) were associated independently with decreased CLDQ scores.
  • Vitamin D deficiency was seen in 66% of the study cohort, but the serum 25-(OH) vitamin D levels were not significantly different between patients with and without cramps (18.0±8.9 ng/mL vs 19.6±9.5 ng/mL, P=.49).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Muscle cramps are associated with significantly diminished quality of life in patients with cirrhosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Cirrhosis / complications. Muscle Cramp / etiology. Vitamin D Deficiency / complications

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 22835465.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-7162
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / K24 DK069290; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / K24 DK069290
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS510153; NLM/ PMC3932181
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7. |......... 3%  Miller KC, Knight KL: Initial electrical stimulation frequency and cramp threshold frequency and force. J Athl Train; 2012 Nov-Dec;47(6):643-7
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  • [Title] Initial electrical stimulation frequency and cramp threshold frequency and force.
  • CONTEXT: In the electrically induced cramp model, the tibial nerve is stimulated at an initial frequency of 4 Hz with increases in 2-Hz increments until the flexor hallucis brevis cramps.
  • The frequency at which cramping occurs (ie, threshold frequency [TF]) can vary considerably.
  • Patients or Other Participants: Twenty participants (13 males: age = 20.6 ± 2.9 years, height = 184.4 ± 5.7 cm, mass = 76.3 ± 7.1 kg; 7 females: age = 20.4 ± 3.5 years, height = 166.6 ± 6.0 cm, mass = 62.4 ± 10.0 kg) who were prone to cramps.
  • Participants were stimulated at either 4 Hz or 14 Hz, and the frequency was increased in 2-Hz increments from each initial frequency until cramp.
  • The MVIC force was lower at 1 minute postcramp, suggesting the induced cramp rather than the varying electrical frequencies affected force.
  • A 1- to 5-minute rest should be provided postcramp induction if multiple cramps are induced.
  • [MeSH-major] Electric Stimulation / adverse effects. Isometric Contraction / physiology. Muscle Cramp / etiology. Tibial Nerve
  • [MeSH-minor] Cross-Over Studies. Electromyography. Fatigue. Female. Humans. Male. Muscle Contraction / physiology. Muscle, Skeletal / physiology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 23182012.001).
  • [ISSN] 1938-162X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of athletic training
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Athl Train
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3499888
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8. |||||||||. 130%  Okada Y, Ayaki T, Matsumoto R, Ito H, Takahashi R, Nakano S: [Patient of myofibrillar myopathy associated with muscle cramp and distal muscle involvement]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku; 2012;52(10):774-7
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  • [Title] [Patient of myofibrillar myopathy associated with muscle cramp and distal muscle involvement].
  • A 53-year-old man presented mild, but gradually worsening, distal-dominant upper bilateral limbs weakness and muscle cramp in both legs from the age of 30.
  • He had no obvious muscle atrophy during the course of the disease.
  • Muscle biopsy of the right lateral vastus muscle showed myopathic changes with round or helical hyaline inclusions in eosinophilic on H&E staining and dark green on modified Gomori trichrome.
  • While MFM patients are sometimes reported to develop serious conditions such as severe weakness, cardiomyopathy or respiratory failure, which require a pacemaker or mechanical ventilator, our case only had mild distal dominant limb weakness and muscle cramps.
  • [MeSH-major] Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia / complications. Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia / diagnosis. Muscle Cramp / etiology. Muscle, Skeletal. Muscular Atrophy / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Connectin / metabolism. Desmin / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Extremities. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 23064629.001).
  • [ISSN] 1882-0654
  • [Journal-full-title] Rinshō shinkeigaku = Clinical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rinsho Shinkeigaku
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Connectin; 0 / Desmin; 0 / MYOT protein, human; Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia, Familial, 7
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9. |||||||||. 129%  Drouet A: [Management of muscle cramp: what's to be done?]. Rev Prat; 2013 May;63(5):619-23
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  • [Title] [Management of muscle cramp: what's to be done?].
  • [Transliterated title] Comment optimiser la prise en charge des crampes musculaires?
  • Muscle cramp is characterized by involuntary, painful, visible contraction of a muscle (or a part of muscle) and is always associated with irregular repetitive firing of motor unit action potentials (200 à 300 Hz) which is caused by hyperexcitability of intramuscular terminal motor axons.
  • A careful history and examination should allow the physician to determine the significance of cramp.
  • ENMG and biological tests are needed in cases of severe symptoms (severity and frequency of cramps) and/or abnormal examination.
  • Idiopathic and secondary (drug or metabolic disorders) cramps are the most common groups, but it's very important to search the motor unit diseases (neuropathy, radiculopathy, plexopathy, neuromyotonia, and a cramp fasciculation syndrome which can preceded ALS).
  • The first goal in management of cramp is to determine if there is an underlying cause and the second to use physical measures (stretching), because, pharmacologic treatments have a moderate interest because of the potential of toxicity (quinine sulfate) or a little effectiveness (vitamin B complex, naftidrofuryl, and calcium channel blockers such as diltiazem, gabapentin).
  • Isolated cramp doesn't need treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Muscle Cramp / therapy

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  • (PMID = 23789484.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-2640
  • [Journal-full-title] La Revue du praticien
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Prat
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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10. ||||||||.. 84%  Miller KC, Knight KL, Wilding SR, Stone MB: Duration of electrically induced muscle cramp increased by increasing stimulation frequency. J Sport Rehabil; 2012 May;21(2):182-5
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  • [Title] Duration of electrically induced muscle cramp increased by increasing stimulation frequency.
  • CONTEXT: Electrically induced muscle cramps (EIMC) do not last long enough to study many cramp treatments.
  • Increasing stimulation frequency lengthens cramp duration; it is unknown which frequency elicits the longest EIMC.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine which stimulation frequency elicits the longest EIMC and whether cramp duration and stimulation frequency are correlated.
  • PARTICIPANTS: 20 participants (12 male, 8 female; age 20.7 ± 0.6 y; height 174.9 ± 1.9 cm; mass 76.6 ± 2.2 kg) with a self-reported history of muscle cramps in their lower extremities within the 6 mo before the study.
  • After 1 min of rest, stimulation frequency increased in 2-Hz increments until a cramp occurred in the flexor hallucis brevis.
  • The stimulation frequency at which a cramp occurred was termed cramp threshold frequency (TF).
  • Cramp duration was determined using strict clinical criteria (loss of hallux rigidity and return of hallux neutral).
  • On the next 4 consecutive days, participants were stimulated at 5, 10, 15, or 20 Hz above TF, and cramp duration was reassessed.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cramp TF and duration.
  • RESULTS: Cramp TF was 16.9 ± 5.1 Hz.
  • Cramp duration was longer at 15 and 20 Hz above TF (77.9 ± 37.6 s and 69.5 ± 36.9 s, respectively) than at TF (40.8 ± 34.0 s; P < .05).
  • Cramp duration and TF were highly correlated (r = .90).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Stimulating at 15 and 20 Hz above cramp TF produces the longest-lasting EIMC.

