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1. Biomedical articles (top 50; 2009 to 2014)
1. |||||||||. 100%  Sexton S, Natale R: Risks and benefits of pacifiers. Am Fam Physician; 2009 Apr 15;79(8):681-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Risks and benefits of pacifiers.
  • Physicians are often asked for guidance about pacifier use in children, especially regarding the benefits and risks, and when to appropriately wean a child.
  • The benefits of pacifier use include analgesic effects, shorter hospital stays for preterm infants, and a reduction in the risk of sudden infant death syndrome.
  • Pacifiers have been studied and recommended for pain relief in newborns and infants undergoing common, minor procedures in the emergency department (e.g., heel sticks, immunizations, venipuncture).
  • The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that parents consider offering pacifiers to infants one month and older at the onset of sleep to reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome.
  • Potential complications of pacifier use, particularly with prolonged use, include a negative effect on breastfeeding, dental malocclusion, and otitis media.
  • The American Academy of Family Physicians recommends that mothers be educated about pacifier use in the immediate postpartum period to avoid difficulties with breastfeeding.
  • The American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Academy of Family Physicians recommend weaning children from pacifiers in the second six months of life to prevent otitis media.
  • Pacifier use should not be actively discouraged and may be especially beneficial in the first six months of life.
  • [MeSH-major] Pacifiers / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Child, Preschool. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Infant, Premature. Risk Assessment. Sucking Behavior. Sudden Infant Death / prevention & control

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  • [CommentIn] Am Fam Physician. 2010 Sep 1;82(5):456; authors reply 457-9 [20822076.001]
  • (PMID = 19405412.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-838X
  • [Journal-full-title] American family physician
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Fam Physician
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 47
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2. |||||||||. 94%  Lozano de la Torre MJ, Pallás Alonso CR, Hernández Aguilar MT, Aguayo Maldonado J, Arena Ansótegui J, Ares Segura S, Gómez Papí A, Díaz Gómez M, Jiménez Moya A, Landa Rivera L, Landa Velillas JJ, Martín-Calama Valero J, Martín Morales M, Paricio Talayero JM, Romero Escós MD, Comité de Lactancia Materna de la Asociación Española de Pediatría: [Use of pacifiers and breastfeeding]. An Pediatr (Barc); 2011 Apr;74(4):271.e1-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Use of pacifiers and breastfeeding].
  • Pacifiers are widely used in developed societies.
  • The use of pacifiers has been associated, however, with a shorter duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding, with higher rates of otitis media and dental problems, as well as a higher risk of accidents during infancy.
  • Recent studies have also described a relationship between pacifier use and SIDS, especially when used during infant́s sleep.
  • Due to the existing controversy of scientific findings, the Committee on Breastfeeding of the Spanish Paediatrics Society, publishes this review, trying to summarise present evidence with the objective of, after analysing scientific results and recommendations, making recommendations regarding the use of the pacifier in the breastfed infant.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Feeding. Pacifiers
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21256098.001).
  • [ISSN] 1695-9531
  • [Journal-full-title] Anales de pediatría (Barcelona, Spain : 2003)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] An Pediatr (Barc)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Practice Guideline
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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3. |||||||... 72%  Cooper IF, Siadaty MS: 'Steroids' associated with 'Infant Pacifiers': Top Publications. BioMedLib Review; Steroid;InfantPacifiers:705857641. ISSN: 2331-5717. 2014/4/30
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  • [Title] 'Steroids' associated with 'Infant Pacifiers': Top Publications.
  • Background: There are articles published each month which present 'steroid' for 'infant pacifiers'.
  • Sertório SC et al: [The symbolic and utilitarian facets of pacifiers according to mothers].
  • Marques ES et al: [Social representations of women who breastfeed about breast feeding and the use of pacifiers].
  • Keim SA et al: Injuries associated with bottles, pacifiers, and sippy cups in the United States, 1991-2010.
  • : Recommendations for the use of pacifiers.
  • Lamounier JA: [The influence of nipples and pacifiers on breastfeeding duration].
  • Campbell C: Analgesic effects of sweet solutions and pacifiers in term neonates. Suckling at the breast is better than sweet solutions and pacifiers.
  • Righard L et al: Breastfeeding and the use of pacifiers.
  • Drosten F: Pacifiers in the NICU: a lactation consultant's view.
  • Tomasi E et al: [The use of pacifiers in children: fecal contamination and association with diarrhea].
  • Zardetto CG et al: Effects of different pacifiers on the primary dentition and oral myofunctional strutures of preschool children.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2014 Siadaty and Cooper; licensee BioMedLib LLC.
  • (UID = 705857641.001).
  • [ISSN] 2331-5717
  • [Journal-full-title] BioMedLib Review
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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4. |||||||... 72%  Cooper IF, Siadaty MS: 'Hormones' associated with 'Infant Pacifiers': Top Publications. BioMedLib Review; Hormone;InfantPacifiers:705390873. ISSN: 2331-5717. 2014/4/28
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  • [Title] 'Hormones' associated with 'Infant Pacifiers': Top Publications.
  • Background: There are articles published each month which present 'hormone' for 'infant pacifiers'.
  • Sertório SC et al: [The symbolic and utilitarian facets of pacifiers according to mothers].
  • Marques ES et al: [Social representations of women who breastfeed about breast feeding and the use of pacifiers].
  • Keim SA et al: Injuries associated with bottles, pacifiers, and sippy cups in the United States, 1991-2010.
  • : Recommendations for the use of pacifiers.
  • Lamounier JA: [The influence of nipples and pacifiers on breastfeeding duration].
  • Campbell C: Analgesic effects of sweet solutions and pacifiers in term neonates. Suckling at the breast is better than sweet solutions and pacifiers.
  • Righard L et al: Breastfeeding and the use of pacifiers.
  • Drosten F: Pacifiers in the NICU: a lactation consultant's view.
  • Tomasi E et al: [The use of pacifiers in children: fecal contamination and association with diarrhea].
  • Levrini L et al: Different geometric patterns of pacifiers compared on the basis of finite element analysis.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2014 Siadaty and Cooper; licensee BioMedLib LLC.
  • (UID = 705390873.001).
  • [ISSN] 2331-5717
  • [Journal-full-title] BioMedLib Review
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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5. |||||||... 71%  Cooper IF, Siadaty MS: 'Organic Chemicals' associated with 'Infant Pacifiers': Top Publications. BioMedLib Review; OrganicChemical;InfantPacifiers:705552983. ISSN: 2331-5717. 2014/4/24
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  • [Title] 'Organic Chemicals' associated with 'Infant Pacifiers': Top Publications.
  • Background: There are articles published each month which present 'organic chemical' for 'infant pacifiers'.
  • Westin JB et al: N-nitrosamines and nitrosatable amines, potential precursors of N-nitramines, in children's pacifiers and baby-bottle nipples.
  • Sen NP et al: Volatile N-nitrosamines in baby bottle rubber nipples and pacifiers. Analysis, occurrence and migration.
  • Weston RJ: Volatile nitrosamine levels in rubber teats and pacifiers available in New Zealand.
  • Osterdahl BG: N-nitrosamines and nitrosatable compounds in rubber nipples and pacifiers.
  • Sen NP et al: Improved method for determination of volatile nitrosamines in baby bottle rubber nipples and pacifiers.
  • Nelson-Filho P et al: Efficacy of microwaves and chlorhexidine on the disinfection of pacifiers and toothbrushes: an in vitro study.
  • Chamele J et al: Efficacy of microwaves and chlorhexidine for disinfection of pacifiers and toothbrushes: an in vitro study.
  • Vidavsky Y et al: Chelating alkylidene ligands as pacifiers for ruthenium catalysed olefin metathesis.
  • Thompson HC Jr et al: Gas chromatographic-thermal energy analysis method for N-nitrosodibutylamine in latex infant pacifiers: collaborative study.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2014 Siadaty and Cooper; licensee BioMedLib LLC.
  • (UID = 705552983.001).
  • [ISSN] 2331-5717
  • [Journal-full-title] BioMedLib Review
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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6. |||||||... 68%  Aliprandini P, Ferreira F, Bertol L, Kindlein Júnior W: Comparison of design, materials selection and characterization of pacifiers produced in Brazil. Australas Med J; 2011;4(2):76-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Comparison of design, materials selection and characterization of pacifiers produced in Brazil.
  • BACKGROUND: A pacifier is an object designed for use by children aged two weeks to around five years old.
  • METHOD: This study evaluates different models of pacifiers available on the market, taking into consideration the design, materials and attendance to Brazilian Standards.
  • RESULTS: The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of the five different models of pacifiers indicates the use of different materials.