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  • (PMID = 22104040.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-3072
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of sport rehabilitation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Sport Rehabil
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. |......... 3%  Minetto MA, Holobar A, Botter A, Farina D: Discharge properties of motor units of the abductor hallucis muscle during cramp contractions. J Neurophysiol; 2009 Sep;102(3):1890-901
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  • [Title] Discharge properties of motor units of the abductor hallucis muscle during cramp contractions.
  • We analyzed individual motor units during electrically elicited cramp contractions with the aim of characterizing the variability and degree of common oscillations in their discharges.
  • Intramuscular and surface electromyographic (EMG) signals were detected from the abductor hallucis muscle of 11 healthy subjects (age 27.0+/-3.7 yr) during electrically elicited cramps.
  • In conclusion, motor units active during cramps showed a range of discharge rates similar to that observed during voluntary contractions but larger ISI variability, probably due to large synaptic noise.
  • [MeSH-major] Motor Neurons / physiology. Muscle Contraction / physiology. Muscle Cramp / physiopathology. Muscle, Skeletal / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 19571196.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3077
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurophysiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurophysiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. |......... 3%  Minetto MA, Holobar A, Botter A, Ravenni R, Farina D: Mechanisms of cramp contractions: peripheral or central generation? J Physiol; 2011 Dec 1;589(Pt 23):5759-73
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  • [Title] Mechanisms of cramp contractions: peripheral or central generation?
  • We analysed the cramp threshold (i.e. the minimum frequency of electrical stimulation capable of inducing a cramp) and the behaviour of individual motor units during cramps electrically elicited in the absence (intact condition) and presence (blocked condition) of a peripheral nerve block in eight healthy subjects.
  • The cramp threshold was significantly greater in the blocked than in the intact condition (18 ± 3 Hz vs. 13 ± 3 Hz; P = 0.01).
  • Cramp duration and peak EMG amplitude in the intact condition (55.6 ± 19.2 s and 47.5 ± 24.8 μV, respectively) were significantly greater compared to the blocked condition (2.6 ± 1.3 s and 13.9 ± 8.8 μV; P < 0.01).
  • These results indicate a spinal involvement at the origin of cramps and during their development.
  • [MeSH-major] Motor Neurons / physiology. Muscle Cramp / physiopathology. Muscle, Skeletal / innervation. Spinal Cord / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anesthetics / pharmacology. Electric Stimulation. Electromyography. Humans. Male. Muscle Contraction / physiology. Nerve Block. Peripheral Nervous System / physiology. Tibial Nerve / drug effects. Tibial Nerve / physiology

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  • (PMID = 21969448.001).
  • [ISSN] 1469-7793
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Physiol. (Lond.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anesthetics
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3249048
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13. |......... 3%  Shamim EA, Chu J, Scheider LH, Savitt J, Jinnah HA, Hallett M: Extreme task specificity in writer's cramp. Mov Disord; 2011 Sep;26(11):2107-9
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  • [Title] Extreme task specificity in writer's cramp.
  • BACKGROUND: Focal hand dystonia may be task specific, as is the case with writer's cramp.
  • In early stages, task specificity can be so specific that it may be mistaken for a psychogenic movement disorder.
  • METHODS: We describe 4 patients who showed extreme task specificity in writer's cramp.
  • Although they were largely thought to be psychogenic, they progressed to typical writer's cramp.
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Muscle Cramp. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.
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  • (PMID = 21714006.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-8257
  • [Journal-full-title] Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mov. Disord.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS067501; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / Z99 NS999999
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS296569; NLM/ PMC3417074
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14. |......... 2%  Oguma S, Ando I, Hirose T, Totsune K, Sekino H, Sato H, Imai Y, Fujiwara M: Biotin ameliorates muscle cramps of hemodialysis patients: a prospective trial. Tohoku J Exp Med; 2012;227(3):217-23
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  • [Title] Biotin ameliorates muscle cramps of hemodialysis patients: a prospective trial.
  • Patients with renal failure undergoing hemodialysis often have muscle cramps during and after the dialysis therapy.
  • Muscle cramps are defined as the sudden onset of a prolonged involuntary muscle contraction accompanied with severe pain, resulting in early termination of a HD session and inadequate dialysis.
  • The etiology of the cramps is unknown and effective anti-cramp medicine is not available.
  • Accordingly, we administrated biotin to 14 patients who had frequent muscle cramps during HD sessions.
  • Oral administration of 1 mg/day biotin promptly reduced the onset and the severity of cramps in 12 patients both during and after HD.
  • Then, the plasma biotin levels were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method (ELISA) in HD patients, including 14 patients with cramps and 13 patients without cramps, and 11 healthy volunteers.
  • Unexpectedly, among the 14 cramp patients, the biotin levels were significantly higher in biotin-ineffective 7 patients than biotin-effective 7 patients [1,064 (710 - 1,187) vs. 445 (359 - 476) ng/l; p < 0.001].
  • In conclusion, biotin administration is one choice to relieve HD patients from muscle cramps regardless of their elevated plasma biotin levels.
  • [MeSH-major] Biotin / therapeutic use. Muscle Cramp / drug therapy. Muscle Cramp / etiology. Renal Dialysis / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 22791079.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-3329
  • [Journal-full-title] The Tohoku journal of experimental medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tohoku J. Exp. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6SO6U10H04 / Biotin
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15. |......... 2%  Kraus PD, Wolff D, Grauer O, Angstwurm K, Jarius S, Wandinger KP, Holler E, Schulte-Mattler W, Kleiter I: Muscle cramps and neuropathies in patients with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and graft-versus-host disease. PLoS One; 2012;7(9):e44922
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  • [Title] Muscle cramps and neuropathies in patients with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and graft-versus-host disease.
  • OBJECTIVE: Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is an immune-mediated multisystemic disorder and the leading cause of morbidity after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
  • Whereas immune-mediated neuropathies are an established feature of GVHD, muscle cramps are not well characterized.
  • Clinical, laboratory and neurophysiological findings were evaluated by descriptive statistics and regression analysis to detect factors associated with muscle cramps.
  • RESULTS: Nine patients had polyneuropathy, 4 had muscle cramps, and 14 had both.
  • Median onset of polyneuropathy and muscle cramps was 6 and 9 months after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, respectively.
  • Muscle cramps were more frequent during chronic than acute GVHD and affected muscles other than calves in 15 of 18 patients.
  • Muscle cramps were less likely with tacrolimus treatment and signs of severe polyneuropathy, but more likely with myopathic changes in electromyography and with incipient demyelinating polyneuropathy, shown by increased high frequency attenuation of the tibial nerve.
  • CONCLUSION: Muscle cramps are associated with chronic GVHD, often compromise daily activity, and correlate negatively with axonal polyneuropathy and positively with myopathy and incipient demyelination.
  • [MeSH-major] Graft vs Host Disease / complications. Graft vs Host Disease / etiology. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation / adverse effects. Muscle Cramp / complications. Polyneuropathies / complications. Polyneuropathies / etiology