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  • [Cites] Early Hum Dev. 2009 Oct;85(10 Suppl):S89-91 [19762175.001]
  • [Cites] Chemosphere. 1999 May;38(11):2569-76 [10204238.001]
  • [Cites] Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 1994 Apr;29(2):121-7 [8056494.001]
  • [Cites] J Pediatr Health Care. 2008 May-Jun;22(3):159-65 [18455064.001]
  • [Cites] Pediatrics. 1999 Mar;103(3):E33 [10049989.001]
  • [Cites] Chemosphere. 2010 May;79(9):949-52 [20334893.001]
  • [Cites] Reprod Toxicol. 2007 Aug-Sep;24(2):139-77 [17825522.001]
  • [Cites] Pediatrics. 1995 Nov;96(5 Pt 1):884-8 [7478830.001]
  • (PMID = 23386883.001).
  • [ISSN] 1836-1935
  • [Journal-full-title] The Australasian medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Australas Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3562927
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Product design / bisphenol A / materials selection / pacifiers
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7. ||||||.... 65%  Gederi A, Coomaraswamy K, Turner PJ: Pacifiers: a review of risks vs benefits. Dent Update; 2013 Mar;40(2):92-4, 97-8, 101
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pacifiers: a review of risks vs benefits.
  • Pacifiers, otherwise known as dummies, have been around for many centuries.
  • The purpose of this article is to review some of the evidence available for and against the use of pacifiers and make recommendations for their application, maintenance and weaning.
  • CLNICAL RELEVANCE: Dental healthcare professionals need to consider the evidence available for and against pacifiers when making recommendations to patients and their parents.
  • [MeSH-major] Pacifiers
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Infant. Maxillofacial Development / physiology. Risk Assessment. Sucking Behavior / physiology. Tooth Diseases / etiology

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  • [CommentIn] Dent Update. 2013 Sep;40(7):590 [24147394.001]
  • (PMID = 23600033.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-5000
  • [Journal-full-title] Dental update
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dent Update
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
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8. ||||||.... 60%  Jenik A, Vain NE: Pacifiers and breastfeeding. Birth; 2009 Sep;36(3):267; author reply 267-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pacifiers and breastfeeding.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Feeding. Pacifiers
  • [MeSH-minor] Causality. Humans. Infant Care / methods. Infant, Newborn. Research Design. Risk Reduction Behavior. Sudden Infant Death / prevention & control. Time Factors

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  • [CommentOn] Birth. 2009 Mar;36(1):34-42 [19278381.001]
  • (PMID = 19747278.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-536X
  • [Journal-full-title] Birth (Berkeley, Calif.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Birth
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. ||||||.... 56%  Vidavsky Y, Anaby A, Lemcoff NG: Chelating alkylidene ligands as pacifiers for ruthenium catalysed olefin metathesis. Dalton Trans; 2012 Jan 7;41(1):32-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Chelating alkylidene ligands as pacifiers for ruthenium catalysed olefin metathesis.

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  • (PMID = 22020679.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-9234
  • [Journal-full-title] Dalton transactions (Cambridge, England : 2003)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dalton Trans
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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10. |||||..... 52%  O'Connor NR, Tanabe KO, Siadaty MS, Hauck FR: Pacifiers and breastfeeding: a systematic review. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med; 2009 Apr;163(4):378-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pacifiers and breastfeeding: a systematic review.
  • OBJECTIVE: To summarize current evidence on the association between infant pacifier use and breastfeeding.
  • STUDY SELECTION: A search for English-language records (from January 1950 through August 2006) containing the Medical Subject Heading terms pacifiers and breastfeeding was conducted, resulting in 1098 reports.
  • MAIN EXPOSURE: Pacifier use.
  • RESULTS: Results from 4 randomized controlled trials revealed no difference in breastfeeding outcomes with different pacifier interventions (pacifier use during tube feeds, pacifier use at any time after delivery, an educational program for mothers emphasizing avoidance of pacifiers, and a UNICEF [United Nations Children's Fund]/World Health Organization Baby Friendly Hospital environment).
  • Most observational studies reported an association between pacifier use and shortened duration of breastfeeding.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The highest level of evidence does not support an adverse relationship between pacifier use and breastfeeding duration or exclusivity.
  • The association between shortened duration of breastfeeding and pacifier use in observational studies likely reflects a number of other complex factors, such as breastfeeding difficulties or intent to wean.
  • Ongoing quantitative and qualitative research is needed to better understand the relationship between pacifier use and breastfeeding.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Feeding / statistics & numerical data. Pacifiers / utilization. Sucking Behavior / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Feeding Behavior. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Infant Behavior. Infant, Newborn. Male. Pediatrics / standards. Pediatrics / trends. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Risk Assessment. Time Factors. United States. Weaning

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  • [CommentIn] J Pediatr. 2009 Sep;155(3):449-50 [19732592.001]
  • (PMID = 19349568.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3628
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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11. |||||..... 49%  Yildiz A, Arikan D: The effects of giving pacifiers to premature infants and making them listen to lullabies on their transition period for total oral feeding and sucking success. J Clin Nurs; 2012 Mar;21(5-6):644-56
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The effects of giving pacifiers to premature infants and making them listen to lullabies on their transition period for total oral feeding and sucking success.
  • AIM AND OBJECTIVE: This research aimed to assess the effect of giving pacifiers to premature infants and making them listen to lullabies on the transition period to total oral feeding, their sucking success and their vital signs (peak heart rate, respiration rate and oxygen saturation).
  • BACKGROUND: It is very important that preterm infants start oral feeding as soon as possible to survive and get healthy quickly.
  • Previous studies have shown that by using some external stimuli, premature babies can move to oral feeding at an earlier period than 34th gestational week, have increased daily weight gain and be discharged from hospital earlier.
  • DESIGN: In this quasi-experimental and prospective study, 90 premature infants were studied with 30 premature infants allocated to each of pacifier, lullaby and control groups.
  • RESULTS: We found that the group who proceeded to the oral feeding in the shortest period was the pacifier group (p < 0·05), followed by the lullaby group and the control group, respectively (p > 0·05).
  • We also found that the highest sucking success was achieved by infants in the pacifier group (p < 0·05) followed by the lullaby group (p > 0·05).
  • CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that giving pacifiers to premature infants and making them listen to lullabies has a positive effect on their transition period to oral feeding, their sucking success and vital signs (peak heart rate and oxygen saturation).
  • RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Neonatal intensive care nurses can accelerate premature infants' transition to oral feeding and develop their sucking success by using the methods of giving them pacifiers and making them listen to lullabies during gavage feeding.
  • [MeSH-major] Bottle Feeding / methods. Feeding Behavior / physiology. Infant, Premature / physiology. Music Therapy. Pacifiers. Sucking Behavior / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Child Development / physiology. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Infant Care / methods. Infant, Newborn. Intensive Care Units, Neonatal. Male. Prospective Studies. Time Factors. Weight Gain

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  • [Copyright] © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
  • (PMID = 21668549.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2702
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical nursing
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Nurs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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12. |||||..... 48%  Chamele J, Bhat C, Saraf T, Jadhav A, Beg A, Jagtap C, Ubeja R, Patil P: Efficacy of microwaves and chlorhexidine for disinfection of pacifiers and toothbrushes: an in vitro study. J Contemp Dent Pract; 2012 Sep-Oct;13(5):690-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Efficacy of microwaves and chlorhexidine for disinfection of pacifiers and toothbrushes: an in vitro study.
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, the contamination of toothbrushes and pacifiers by Streptococcus mutans, and the efficacy of microwave and chlorhexidine for their disinfection.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty pacifiers and 60 toothbrushes were contaminated with S. mutans and then divided into groups according to the disinfection protocol: Group 1-chlorhexidine solution; group 2-microwave sterilization; and group 3-sterile tap water.
  • CONCLUSION: The 0.12% chlorhexidine solution spray and 7 minutes of microwave irradiation were almost equally effective for disinfection of pacifiers and toothbrushes.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorhexidine / therapeutic use. Disinfectants / therapeutic use. Disinfection / methods. Equipment Contamination / prevention & control. Microwaves / therapeutic use. Pacifiers / microbiology. Toothbrushing / instrumentation
  • [MeSH-minor] Bacterial Load / drug effects. Bacterial Load / radiation effects. Humans. Infant. Microbial Viability / drug effects. Microbial Viability / radiation effects. Streptococcus mutans / drug effects. Streptococcus mutans / radiation effects. Surface Properties

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  • (PMID = 23250176.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-3711
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of contemporary dental practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Contemp Dent Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Disinfectants; R4KO0DY52L / Chlorhexidine
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13. |||||..... 48%  Nelson-Filho P, da Silva LA, Ds Silva RA, da Silva LL, Ferreira PD, Ito IY: Efficacy of microwaves and chlorhexidine on the disinfection of pacifiers and toothbrushes: an in vitro study. Pediatr Dent; 2011 Jan-Feb;33(1):10-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Efficacy of microwaves and chlorhexidine on the disinfection of pacifiers and toothbrushes: an in vitro study.
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, the contamination of toothbrushes and pacifiers by Streptococcus mutans, and the efficacy of microwave and chlorhexidine for their disinfection.
  • METHODS: Sixty pacifiers and 60 toothbrushes were contaminated with S mutans and then divided into groups according to the disinfection protocol: Group 1-chlorhexidine solution; Group 2-microwave sterilization; and Group 3-sterile tap water.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The 0.12% chlorhexidine solution spray and 7 minutes of microwave irradiation were effective for disinfection of pacifiers and toothbrushes.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Infective Agents, Local / pharmacology. Chlorhexidine / pharmacology. Dental Devices, Home Care / microbiology. Disinfection / methods. Microwaves. Pacifiers / microbiology. Toothbrushing / instrumentation
  • [MeSH-minor] Biofilms / drug effects. Biofilms / radiation effects. Humans. Infant. Microscopy, Electron, Scanning. Streptococcus mutans / drug effects. Streptococcus mutans / radiation effects

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  • (PMID = 21406141.001).
  • [ISSN] 0164-1263
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric dentistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Dent
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Infective Agents, Local; R4KO0DY52L / Chlorhexidine
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14. |||||..... 46%  Do pacifiers discourage breastfeeding? Child Health Alert; 2010 Jan;28:1-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Do pacifiers discourage breastfeeding?
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Feeding. Pacifiers
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn

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  • (PMID = 20222200.001).
  • [ISSN] 1064-4849
  • [Journal-full-title] Child health alert
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Child Health Alert
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. ||........ 24%  Muneer M: Re: Pacifiers: review of risks vs benefits. Dent Update; 2013 Sep;40(7):590
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Re: Pacifiers: review of risks vs benefits.
  • [MeSH-major] Pacifiers

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  • [CommentOn] Dent Update. 2013 Mar;40(2):92-4, 97-8, 101 [23600033.001]
  • (PMID = 24147394.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-5000
  • [Journal-full-title] Dental update
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dent Update
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
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16. ||........ 24%  Guise JM: Evidence is not yet clear on impact of pacifiers on breastfeeding. J Pediatr; 2009 Sep;155(3):449-50
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  • [Title] Evidence is not yet clear on impact of pacifiers on breastfeeding.