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  • (PMID = 23028681.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WM0HAQ4WNM / Tacrolimus
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3444502
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16. ||||||||.. 83%  Braulick KW, Miller KC, Albrecht JM, Tucker JM, Deal JE: Significant and serious dehydration does not affect skeletal muscle cramp threshold frequency. Br J Sports Med; 2013 Jul;47(11):710-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Significant and serious dehydration does not affect skeletal muscle cramp threshold frequency.
  • OBJECTIVE: Many clinicians believe that exercise-associated muscle cramps (EAMC) occur because of dehydration.
  • Mild hypohydration (3% body mass loss) does not alter threshold frequency (TF), a measure of cramp susceptibility, when fatigue and exercise intensity are controlled.
  • Dominant limb flexor hallucis brevis cramp TF, cramp electromyography (EMG) amplitude and cramp intensity were measured in 10 euhydrated, unacclimated men (age=24±4 years, height=184.2±4.8 cm, mass=84.8±11.4 kg).
  • Cramp variables were reassessed posthypohydration.
  • They lost 4.7±0.5% of their body mass (3.9±0.5 litres of fluid), 4.0±1.5 g of Na(+) and 0.6±0.1 g K(+) via exercise-induced sweating.
  • Significant (n=5) or serious hypohydration (n=5) did not alter cramp TF (euhydrated=15±5 Hz, hypohydrated=13±6 Hz; F1,9=3.0, p=0.12), cramp intensity (euhydrated= 94.2±41%, hypohydrated=115.9±73%; F1,9=1.9, p=0.2) or cramp EMG amplitude (euhydrated=0.18±0.06 µV, hypohydrated= 0.18±0.09 µV; F1,9=0.1, p=0.79).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Significant and serious hypohydration with moderate electrolyte losses does not alter cramp susceptibility when fatigue and exercise intensity are controlled.
  • Neuromuscular control may be more important in the onset of muscle cramps than dehydration or electrolyte losses.
  • [MeSH-major] Dehydration / complications. Muscle Cramp / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Analysis of Variance. Biological Markers / blood. Electromyography. Exercise / physiology. Humans. Male. Muscle Fatigue / physiology. Muscle, Skeletal / physiology. Sweat / chemistry. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 23222192.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-0480
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of sports medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Sports Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biological Markers
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Dehydration / Muscle cramping
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17. ||||||.... 59%  Bischoff M: [From muscle cramp to rhabdomyolysis: what is causing muscle pain?]. MMW Fortschr Med; 2012 Oct 4;154(17):26-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [From muscle cramp to rhabdomyolysis: what is causing muscle pain?].
  • [MeSH-major] Muscle Cramp / etiology. Pain / etiology. Rhabdomyolysis / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Medical History Taking. Muscle Weakness / etiology. Physical Examination

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  • (PMID = 23088029.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-3276
  • [Journal-full-title] MMW Fortschritte der Medizin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] MMW Fortschr Med
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] News
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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19. |......... 10%  Miller KC, Mack GW, Knight KL, Hopkins JT, Draper DO, Fields PJ, Hunter I: Reflex inhibition of electrically induced muscle cramps in hypohydrated humans. Med Sci Sports Exerc; 2010 May;42(5):953-61
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  • [Title] Reflex inhibition of electrically induced muscle cramps in hypohydrated humans.
  • INTRODUCTION: Anecdotal evidence suggests that ingesting small volumes of pickle juice relieves muscle cramps within 35 s of ingestion.
  • No experimental evidence exists supporting the ingestion of pickle juice as a treatment for skeletal muscle cramps.
  • METHODS: On two different days (1 wk apart), muscle cramps were induced in the flexor hallucis brevis (FHB) of hypohydrated male subjects (approximately 3% body weight loss and plasma osmolality approximately 295 mOsm x kg(-1) H2O) via percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation.
  • Thirty minutes later, a second FHB muscle cramp was induced and was followed immediately by the ingestion of 1 mL x kg(-1) body weight of deionized water or pickle juice (73.9 +/- 2.8 mL).
  • RESULTS: Cramp duration and FHB EMG activity during the cramp were quantified, as well as the change in plasma constituents.
  • Cramp duration (water = 151.9 +/- 12.9 s and pickle juice = 153.2 +/- 23.7 s) and FHB EMG activity (water = 60% +/- 6% and pickle juice = 68% +/- 9% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction EMG activity) were similar during the initial cramp induction without fluid ingestion (P > 0.05).
  • During FHB muscle cramp induction combined with fluid ingestion, FHB EMG activity was again similar (water = 55% +/- 9% and pickle juice = 66% +/- 9% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction EMG activity, P > 0.05).
  • However, cramp duration was 49.1 +/- 14.6 s shorter after pickle juice ingestion than water (84.6 +/- 18.5 vs 133.7 +/- 15.9 s, respectively, P < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Pickle juice, and not deionized water, inhibits electrically induced muscle cramps in hypohydrated humans.
  • We suspect that the rapid inhibition of the electrically induced cramps reflects a neurally mediated reflex that originates in the oropharyngeal region and acts to inhibit the firing of alpha motor neurons of the cramping muscle.
  • [MeSH-major] Acetic Acid / therapeutic use. Dehydration / complications. Electric Stimulation / adverse effects. Muscle Cramp / etiology. Muscle Cramp / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19997012.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0315
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicine and science in sports and exercise
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Sci Sports Exerc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Electrolytes; Q40Q9N063P / Acetic Acid
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20. |......... 9%  Stone MB, Edwards JE, Huxel KC, Cordova ML, Ingersoll CD, Babington JP: Threshold frequency of an electrically induced cramp increases following a repeated, localized fatiguing exercise. J Sports Sci; 2010 Feb;28(4):399-405
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Threshold frequency of an electrically induced cramp increases following a repeated, localized fatiguing exercise.
  • Though clinical observations and laboratory data provide some support for the neuromuscular imbalance theory of the genesis of exercise-associated muscle cramps, no direct evidence has been published.
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of local muscle fatigue on the threshold frequency of an electrically induced muscle cramp.
  • To determine baseline threshold frequency, a cramp was electrically induced in the flexor hallucis brevis of 16 apparently healthy participants (7 males, 9 females; age 25.1 +/- 4.8 years).
  • In the control condition, participants rested in a supine position for 30 min followed by another cramp induction to determine post-threshold frequency.
  • An increase in threshold frequency seems to demonstrate a decrease in one's propensity to cramp following the fatigue exercise regimen used.
  • These results contradict the proposed theory that suggests cramp propensity should increase following fatigue.
  • However, differences in laboratory versus clinical fatiguing exercise and contributions from other sources, as well as the notion of a graded response to fatiguing exercise, on exercise-associated muscle cramp and electrically induced muscle cramp should be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Exercise / physiology. Muscle Contraction / physiology. Muscle Fatigue / physiology. Muscle, Skeletal / physiology