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  • [CommentOn] Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2009 Apr;163(4):378-82 [19349568.001]
  • (PMID = 19732592.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6833
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. ||........ 22%  Kair LR, Jaffe AC, Phillipi CA: In healthy term infants, does restriction from pacifiers in the first two to four weeks of life increase breastfeeding duration? Paediatr Child Health; 2013 Nov;18(9):473-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] In healthy term infants, does restriction from pacifiers in the first two to four weeks of life increase breastfeeding duration?

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  • (PMID = 24426809.001).
  • [ISSN] 1205-7088
  • [Journal-full-title] Paediatrics & child health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Paediatr Child Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3885104 [Available on 11/01/14]
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18. |......... 7%  Castilho SD, Rocha MA: Pacifier habit: history and multidisciplinary view. J Pediatr (Rio J); 2009 Nov-Dec;85(6):480-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pacifier habit: history and multidisciplinary view.
  • OBJECTIVES: To review the history of pacifiers and to compile a multidisciplinary literature review, searching for pros and cons with the purpose of providing health professionals with arguments when parents request guidance.
  • Search criteria were: the keyword "pacifiers" present in articles published in the last 5 years that included abstract and were written in Portuguese, English, or Spanish.
  • Pacifiers have been used to stimulate sucking or to coordinate this reflex, promoting an earlier beginning of the oral feeding of newborns.
  • Some authors suggest that pacifiers reduce the incidence of the sudden death syndrome, but the topic is controversial.
  • Pacifiers prevent the establishment of breastfeeding and lead to weaning.
  • It is advisable that health professionals inform parents of the pros and cons of pacifiers so that they can make a conscious decision regarding its use.
  • [MeSH-major] Habits. Pacifiers
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Interdisciplinary Communication

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  • (PMID = 20016867.001).
  • [ISSN] 1678-4782
  • [Journal-full-title] Jornal de pediatria
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pediatr (Rio J)
  • [Language] eng; por
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Number-of-references] 82
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19. |......... 6%  Mauch CE, Scott JA, Magarey AM, Daniels LA: Predictors of and reasons for pacifier use in first-time mothers: an observational study. BMC Pediatr; 2012;12:7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Predictors of and reasons for pacifier use in first-time mothers: an observational study.
  • BACKGROUND: The use of pacifiers is commonplace in Australia and has been shown to be negatively associated with breastfeeding duration.
  • In order to influence behaviour related to the use of pacifiers it is important to understand the reasons for their use.
  • The primary aim of this observational study was to investigate who (if anyone) advises first-time mothers to give a pacifier and the reasons for which they first give (or try to give) a pacifier to their infant.
  • Additionally, this study investigated the predictors of pacifier use and the relationship between pacifier use and breastfeeding duration.
  • METHODS: In total, 670 Australian first-time mothers recruited as part of the NOURISH trial completed a questionnaire regarding infant feeding and pacifier use.
  • RESULTS: Pacifiers were introduced by 79% of mothers, of whom 28.7% were advised to use a pacifier by their mother/mother-in-law with a further 22.7% being advised by a midwife.
  • The majority of mothers used a pacifier in order to soothe their infant (78.3%), to help put them to sleep (57.4%) and to keep them comforted and quiet (40.4%).
  • Pacifiers given to infants before four weeks (adjHR 3.67; 95%CI 2.14-6.28) and used most days (adjHR 3.28; 95%CI 1.92-5.61) were significantly associated with shorter duration of breastfeeding.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study identifies an opportunity for educating new mothers and their support network, particularly their infant's grandmothers, with regards to potential risks associated with the early and frequent use of a pacifier, and alternative methods for soothing their infant, in order to reduce the use of pacifiers and their potentially negative effect on breastfeeding duration.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Feeding / statistics & numerical data. Maternal Behavior / psychology. Pacifiers / utilization
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Australia. Female. Humans. Infant. Interpersonal Relations. Logistic Models. Multivariate Analysis. Parity. Proportional Hazards Models. Questionnaires. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 22257532.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2431
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3323436
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20. |......... 5%  Benjamins LJ, Gourishankar A, Yataco-Marquez V, Cardona EH, de Ybarrondo L: Honey pacifier use among an indigent pediatric population. Pediatrics; 2013 Jun;131(6):e1838-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Honey pacifier use among an indigent pediatric population.
  • BACKGROUND: Use of honey pacifiers by infants presenting to a pediatric clinic at a county hospital in Houston, Texas, was observed by several of our staff members.
  • Although we could not find any published studies linking the use of honey pacifiers to infant botulism, we also could not find any studies assessing the prevalence of honey pacifier use in general.
  • Approximately 11% of the respondents reported using honey pacifiers with their infant children.
  • Reasons for use included tradition, infant preference, and perceived health benefits (eg, helps with constipation or colic).
  • Approximately 20% of the honey pacifier users and 23% of the entire group reported knowledge of honey potentially causing an illness in children <12 months of age.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Honey pacifier use was relatively common among this population, seen in ∼1 out of 10 respondents.
  • [MeSH-major] Botulism / epidemiology. Honey / adverse effects. Honey / microbiology. Pacifiers / utilization
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Health Surveys. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Poverty. Prevalence. Texas. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 23650307.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-4275
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatrics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; food-borne botulism / herbal medicine / honey / infantile / knowledge / pacifiers
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21. |......... 5%  Jenik AG, Vain N: The pacifier debate. Early Hum Dev; 2009 Oct;85(10 Suppl):S89-91
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The pacifier debate.
  • A variety of studies have indicated that pacifier use lowers the risk of SIDS.
  • Many observational studies have demonstrated a negative association between pacifier use and breastfeeding duration.
  • However, observational studies cannot be used to determine whether the pacifier is the real cause of breastfeeding cessation.
  • Three RCTs have been conducted on the relationship between pacifiers and breastfeeding, but each study has limitations, implying that the evidence of not causal effect can be questionated.
  • We have recently presented the results of a large RCT which demonstrated that in mothers who are successfully breastfeeding at 2 weeks, the recommendation to offer a pacifier does not modify the prevalence of exclusive and any breastfeeding at different ages or the duration of lactation.
  • It is therefore important that lactation consultants and international agencies reexamine their staunch position to discourage the use of pacifiers on the basis of a supposed adverse effect on the success and duration of breastfeeding.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Feeding. Pacifiers / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Infant. Infant Behavior. Lactation. Mother-Child Relations. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Risk Factors. Sucking Behavior. Sudden Infant Death / prevention & control. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 19762175.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-6232
  • [Journal-full-title] Early human development
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Early Hum. Dev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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22. |......... 5%  Festini F, Giusti F, Paoletti E, Biancalani L, Poggi GM: Is early use of pacifier a risk factor for diarrhea? Minerva Pediatr; 2012 Jun;64(3):303-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Is early use of pacifier a risk factor for diarrhea?
  • Previous studies have suggested that pacifiers may get contaminated but only three studies have shown a possible association between the use of pacifiers and diarrhea or enteric infections.
  • The goal of this study was to investigate whether the early start of pacifier within the first month of life is a risk factor for diarrhea in early childhood.
  • RESULTS: Among cases (N.=63), those who had started using pacifier in the first month of life were 61.9%, while among controls (N.=78) they were 29.4%, OR 3.89, CI95% 1.92-7.85.
  • Type and frequency of pacifier hygiene practices were not associated with diarrhea.
  • CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the recommendation to postpone pacifier use after the first month of life not to interfere with the duration of breastfeeding, may have also the effect to reduce the risk of episodes of diarrhea in the first three years of life.
  • [MeSH-major] Diarrhea / epidemiology. Diarrhea / etiology. Infant Care. Pacifiers / adverse effects. Pacifiers / utilization
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Case-Control Studies. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Hygiene. Infant. Italy / epidemiology. Male. Mothers. Questionnaires. Risk Factors. Time Factors