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  • (PMID = 20131142.001).
  • [ISSN] 1466-447X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of sports sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Sports Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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21. |......... 8%  Zhang WW, Xu ZP, Cui YY, Wang H, Song MK, Li J, Shao BY, Xia Z, Chen HZ: Peripheral cholinoceptor antagonist anisodamine counteracts cholinergic adverse effects and facilitates cognitive amelioration of rivastigmine. J Neural Transm; 2009 Dec;116(12):1643-9
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  • Rivastigmine is a potent acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitor widely used for cognitive improvement in Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapy.
  • Nevertheless, a high dose of rivastigmine (3.25 mg/kg) would compromise cognitive amelioration and produce obvious adverse effects, including hypersalivation, intestinal hyperperistalsis and muscle cramp.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Avoidance Learning / drug effects. Cognition / drug effects. Drug Therapy, Combination. Intestines / drug effects. Intestines / physiology. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred Strains. Muscle Cramp / chemically induced. Muscle Cramp / drug therapy. Random Allocation. Salivation / drug effects. Scopolamine Hydrobromide

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  • (PMID = 19756370.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-1463
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neural Transm
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cholinergic Antagonists; 0 / Neuroprotective Agents; 0 / Phenylcarbamates; 0 / Solanaceous Alkaloids; 01343Q8EL8 / anisodamine; 123441-03-2 / rivastigmine; 451IFR0GXB / Scopolamine Hydrobromide
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22. |......... 8%  Miller KC, Mack GW, Knight KL, Hopkins JT, Draper DO, Fields PJ, Hunter I: Three percent hypohydration does not affect threshold frequency of electrically induced cramps. Med Sci Sports Exerc; 2010 Nov;42(11):2056-63
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Three percent hypohydration does not affect threshold frequency of electrically induced cramps.
  • PURPOSE: Dehydration is hypothesized to cause exercise-associated muscle cramps.
  • The theory states that dehydration contracts the interstitial space, thereby increasing the pressure on nerve terminals and cramps ensue.
  • Inducing cramps with electrical stimulation minimizes many of the confounding factors associated with exercise-induced cramps (e.g., fatigue, metabolites).
  • Thus, our goal was to minimize fatigue and determine whether hypohydration decreases the electrical stimuli required to elicit cramping (termed "threshold frequency").
  • Dominant leg flexor hallucis brevis muscle cramps were induced before and after hypohydration, and threshold frequency was recorded.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Mild hypohydration with minimal neuromuscular fatigue does not seem to predispose individuals to cramping.
  • Thus, cramps may be more associated with neuromuscular fatigue than dehydration/electrolyte losses.
  • Health care professionals may have more success preventing exercise-associated muscle cramp by focusing on strategies that minimize neuromuscular fatigue rather than dehydration.
  • However, the effect of greater fluid losses on cramp threshold frequency is unknown and merits further research.
  • [MeSH-major] Dehydration / complications. Muscle Cramp / etiology. Muscle Fatigue

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  • (PMID = 20351595.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0315
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicine and science in sports and exercise
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Sci Sports Exerc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. |......... 8%  Hung CY, Chen YL, Chen CS, Yang CS, Peng SJ: Association of leptin with hemodialysis-related muscle cramps: a cross-sectional study. Blood Purif; 2009;27(2):159-64
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  • [Title] Association of leptin with hemodialysis-related muscle cramps: a cross-sectional study.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: The mechanism of muscle cramp in hemodialysis patients is not well understood.
  • This study aimed to determine the association between leptin and hemodialysis-related muscle cramps.
  • The episodes of hemodialysis-related muscle cramps were recorded over a 28-day period.
  • RESULTS: Frequent hemodialysis-related cramps were associated with old age and elevated serum leptin levels.
  • The risk of frequent hemodialysis-related cramps increased with increasing tertiles of leptin concentration.
  • This relationship remained significant after adjustment for age, mean ultrafiltration ratio, gender, body mass index, insulin, resistin, c-reactive protein, albumin, peripheral arterial disease, electrolytes, and beta(2)-microglobulin.
  • CONCLUSION: Leptin levels are associated with frequent hemodialysis-related cramps.
  • [MeSH-major] Kidney Failure, Chronic / complications. Leptin / blood. Muscle Cramp / etiology. Renal Dialysis / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 19141993.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9735
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood purification
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood Purif.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Leptin
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24. |......... 8%  Blyton F, Chuter V, Walter KE, Burns J: Non-drug therapies for lower limb muscle cramps. Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2012;1:CD008496
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Non-drug therapies for lower limb muscle cramps.
  • BACKGROUND: About one in every three adults are affected by lower limb muscle cramps.
  • For some people, these cramps reduce quality of life, quality of sleep and participation in activities of daily living.
  • Many interventions are available for lower limb cramps, but some are controversial, no treatment guidelines exist, and often people experience no benefit from the interventions prescribed.
  • OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of non-drug, non-invasive treatments for lower limb cramp.
  • SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register (13 September 2011) using the terms: cramp, spasm, contracture, charley horse and lower limb, lower extremity, foot, calf, leg, thigh, gastrocnemius, hamstring, quadriceps.
  • SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised controlled trials of non-drug, non-invasive interventions trialled over at least four weeks for the prevention of lower limb muscle cramps in any group of people.
  • We selected only trials that included at least one of the following outcomes: cramp frequency, cramp severity, health-related quality of life, quality of sleep, participation in activities of daily living and adverse outcomes.
  •  All participants were age 60 years or over and had received a repeat prescription from their general practitioner of quinine for nighttime cramps in the preceding three months.
  • Forty-nine participants were advised to complete lean-to-wall calf muscle stretching held for 10 s three times per day.
  • After 12 weeks, there was no statistically significant difference in recalled cramp frequency between groups.
  • AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is limited evidence on which to base clinical decisions regarding the use of non-drug therapies for the treatment of lower limb muscle cramp.
  • [MeSH-major] Lower Extremity. Muscle Cramp / therapy. Muscle Stretching Exercises / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Humans. Middle Aged. Muscle Relaxants, Central / therapeutic use. Quinine / therapeutic use. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic

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  • (PMID = 22258986.001).
  • [ISSN] 1469-493X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Cochrane database of systematic reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cochrane Database Syst Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Muscle Relaxants, Central; A7V27PHC7A / Quinine
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25. |......... 7%  Hokari S, Koya T, Shimaoka Y, Nakayama H, Terada M, Suzuki E: [Interstitial pneumonia associated with stiff-person syndrome]. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi; 2010 Feb;48(2):162-5
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  • Three months after the diagnosis of interstitial pneumonia, he noticed neurological symptoms, such as facial spasms, dysphagia, muscle rigidity and muscle cramp, and repeatedly received clonazepam.

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  • (PMID = 20184250.001).
  • [ISSN] 1343-3490
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Kokyūki Gakkai zasshi = the journal of the Japanese Respiratory Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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26. |......... 7%  Ge HY, Arendt-Nielsen L: Latent myofascial trigger points. Curr Pain Headache Rep; 2011 Oct;15(5):386-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • A latent myofascial trigger point (MTP) is defined as a focus of hyperirritability in a muscle taut band that is clinically associated with local twitch response and tenderness and/or referred pain upon manual examination.
  • Current evidence suggests that the temporal profile of the spontaneous electrical activity at an MTP is similar to focal muscle fiber contraction and/or muscle cramp potentials, which contribute significantly to the induction of local tenderness and pain and motor dysfunctions.

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  • (PMID = 21559783.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-3081
  • [Journal-full-title] Current pain and headache reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Pain Headache Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. |......... 6%  Liu SL, Chen G, Zhao YP, Wu WM, Zhang TP: Optimized dose of imatinib for treatment of gastrointestinal stromal tumors: a meta-analysis. J Dig Dis; 2013 Jan;14(1):16-21
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  • The rates of rash, hemorrhage, nausea, vomiting and taste disturbance increased as dose increased (P < 0.05), whereas the incidence of headache, abdominal pain, edema, fatigue, anemia, infection, muscle cramp and constipation was nearly identical and showed no significant difference.

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  • [Copyright] © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Digestive Diseases © 2012 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
  • (PMID = 23121684.001).
  • [ISSN] 1751-2980
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of digestive diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dig Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; BKJ8M8G5HI / imatinib
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28. |......... 6%  Arimura K, Watanabe O: [Immune-mediated neuromyotonia (Isaacs' syndrome)--clinical aspects and pathomechanism]. Brain Nerve; 2010 Apr;62(4):401-10
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  • Isaacs' syndrome (immune-mediated neuromyotonia) is an antibody-mediated potassium channel disorder (channelopathy).
  • Clinical symptoms of Isaacs' syndrome are characterized by muscle cramp, slow relaxation following muscle contraction (pseudomyotonia), and hyperhidrosis; these symptoms are due to hyperexcitability of the peripheral nerve, including autonomic nerve.
  • Recent studies show that this disease is not infrequently associated with neoplasm, especially thymoma.

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  • (PMID = 20420181.001).
  • [ISSN] 1881-6096
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain and nerve = Shinkei kenkyū no shinpo
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Nerve
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Potassium Channels; 0 / Potassium Channels, Voltage-Gated
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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29. |......... 6%  Takashima H: [History of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with proximal dominant involvement (HMSN-P)]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku; 2013;53(11):1196-8
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  • We established a new disease autosomal dominant hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with proximal dominant involvement (HMSNP) in 1997, in Okinawa, Japan.
  • This disease is characterized by proximal dominant neurogenic atrophy with fasciculations, painful muscle cramp, obvious sensory nerve involvement, areflexia, high incidence of elevated creatine kinase levels, hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia. (MIM %604484).
  • Most HMSNP patients have severe muscle atrophy and finally the tracheostomy and artificial ventilation are required.
  • Therefore, we initially thought to classify HMSNP into a subtype of motor neuron disease (MND) like familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) or spinal muscular atrophy (SMA).
  • Therefore, as the disease showed severe sensory involvement, we categorized HMSNP in subtype of HMSN at that time.

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  • (PMID = 24291927.001).
  • [ISSN] 1882-0654
  • [Journal-full-title] Rinshō shinkeigaku = Clinical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rinsho Shinkeigaku
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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31. |......... 6%  Watanabe O: [Isaacs's syndrome and associated diseases]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku; 2013;53(11):1067-70
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  • Isaacs' syndrome is an antibody-mediated potassium channel disorder.
  • Clinical symptoms of Isaacs' syndrome are characterized by muscle cramp, slow relaxation following muscle contraction, and hyperhidrosis.

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  • (PMID = 24291881.001).
  • [ISSN] 1882-0654
  • [Journal-full-title] Rinshō shinkeigaku = Clinical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rinsho Shinkeigaku
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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32. |......... 6%  Hara K, Watanabe O, Shibano K, Ishiguro H: [Case of anti VGKC-complex antibody associated disorder presenting with severe pain and fasciculations predominant in unilateral upper extremity]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku; 2012;52(9):677-80
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  • [Title] [Case of anti VGKC-complex antibody associated disorder presenting with severe pain and fasciculations predominant in unilateral upper extremity].
  • A 21-year-old man complained of severe pain and muscle twitching localized in his right arm.
  • Neurological examination showed muscle fasciculations in his right forearm but no myokymia or myotonia.
  • Needle electromyography revealed fibrillation potentials in his biceps brachii muscle and extensor carpi radialis muscle at rest but no myokymic discharges.
  • This case with neither muscle cramp nor myokymia expands the phenotype of anti VGKC-complex antibody associated disorder.

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  • (PMID = 22989904.001).
  • [ISSN] 1882-0654
  • [Journal-full-title] Rinshō shinkeigaku = Clinical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rinsho Shinkeigaku
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Biological Markers; 0 / Immunoglobulins, Intravenous; 0 / Potassium Channels, Voltage-Gated; X4W7ZR7023 / Methylprednisolone
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33. |......... 5%  Ichikawa T, Naota T, Miyaaki H, Miuma S, Isomoto H, Takeshima F, Nakao K: Effect of an oral branched chain amino acid-enriched snack in cirrhotic patients with sleep disturbance. Hepatol Res; 2010 Oct;40(10):971-8
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  • The items, as major symptoms of cirrhotic patients, were as follows: hand tremor, appetite loss, muscle cramp of foot, fatigue, decreased strength, anxiety, abdominal fullness, abdominal pain and a feeling of low energy.
  • However, the cirrhotic symptom-related score was positively relation with the Child-Pugh score at the time of patient entry, and we were unable to identify the item that related to ESS.