23. |......... 5%  Cooper IF, Siadaty MS: 'Hazardous Or Poisonous Substances' associated with 'Nipple Anatomy': Top Publications. BioMedLib Review; HazardousOrPoisonous;NippleAnatomy:705703662. ISSN: 2331-5717. 2014/4/26
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  • Sen NP et al: Volatile N-nitrosamines in baby bottle rubber nipples and pacifiers. Analysis, occurrence and migration.
  • Sen NP et al: Improved method for determination of volatile nitrosamines in baby bottle rubber nipples and pacifiers.
  • Osterdahl BG: N-nitrosamines and nitrosatable compounds in rubber nipples and pacifiers.
  • Westin JB et al: N-nitrosamines and nitrosatable amines, potential precursors of N-nitramines, in children's pacifiers and baby-bottle nipples.
  • Sen NP et al: Determination of non-volatile N-nitrosamines in baby bottle rubber nipples and pacifiers by high-performance liquid chromatography-thermal energy analysis.
  • Thompson HC Jr et al: Determination of N-nitrosamines and N-nitrosamine precursors in rubber nipples from baby pacifiers by gas chromatography-thermal energy analysis.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2014 Siadaty and Cooper; licensee BioMedLib LLC.
  • (UID = 705703662.001).
  • [ISSN] 2331-5717
  • [Journal-full-title] BioMedLib Review
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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24. |......... 5%  Horne RS, Hauck FR, Moon RY, L'hoir MP, Blair PS, Physiology and Epidemiology Working Groups of the International Society for the Study and Prevention of Perinatal and Infant Death: Dummy (pacifier) use and sudden infant death syndrome: potential advantages and disadvantages. J Paediatr Child Health; 2014 Mar;50(3):170-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Dummy (pacifier) use and sudden infant death syndrome: potential advantages and disadvantages.
  • The large decline in deaths due to the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in the last 20 years in many countries is largely due to risk-reduction advice resulting from observational studies that examined the relationship between infant care practices and SIDS.
  • However, advice surrounding the apparent protective effect of dummies (also known as pacifiers) has been controversial.
  • Several systematic reviews have demonstrated a strong association between the lack of a pacifier being used by the infant for the final sleep and SIDS, but it is not clear how pacifiers confer protection or if this is a marker for something as yet unmeasured.
  • The Epidemiology and Physiology Working Groups of the International Society for the Study and Prevention of Perinatal and Infant Death (ISPID) are comprised of leading SIDS researchers with an objective to provide evidence-based position statements surrounding the factors associated with SIDS (http://www.ispid.org/) and risk-reduction strategies.
  • The evidence, discussion and conclusions from these working groups regarding dummies (pacifiers) are described below to help inform this debate and describe the future evidence required so that we might find a common recommendation about dummies (pacifiers) and SIDS.

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  • [Copyright] © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
  • (PMID = 24674245.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1754
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of paediatrics and child health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Paediatr Child Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; general paediatrics / infant sleep / risk reduction / sudden infant death syndrome.
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25. |......... 5%  Kair LR, Kenron D, Etheredge K, Jaffe AC, Phillipi CA: Pacifier restriction and exclusive breastfeeding. Pediatrics; 2013 Apr;131(4):e1101-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pacifier restriction and exclusive breastfeeding.
  • OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that removing pacifiers from routine distribution in our mother-baby unit (MBU) would be associated with greater breastfeeding initiation or exclusivity during the birth hospitalization.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively compared exclusive breastfeeding, breastfeeding plus supplemental formula feeding, and exclusive formula feeding rates for 2249 infants admitted to the MBU at our university teaching hospital during the 5 months before and 8 months after restriction of routine pacifier distribution.
  • RESULTS: Of the 2249 infants, 79% were exclusively breastfed from July through November 2010, when pacifiers were routinely distributed.
  • During the 8-month period after pacifier restriction, this proportion decreased significantly to 68% (P < .001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Restricting pacifier distribution during the newborn hospitalization without also restricting access to formula was associated with decreased exclusive breastfeeding, increased supplemental formula feeding, and increased exclusive formula feeding.
  • Because high-quality, prospective medical literature addressing pacifier use and breastfeeding does not conclusively show an adverse relationship in women who are motivated to breastfeed, more studies are needed to help determine what effect, if any, pacifiers have on breastfeeding initiation and exclusivity in the immediate newborn period.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Feeding / statistics & numerical data. Infant Care / methods. Infant Formula / statistics & numerical data. Pacifiers. Postnatal Care / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Hospital Units / standards. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Male. Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care). Practice Guidelines as Topic. Retrospective Studies


26. |......... 5%  Hardcastle T: Sucrose has been shown to have analgesic properties when administered to neonates and infants: is there the potential for its use in post-operative pain management? J Perioper Pract; 2010 Jan;20(1):19-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Much research has been performed over the years into the analgesic effect of sucrose administered for painful procedures performed on the neonate and infant.
  • Studies have reported the endogenous effect of sucrose when used in conjunction with non-nutritive sucking (pacifiers).
  • [MeSH-major] Analgesics / therapeutic use. Pacifiers. Pain, Postoperative / prevention & control. Sucrose / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Analgesia. Evidence-Based Practice. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Neonatal Nursing. Pain Measurement. Sucking Behavior