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 The Japan Society of Hepatology.
  • (PMID = 20887332.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-6346
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepatology research : the official journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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34. |......... 5%  Kim HJ, Kim CK, Carpentier A, Poortmans JR: Studies on the safety of creatine supplementation. Amino Acids; 2011 May;40(5):1409-18
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  • Anecdotal reports from athletes have appeared on muscle cramp and gastrointestinal complaints during creatine supplementation, but the incidence of these is limited and not necessarily linked to creatine itself.
  • We advise that high-dose (>3-5 g/day) creatine supplementation should not be used by individuals with pre-existing renal disease or those with a potential risk for renal dysfunction (diabetes, hypertension, reduced glomerular filtration rate).

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  • (PMID = 21399917.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-2199
  • [Journal-full-title] Amino acids
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Amino Acids
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] MU72812GK0 / Creatine
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35. |......... 5%  Hawke F, Chuter V, Burns J: Impact of nocturnal calf cramping on quality of sleep and health-related quality of life. Qual Life Res; 2013 Aug;22(6):1281-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Impact of nocturnal calf cramping on quality of sleep and health-related quality of life.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of nocturnal calf cramping (a condition that affects one in two people over 60 years of age) on quality of sleep and health-related quality of life.
  • METHODS: Eighty adults who experienced nocturnal calf cramp at least once per week and eighty age- and sex-matched controls who never experienced nocturnal cramp were recruited from the Greater Newcastle and Central Coast regions of New South Wales, Australia.
  • RESULTS: People who experienced nocturnal muscle cramps reported more sleep disturbance (p < 0.001), less adequate sleep (p = 0.001), less quantity of sleep (p = 0.02) and more snoring (p = 0.03).
  • Both sleep problem summary indices for the MOS-SS identified people who experienced nocturnal muscle cramp as having more sleep problems than the controls.
  • People who experienced nocturnal muscle cramps had lower health-related quality of life for the SF-36 domains role physical (p = 0.007), bodily pain (p = 0.003) and general health (p = 0.02).
  • The impact of nocturnal calf cramps on health-related quality of life was largely explained by their negative impact on quality of sleep.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Nocturnal calf muscle cramps are associated with substantially reduced quality of sleep and reduced physical aspects of health-related quality of life.

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  • (PMID = 23011494.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-2649
  • [Journal-full-title] Quality of life research : an international journal of quality of life aspects of treatment, care and rehabilitation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Qual Life Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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38. |......... 4%  Reichel G: [Muscle cramps--differential diagnosis and therapy]. Med Monatsschr Pharm; 2009 Mar;32(3):80-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Muscle cramps--differential diagnosis and therapy].
  • Calf cramps are sudden, involuntary, painful contractions of part of or the entire calf muscle that are visible, persist for seconds to minutes and then spontaneously resolve.
  • They can occur with no identifiable cause, and are then referred to as common calf cramps.
  • They may also be symptoms associated with diseases of the peripheral and central nervous system and muscle diseases.
  • In such cases the cramps are more extensive, intense and persist for longer.
  • Cramp-fasciculation-myalgia syndrome additionally involves paresthesias and other signs of hyperexcitability of peripheral nerves.
  • The recommended treatment for patients with frequent calf cramps causing significant impairment of well-being is oral administration of quinidine and/or botulinum toxin treatment of the calf muscles.
  • [MeSH-major] Muscle Cramp / diagnosis. Muscle Cramp / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19402333.001).
  • [ISSN] 0342-9601
  • [Journal-full-title] Medizinische Monatsschrift für Pharmazeuten
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Monatsschr Pharm
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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39. |......... 4%  Shang G, Collins M, Schwellnus MP: Factors associated with a self-reported history of exercise-associated muscle cramps in Ironman triathletes: a case-control study. Clin J Sport Med; 2011 May;21(3):204-10
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  • [Title] Factors associated with a self-reported history of exercise-associated muscle cramps in Ironman triathletes: a case-control study.
  • OBJECTIVE: Exercise-associated muscle cramping (EAMC) is a common medical condition in endurance athletes.
  • CONCLUSIONS: There is evidence from this study that a history of EAMC is associated with (1) exercising at a higher intensity during a race that may result in premature muscle fatigue, (2) an inherited risk (positive family history), and (3) a history of tendon and/or ligament injury.
  • [MeSH-major] Athletes. Athletic Injuries / etiology. Muscle Cramp / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Body Height / physiology. Body Weight / physiology. Case-Control Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Muscle Fatigue / physiology. Muscle Stretching Exercises. Physical Endurance / physiology. Risk Factors. Running / physiology

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  • [Copyright] 2011 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
  • (PMID = 21430526.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3724
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical journal of sport medicine : official journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin J Sport Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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40. |......... 4%  Minetto MA, Holobar A, Botter A, Farina D: Origin and development of muscle cramps. Exerc Sport Sci Rev; 2013 Jan;41(1):3-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Origin and development of muscle cramps.
  • Cramps are sudden, involuntary, painful muscle contractions.
  • One hypothesis is that cramps result from changes in motor neuron excitability (central origin).
  • The central origin hypothesis has been supported by recent experimental findings, whose implications for understanding cramp contractions are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Muscle Cramp / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Electromyography. Exercise / physiology. Humans. Motor Neurons / physiology. Muscle, Skeletal / innervation. Muscle, Skeletal / physiopathology. Nerve Block

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  • (PMID = 23038243.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3008
  • [Journal-full-title] Exercise and sport sciences reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exerc Sport Sci Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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41. |......... 3%  Ochsner F: [The mucisian's cramp. About the illness of Robert Schumann]. Rev Med Suisse; 2012 Jan 11;8(323):66-9
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  • [Title] [The mucisian's cramp. About the illness of Robert Schumann].
  • [Transliterated title] La crampe du musicien. A propos de la maladie de Robert Schumann.
  • The history of the German Romantic composer Robert Schumann illustrates this reality; through his story a discussion of both the different pathophysiological hypotheses responsible for focal dystonia, a disorder of brain plasticity, and of the multimodal therapeutic approaches, revisited in the light of neurophysiological findings will be described.
  • [MeSH-major] Famous Persons. Muscle Cramp / history. Music / history. Occupational Diseases / history

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  • (PMID = 22303744.001).
  • [ISSN] 1660-9379
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue médicale suisse
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Suisse
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Biography; English Abstract; Historical Article; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Personal-name-as-subject] Schumann R
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42. |......... 3%  Lopate G, Streif E, Harms M, Weihl C, Pestronk A: Cramps and small-fiber neuropathy. Muscle Nerve; 2013 Aug;48(2):252-5
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  • [Title] Cramps and small-fiber neuropathy.
  • INTRODUCTION: Muscle cramps are a common complaint and are thought to arise from spontaneous discharges of the motor nerve terminal.
  • METHODS: We performed skin biopsies on consecutive patients with cramps but without neuropathic complaints.
  • A cause for neuropathy was found in 1 patient with cramp-fasciculation syndrome.
  • Muscle biopsy, performed in 8 patients, but was diagnostic in only 1, with McArdle disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that 60% of patients with muscle cramps who lack neuropathic complaints have SFN, as documented by decreased IENFD.
  • Cramps may originate as local mediators of inflammation released by damaged small nerve that excite intramuscular nerves.
  • [MeSH-major] Muscle Cramp / complications. Muscle Cramp / diagnosis. Peripheral Nervous System Diseases / complications. Peripheral Nervous System Diseases / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 23813593.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-4598
  • [Journal-full-title] Muscle & nerve
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Muscle Nerve
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.3.2 / Creatine Kinase
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; muscle cramps / peripheral nervous system disease / skin biopsy / small-fiber neuropathy / unmyelinated nerve fibers
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43. |......... 3%  Minetto MA, Botter A, De Grandis D, Merletti R: Time and frequency domain analysis of surface myoelectric signals during electrically-elicited cramps. Neurophysiol Clin; 2009 Feb;39(1):15-25
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  • [Title] Time and frequency domain analysis of surface myoelectric signals during electrically-elicited cramps.
  • OBJECTIVES: To examine if different frequencies of electrical stimulation trigger different sized cramps in the abductor hallucis muscle and to analyze their surface electromyographic (EMG) behaviour in both time and frequency domains.
  • Stimulation trains of 150 pulses were applied to the muscle motor point.
  • Frequency was increased (starting from 4pps with 2-pps steps) until a cramp developed.
  • After the first cramp ("threshold cramp"), a 30-minute rest was provided before a second cramp ("above-threshold cramp") was elicited with a frequency increased by 50% with respect to that eliciting the first cramp.
  • RESULTS: We found greater EMG amplitude and a compression of the power spectrum for above-threshold cramps with respect to threshold cramps.
  • Significant positive correlations were found between estimates of EMG amplitude during cramps and estimated reductions of M-wave amplitude.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Varying frequencies of electrical stimulation triggered different sized cramps.
  • Moreover, decreases in M-wave amplitude were observed during both threshold and above-threshold stimulations.
  • The choice of the stimulation frequency has relevance for optimizing electrical stimulation protocols for the study of muscle cramps in both healthy and pathological subjects.
  • [MeSH-major] Electric Stimulation. Muscle Cramp / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Algorithms. Ankle Joint / physiology. Electromyography. Female. Foot / physiology. Humans. Leg / physiology. Male. Muscle, Skeletal / physiology. Skin Temperature / physiology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19268843.001).
  • [ISSN] 0987-7053
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurophysiologie clinique = Clinical neurophysiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurophysiol Clin
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] France
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44. |......... 3%  Vanhaesebrouck AE, Bhatti SF, Franklin RJ, Van Ham L: Myokymia and neuromyotonia in veterinary medicine: a comparison with peripheral nerve hyperexcitability syndrome in humans. Vet J; 2013 Aug;197(2):153-62
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  • Involuntary muscle hyperactivity can result from muscle or peripheral nerve hyperexcitability or central nervous system dysfunction.
  • Hyperexcitability of the peripheral motor nerve can result into five different phenotypic main variants, i.e. fasciculations, myokymia, neuromyotonia, cramps and tetany, each with their own clinical and electromyographic characteristics.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Humans. Muscle Cramp / pathology. Tetany / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 23583699.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2971
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary journal (London, England : 1997)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Dog / Hereditary ataxia / Jack Russell terrier / Muscle hyperactivity / Potassium channel
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45. |......... 3%  Miller KC, Knight KL: Electrical stimulation cramp threshold frequency correlates well with the occurrence of skeletal muscle cramps. Muscle Nerve; 2009 Mar;39(3):364-8
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  • [Title] Electrical stimulation cramp threshold frequency correlates well with the occurrence of skeletal muscle cramps.
  • The minimum electrical stimulation frequency (HZ) at which a muscle cramps is termed threshold frequency (TF).
  • TF is theorized to represent one's predisposition to cramping; however, TF and cramp occurrence have never been correlated.
  • We hypothesized that TF would be lower in individuals with a cramp history and lower on the second of two days of testing; genetics may partially explain this lower TF.
  • Cramp TF was measured in 19 subjects with (Group 1), and 12 subjects without (Group 2), a cramp history.
  • Group 1 had a lower TF (14.9 +/- 1.3 vs. 25.5 +/- 1.6 HZ; P < 0.001) and a higher family history of cramping than Group 2 (89% vs. 27%; P < 0.001).
  • Lower TFs are correlated with cramp history, supporting the inference that lower TFs may represent increased predisposition toward cramping.
  • TF may be used to identify individuals at risk of cramping.
  • [MeSH-major] Electric Stimulation / adverse effects. Muscle Cramp / etiology. Muscle, Skeletal / physiology. Pain Threshold / physiology

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  • (PMID = 19208394.001).
  • [ISSN] 0148-639X
  • [Journal-full-title] Muscle & nerve
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Muscle Nerve
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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46. |......... 3%  Horswill CA, Stofan JR, Lacambra M, Toriscelli TA, Eichner ER, Murray R: Sodium balance during U. S. football training in the heat: cramp-prone vs. reference players. Int J Sports Med; 2009 Nov;30(11):789-94
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  • [Title] Sodium balance during U. S. football training in the heat: cramp-prone vs. reference players.
  • U. S. football players with a history of heat cramps were evaluated for the effect of physical training, sodium intake, and loss of sweat sodium on whole blood sodium concentration (BNa).
  • The reference group (R, n=8 without a cramping history) and cramp-prone group (C, n=6, history of whole-body cramps associated with extensive sweat loss during exercise in the heat) were measured for body mass and BNa (ISTAT) before and after team training of 2.2 h in hot conditions (WBGT=29-32 degrees C).
  • In R, BNa was stable pre- to post-training (138.9+/-1.8 to 139.0+/-2.0 mmol/L) while it tended to decline in C (137.8+/-2.3 to 135.7+/-4.9 mmol/L), and three subjects in C had BNa values below 135 mmol/L (131.7+/-2.9 mmol/L).
  • These changes may place cramp-prone players at greater risks for developing acute sodium deficits during training.
  • [MeSH-major] Football / physiology. Heat Stress Disorders / etiology. Muscle Cramp / etiology. Sodium / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Case-Control Studies. Dehydration. Drinking. Humans. Male. Muscle, Skeletal / metabolism. Sweat / chemistry. Sweating / physiology. United States. Water-Electrolyte Balance / physiology. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.
  • (PMID = 19777422.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-3964
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of sports medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Sports Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9NEZ333N27 / Sodium
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47. |......... 3%  Evans EC: Does pausing ultrafiltration as a treatment for intradialytic hypotension cause backfiltration in hemodialysis? Nephrol Nurs J; 2012 Jul-Aug;39(4):315-9
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  • Ultrafiltration that is too aggressive can result in hypotension, cramping, or other untoward effects.
  • Some nurses prefer not to pause ultrafiltration because of the concern for backfiltration, and they elect to manage hypotension and cramping by normal saline infusions or other interventions.
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Muscle Cramp / etiology. Muscle Cramp / therapy