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  • (PMID = 20225716.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-4589
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of perioperative practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Perioper Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Analgesics; 57-50-1 / Sucrose
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27. |......... 5%  Cooper IF, Siadaty MS: 'Organic Chemicals' associated with 'Nipple Anatomy': Top Publications. BioMedLib Review; OrganicChemical;NippleAnatomy:705549276. ISSN: 2331-5717. 2014/4/24
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  • Westin JB et al: N-nitrosamines and nitrosatable amines, potential precursors of N-nitramines, in children's pacifiers and baby-bottle nipples.
  • Sen NP et al: Volatile N-nitrosamines in baby bottle rubber nipples and pacifiers. Analysis, occurrence and migration.
  • Sen NP et al: Improved method for determination of volatile nitrosamines in baby bottle rubber nipples and pacifiers.
  • Osterdahl BG: N-nitrosamines and nitrosatable compounds in rubber nipples and pacifiers.
  • Sen NP et al: Determination of non-volatile N-nitrosamines in baby bottle rubber nipples and pacifiers by high-performance liquid chromatography-thermal energy analysis.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2014 Siadaty and Cooper; licensee BioMedLib LLC.
  • (UID = 705549276.001).
  • [ISSN] 2331-5717
  • [Journal-full-title] BioMedLib Review
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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28. |......... 4%  Oder AL, Stalling DL, Barlow SM: Short-Term Effects of Pacifier Texture on NNS in Neurotypical Infants. Int J Pediatr; 2013;2013:168459
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Short-Term Effects of Pacifier Texture on NNS in Neurotypical Infants.
  • The dense representation of trigeminal mechanosensitive afferents in the lip vermilion, anterior tongue, intraoral mucosa, and temporomandibular joint allows the infant's orofacial system to encode a wide range of somatosensory experiences during the critical period associated with feed development.
  • Our understanding of how this complex sensorium processes texture is very limited in adults, and the putative role of texture encoding in the infant is unknown.
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the short-term effects of a novel textured pacifier experience in healthy term infants (N = 28).
  • Nonnutritive suck (NNS) compression pressure waveforms were digitized in real time using a variety of custom-molded textured pacifiers varying in spatial array density of touch domes.
  • MANCOVA, adjusted for postmenstrual age at test and sex, revealed that infants exhibited an increase in NNS burst attempts at the expense of a degraded suck burst structure with the textured pacifiers, suggesting that the suck central pattern generator (sCPG) is significantly disrupted and reorganized by this novel orocutaneous experience.
  • The current findings provide new insight into oromotor control as a function of the oral somatosensory environment in neurotypically developing infants.

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  • (PMID = 23737804.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-9740
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3657447
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29. |......... 4%  Roig AO, Martínez MR, García JC, Hoyos SP, Navidad GL, Alvarez JC, Pujalte Mdel M, De León González RG: Factors associated to breastfeeding cessation before 6 months. Rev Lat Am Enfermagem; 2010 May-Jun;18(3):373-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Lower educational level was associated with cessation of ABF and the use of pacifiers or occasional breast-milk substitutes with cessation of FBF.
  • The use of pacifiers and not-medically indicated breast milk substitutes should be controlled.
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Multivariate Analysis. Socioeconomic Factors. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 20721426.001).
  • [ISSN] 0104-1169
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista latino-americana de enfermagem
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Lat Am Enfermagem
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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30. |......... 4%  Caminha Mde F, Serva VB, dos Anjos MM, Brito RB, Lins MM, Batista Filho M: [Exclusive breastfeeding among professionals in a Family Healthcare Program]. Cien Saude Colet; 2011 Apr;16(4):2245-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • A tendency of statistical significance was found in relation to the use of pacifiers among children whose mothers did not breastfeed exclusively (p=0.051).
  • The difficulties found during breastfeeding among the workers of the Family Health Program of the IV Sanitary Health District and the use of pacifiers among their children are problems that deserve attention, due to the fact that they represent a group that serves as a model for the community.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Child, Preschool. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Government Programs. Humans. Infant. Male. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21584465.001).
  • [ISSN] 1678-4561
  • [Journal-full-title] Ciência & saúde coletiva
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cien Saude Colet
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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31. |......... 4%  Parizoto GM, Parada CM, Venâncio SI, Carvalhaes MA: Trends and patterns of exclusive breastfeeding for under-6-month-old children. J Pediatr (Rio J); 2009 May-Jun;85(3):201-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Significant inverse association was observed between EBF and the use of pacifiers (hazard ratio = 2.03; 95% confidence interval 1.44-2.84).
  • The use of pacifiers was the only factor associated with greater chances of EBF interruption.
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Distribution. Brazil / epidemiology. Epidemiologic Methods. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Pacifiers / statistics & numerical data. Pacifiers / utilization. Risk Factors. Socioeconomic Factors. Time Factors. Weaning

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  • [CommentIn] J Pediatr (Rio J). 2009 May-Jun;85(3):181-2 [19492177.001]
  • [CommentIn] J Pediatr (Rio J). 2009 Sep-Oct;85(5):462-3; author reply 463-4 [19830365.001]
  • (PMID = 19492168.001).
  • [ISSN] 1678-4782
  • [Journal-full-title] Jornal de pediatria
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pediatr (Rio J)
  • [Language] eng; por
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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32. |......... 4%  Jaafar SH, Jahanfar S, Angolkar M, Ho JJ: Effect of restricted pacifier use in breastfeeding term infants for increasing duration of breastfeeding. Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2012;7:CD007202
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effect of restricted pacifier use in breastfeeding term infants for increasing duration of breastfeeding.
  • BACKGROUND: To successfully initiate and maintain breastfeeding for a longer duration, the World Health Organization's Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding recommends total avoidance of artificial teats or pacifiers for breastfeeding infants.
  • Offering the pacifier instead of the breast to calm the infant may lead to less frequent episodes of breastfeeding and as a consequence may reduce breast milk production and shorten duration of breastfeeding; however, this remains unclear.
  • OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of unrestricted versus restricted pacifier use in healthy full-term newborns whose mothers have initiated breastfeeding and intend to exclusively breastfeed, on the duration of breastfeeding, other breastfeeding outcomes and infant health.
  • SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing unrestricted versus restricted pacifier use in healthy full-term newborns who have initiated breastfeeding regardless of whether they were born at home or in the hospital.
  • Meta-analysis of the two combined studies showed that pacifier use in healthy breastfeeding infants had no significant effect on the proportion of infants exclusively breastfed at three months (risk ratio (RR) 0.99; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93 to 1.05), and at four months of age (RR 0.99; 95% CI 0.92 to 1.06) and also had no effect on the proportion of infants partially breastfed at three months (RR 1.00; 95% CI 0.98 to 1.13), and at 4 months of age (RR 1.01; 95% CI 0.98 to 1.03).
  • AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Pacifier use in healthy term breastfeeding infants, started from birth or after lactation is established, did not significantly affect the prevalence or duration of exclusive and partial breastfeeding up to four months of age.
  • However, evidence to assess the short-term breastfeeding difficulties faced by mothers and long-term effect of pacifiers on infants' health is lacking.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Feeding / statistics & numerical data. Pacifiers / utilization
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Lactation. Motivation. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Time Factors

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  • [UpdateOf] Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;(3):CD007202 [21412899.001]
  • (PMID = 22786506.001).
  • [ISSN] 1469-493X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Cochrane database of systematic reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cochrane Database Syst Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
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33. |......... 4%  Karabulut E, Yalçin SS, Ozdemir-Geyik P, Karaağaoğlu E: Effect of pacifier use on exclusive and any breastfeeding: a meta-analysis. Turk J Pediatr; 2009 Jan-Feb;51(1):35-43
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  • [Title] Effect of pacifier use on exclusive and any breastfeeding: a meta-analysis.
  • The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine with cross-sectional and cohort trails whether the use of pacifier increases the risk of early weaning from exclusive breastfeeding before six months of age or cessation of breastfeeding from any breastfeeding before 24 months of age.
  • Additionally, the effect of the age for starting pacifier use on breastfeeding duration was analyzed in the cohort trails.
  • The Medline database was searched (1980 to 2006) with "breastfeed, breastfeeding, or breast feed" and "pacifier, dummy, or soother" as individual keywords.
  • Summary risk ratio for early weaning before six months of age in exclusive breastfeeding trails was 2.016 (95% CI: 1.619-2.511) for pacifier users compared with nonusers in studies with univariate analysis and 1.792 (95% CI: 1.452-2.212) in studies with multivariate analysis.
  • Similarly, pacifier usage compared with nonusers reduced the duration of any breastfeeding in both univariate (2.760, 95% CI: 2.083-3.657) and multivariate trials (1.952, 95% CI: 1.662-2.293).
  • The use of pacifiers was associated with shortened duration of exclusive and of any breastfeeding.
  • Given the increase in the benefits with duration of breastfeeding, parents should be informed of the link between pacifier use and shortened breastfeeding duration in order to help them make informed decisions about their children's care.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Feeding. Pacifiers

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  • (PMID = 19378889.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4301
  • [Journal-full-title] The Turkish journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Turk. J. Pediatr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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34. |......... 4%  Hanzer M, Zotter H, Sauseng W, Pfurtscheller K, Müller W, Kerbl R: Pacifier use does not alter the frequency or duration of spontaneous arousals in sleeping infants. Sleep Med; 2009 Apr;10(4):464-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pacifier use does not alter the frequency or duration of spontaneous arousals in sleeping infants.
  • OBJECTIVE: It has been reported that pacifiers might reduce the risk of SIDS by favouring infants' arousability from sleep.
  • We evaluated the influence of a pacifier on the frequency and duration of spontaneous arousals in healthy infants.
  • METHODS: Polygraphic recordings were performed in 14 infants with an age of 51.7+/-19.9 days (means+/-SD) who regularly used a pacifier during sleep.
  • The number of arousals per 10-min-period and the duration of arousals were determined for periods of pacifier use as well as for periods after pacifier dislodgement and were compared with the data of 10 control infants (age 49.8+/-16.5 days) who never used a pacifier.
  • RESULTS: Altogether, 211 arousals in pacifier users and 225 arousals in non-users were scored.
  • In pacifier users, 2.0+/-1.6 arousals per 10-min-period with a duration of 12.2+/-3.0 s occurred during pacifier use, and 1.7+/-1.6 arousals per 10-min-period with a duration of 12.2+/-3.1s occurred during periods without pacifier.
  • In pacifier non-users, 2.3+/-1.2 arousals per 10-min-period (duration 13.9+/-2.9s) were scored.
  • The results did not show a significant difference concerning frequency and duration of spontaneous arousals between pacifier users and non-users.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that factors other than arousal mechanisms might be responsible for the efficacy of pacifiers in SIDS prophylaxis.
  • [MeSH-major] Arousal / physiology. Pacifiers / adverse effects. Sleep / physiology. Sleep Disorders / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Electroencephalography. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Polysomnography. Risk Assessment. Risk Factors. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 18684666.001).
  • [ISSN] 1389-9457
  • [Journal-full-title] Sleep medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sleep Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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35. |......... 4%  Salah M, Abdel-Aziz M, Al-Farok A, Jebrini A: Recurrent acute otitis media in infants: analysis of risk factors. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol; 2013 Oct;77(10):1665-9
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  • We analyzed various risk factors that may affect the prognosis of RAOM, including: age, prematurity, upper respiratory tract infections (URTI), duration of breastfeeding, use of pacifiers, parental smoking, seasonality, the presence of siblings (family size), gender, adenoid hypertrophy, allergy, and craniofacial abnormalities.
  • RESULTS: Use of pacifiers, short duration of breastfeeding, older infantile age, winter season, URTI and presence of adenoid hypertrophy were identified as risk factors for RAOM.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Factors that may cause recurrence of the disease in infant population are use of pacifiers, short duration of breastfeeding, older infantile age, winter season, upper respiratory tract infections and adenoid hypertrophy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Breast Feeding / adverse effects. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Hypersensitivity / complications. Incidence. Infant. Male. Pacifiers / adverse effects. Prognosis. Recurrence. Respiratory Tract Infections / complications. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Seasons. Severity of Illness Index. Siblings. Time Factors. Tobacco Smoke Pollution / adverse effects

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 23953241.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8464
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tobacco Smoke Pollution; 74469-00-4 / Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Acute otitis media / Adenoid / Allergy / Breastfeeding / Infantile infection / Upper respiratory infection
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36. |......... 4%  Forrester-Knauss C, Merten S, Weiss C, Ackermann-Liebrich U, Zemp Stutz E: The baby-friendly hospital initiative in Switzerland: trends over a 9-year period. J Hum Lact; 2013 Nov;29(4):510-6
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  • BACKGROUND: This article reports the trends over a 9-year period for 4 steps of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) (exclusive breastfeeding, uninterrupted rooming-in, no use of pacifiers, and initiation of breastfeeding within the first 2 hours after birth) during hospital stays in Switzerland.
  • RESULTS: Significant improvements were found for 3 of the 4 steps of the BFHI between 2000 and 2008: rates of exclusive breastfeeding during postpartum stay (35.9%-57.6%, P < .001), uninterrupted rooming-in (48.2%-73.1%, P < .001), and no use of pacifiers (33.6%-48.1%, P < .001).
  • Exclusive breastfeeding during hospital stay was significantly related to no use of pacifiers (P < .001) and to uninterrupted rooming-in (P < .001) in the years when exclusive breastfeeding particularly increased (2003, 2004, and 2008).