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  • (PMID = 23061116.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-744X
  • [Journal-full-title] Nephrology nursing journal : journal of the American Nephrology Nurses' Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nephrol Nurs J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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48. |......... 3%  Ozdemir G, Ovayolu N, Ovayolu O: The effect of reflexology applied on haemodialysis patients with fatigue, pain and cramps. Int J Nurs Pract; 2013 Jun;19(3):265-73
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  • [Title] The effect of reflexology applied on haemodialysis patients with fatigue, pain and cramps.
  • The research was conducted to evaluate the effect of foot reflexology on fatigue, pain and cramps in haemodialysis patients.
  • Data were collected by using a questionnaire, Piper Fatigue Scale and visual analogue scale for measuring the severity of cramp and pain.
  • It was determined that reflexology reduced the fatigue subscale scores and total scale scores as well as pain and cramp mean scores in the intervention group.
  • The research results revealed that the severity of fatigue, pain and cramp decreased in patients receiving reflexology.
  • [MeSH-major] Fatigue / therapy. Massage. Muscle Cramp / therapy. Pain Management / methods. Renal Dialysis

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  • [Copyright] © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
  • (PMID = 23730858.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-172X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of nursing practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Nurs Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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49. |......... 3%  Garrison SR, Allan GM, Sekhon RK, Musini VM, Khan KM: Magnesium for skeletal muscle cramps. Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2012;9:CD009402
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  • [Title] Magnesium for skeletal muscle cramps.
  • BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle cramps are common and often presented to physicians in association with pregnancy, advanced age, exercise or disorders of the motor neuron (such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis).
  • Magnesium supplements are marketed for the prophylaxis of cramps but the efficacy of magnesium for this indication has never been evaluated by systematic review.
  • OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of magnesium supplementation compared to no treatment, placebo control or other cramp therapies in people with skeletal muscle cramps.
  •   SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register (11 October 2011), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2011, Issue 3), MEDLINE (January 1966 to September 2011), EMBASE (January 1980 to September 2011), LILACS (January 1982 to September 2011), CINAHL Plus (January 1937 to September 2011), AMED (January 1985 to October 2011) and SPORTDiscus (January 1975 to September 2011).
  • SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of magnesium supplementation (in any form) to prevent skeletal muscle cramps in any patient group (i.e. all clinical presentations of cramp).
  • Three trials enrolled women with pregnancy-associated leg cramps (N = 202) and four trials enrolled idiopathic cramp sufferers (N = 322 including cross-over controls).
  • Magnesium was compared to placebo in six trials and to no treatment in one trial.For idiopathic cramps (largely older adults presumed to have nocturnal leg cramps), differences in measures of cramp frequency, magnesium versus placebo, were small, not statistically significant, and without heterogeneity (I(2) = 0%).
  • This includes the primary endpoint, percentage change from baseline in the number of cramps per week at four weeks (-3.93%, 95% confidence interval (CI) -21.12% to 13.26%, moderate quality evidence) and the difference in the number of cramps per week at four weeks (0.01 cramps/week, 95% CI -0.52 to 0.55, moderate quality evidence).
  • The percentage of individuals experiencing a 25% or better reduction in cramp rate from baseline was also no different, being 8% lower in the magnesium group (95% CI -28% to 12%, moderate quality evidence).
  • Similarly, no statistically significant difference was found at four weeks in measures of cramp intensity (moderate quality evidence) or cramp duration (low quality evidence).Meta-analysis was not possible for trials of pregnancy-associated leg cramps.
  • AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: It is unlikely that magnesium supplementation provides clinically meaningful cramp prophylaxis to older adults experiencing skeletal muscle cramps.
  • In contrast, for those experiencing pregnancy-associated rest cramps the literature is conflicting and further research in this patient population is needed.
  • We found no randomized controlled trials evaluating magnesium for exercise-associated muscle cramps or disease state-associated muscle cramps (for example amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease).
  • [MeSH-major] Magnesium / therapeutic use. Muscle Cramp / drug therapy. Muscle, Skeletal. Pregnancy Complications / drug therapy

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Health Problems in Pregnancy.
  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Muscle Cramps.
  • HSDB. structure - MAGNESIUM, ELEMENTAL.
  • ExactAntigen/Labome. author profiles.
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  • (PMID = 22972143.001).
  • [ISSN] 1469-493X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Cochrane database of systematic reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cochrane Database Syst Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] Canada / Canadian Institutes of Health Research / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] I38ZP9992A / Magnesium
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50. |......... 3%  Minetto MA, Botter A: Elicitability of muscle cramps in different leg and foot muscles. Muscle Nerve; 2009 Oct;40(4):535-44
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Elicitability of muscle cramps in different leg and foot muscles.
  • To explore the efficacy of muscle motor point stimulation in eliciting muscle cramps, 11 subjects underwent eight sessions of electrical stimulation of the following muscles bilaterally: abductor hallucis flexor hallucis brevis, and both heads of the gastrocnemius muscles.
  • The stimulation frequency was increased from 4 pulses per second (pps) at increments of 2 pps until a cramp was induced.
  • The number of cramps that could be elicited was smaller in flexor hallucis brevis than in abductor hallucis (16 vs. 22 out of 22 trials each; P < 0.05) and in the lateral gastrocnemius than in the medial gastrocnemius (5 vs. 20 out of 22 trials each; P < 0.0001).
  • We show that leg and foot muscles have different cramp susceptibility, and the intermuscle variability in the elicitability profile for electrically induced cramps supports the use of the proposed method for cramp research.
  • [MeSH-major] Foot / physiology. Leg / physiology. Muscle Cramp / physiopathology. Muscle, Skeletal / physiopathology

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Foot Health.
  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Muscle Cramps.
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  • (PMID = 19623637.001).
  • [ISSN] 0148-639X
  • [Journal-full-title] Muscle & nerve
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Muscle Nerve
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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