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  • (PMID = 23578942.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-5732
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of human lactation : official journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Hum Lact
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative / breastfeeding / exclusive breastfeeding / initiation of breastfeeding / monitoring / pacifier use / trends / uninterrupted rooming-in
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37. |......... 4%  Lindsten R, Larsson E: Pacifier-sucking and breast-feeding: a comparison between the 1960 s and the 1990 s. J Dent Child (Chic); 2009 Sep-Dec;76(3):199-203
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pacifier-sucking and breast-feeding: a comparison between the 1960 s and the 1990 s.
  • PURPOSE: Pacifiers and their forerunners have been condemned in past centuries, probably beginning in the 17(th) and 18(th) centuries when alcohol and opiates were incorporated as fillings in sucking rags in Great Britain.
  • Nowadays, the modern pacifier is criticized for reducing breast-feeding time and encouraging weaning.
  • The purpose of this study was to analyze if pacifier-sucking has been detrimental to breast-feeding in the past few decades.
  • METHODS: In the present study, 2 groups of young children born 30 years apart (1967 and 1995 to 1997) in the same geographic area were analyzed in the first 6 months of age regarding their sucking and feeding habits, including initial and prolonged pacifier-sucking and breast-feeding.
  • RESULTS: Findings do not support the commonly held opinion that pacifier-sucking reduces breast-feeding time.
  • In the 30 years that separate the 2 groups, the pacifier-sucking habit increased by 32% and prolonged use of a pacifier increased.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that mothers might be unable to satisfy their child's sucking urge through breast-feeding alone, and that they use the pacifier as a supplement.
  • Pacifier use does not negatively affect the prevalence of breast-feeding.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Feeding. Pacifiers / adverse effects. Sucking Behavior
  • [MeSH-minor] Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant

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  • (PMID = 19941761.001).
  • [ISSN] 1935-5068
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of dentistry for children (Chicago, Ill.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dent Child (Chic)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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38. |......... 4%  Kandasamy Y, Smith R, Wright IM, Hartley L: Pain relief for premature infants during ophthalmology assessment. J AAPOS; 2011 Jun;15(3):276-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: The ophthalmological examination of premature infants, which is essential for the detection of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), can be painful and distressing for the infant.
  • Various researchers have investigated the benefits of topical anesthesia, oral sucrose, and non pharmacological intervention for pain relief.
  • Oral sucrose did not significantly reduce pain scores during ROP examinations, and withholding feeding before the examination was not beneficial.
  • Infants given pacifiers had lower pain scores than those without pacifiers, and infants who were nested experienced less distress during and after the procedure.
  • Contrary to standard practice, it appears that patients are more comfortable if they are fed before the examination, and there is no benefit of oral sucrose.
  • Nonpharmacological interventions, including sucking on a pacifier and nesting, may also be beneficial.
  • [MeSH-major] Anesthesia, Local / methods. Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological. Eye Pain / therapy. Infant, Premature. Palliative Care / methods. Retinopathy of Prematurity / diagnosis. Sucrose / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Anesthetics, Local / administration & dosage. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Propoxycaine / administration & dosage

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2011 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21641250.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-3933
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus / American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J AAPOS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anesthetics, Local; 57-50-1 / Sucrose; B4OB0JHI1X / proxymetacaine; EPD1EH7F53 / Propoxycaine
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39. |......... 4%  Brasileiro AA, Ambrosano GM, Marba ST, Possobon Rde F: [Breastfeeding among children of women workers]. Rev Saude Publica; 2012 Aug;46(4):642-8
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  • Among the participants, 100 mother-infant dyads received guidance and support for the practice of breastfeeding within an oral health prevention program, and the other 100 dyads were addressed in a child vaccination campaign.
  • The following women had higher odds of stopping breastfeeding: mothers not participating in the incentive program (OR = 3.04 [95%CI: 1.35;6.85]), mothers who did not have a 30-minute break during the working hours (OR = 4.10 [95%CI: 1.81;9.26]), and mothers whose children used pacifiers (OR = 2.68 [95%CI: 1.23;5.83]) or bottles (OR = 14.47 [95%CI: 1.85;113.24].
  • CONCLUSIONS: The mothers who participated in the breastfeeding incentive group, who did not offer pacifiers and bottles to their babies and who had a break during the working hours stopped breastfeeding after the fourth month.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Brazil. Female. Humans. Infant. Logistic Models. Male. Mothers. Odds Ratio. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 22832805.001).
  • [ISSN] 1518-8787
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de saúde pública
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Saude Publica
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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40. |......... 4%  Jaafar SH, Jahanfar S, Angolkar M, Ho JJ: Pacifier use versus no pacifier use in breastfeeding term infants for increasing duration of breastfeeding. Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2011;(3):CD007202
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pacifier use versus no pacifier use in breastfeeding term infants for increasing duration of breastfeeding.
  • BACKGROUND: To successfully initiate and maintain breastfeeding for a longer duration, the World Health Organization's Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding recommends total avoidance of artificial teats or pacifiers for breastfeeding infants.
  • Offering the pacifier instead of the breast to calm the infant may lead to less frequent episodes of breastfeeding and as a consequence may reduce breast milk production and shorten duration of breastfeeding; however, this remains unclear.
  • OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of pacifier use versus no pacifier use in healthy full-term newborns whose mothers have initiated breastfeeding and intend to exclusively breastfeed, on the duration of breastfeeding, other breastfeeding outcomes and infant health.
  • SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing pacifier use versus no pacifier use in healthy full-term newborns who have initiated breastfeeding regardless of whether they were born at home or in the hospital.
  • Meta-analysis of the two combined studies showed that pacifier use in healthy breastfeeding infants had no significant effect on the proportion of infants exclusively breastfed at three months (risk ratio (RR) 1.00; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.95 to 1.06), and at four months of age (RR 0.99; 95% CI 0.92 to 1.06) and also had no effect on the proportion of infants partially breastfed at three months (RR 1.00; 95% CI 0.97 to 1.02), and at 4 months of age (RR 1.01; 95% CI 0.98 to 1.03).
  • AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Pacifier use in healthy term breastfeeding infants, started from birth or after lactation is established, did not significantly affect the prevalence or duration of exclusive and partial breastfeeding up to four months of age.
  • However, evidence to assess the short-term breastfeeding difficulties faced by mothers and long-term effect of pacifiers on infants' health is lacking.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Feeding / epidemiology. Pacifiers / statistics & numerical data
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Motivation. Prevalence. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Time Factors

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  • [UpdateIn] Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;7:CD007202 [22786506.001]
  • (PMID = 21412899.001).
  • [ISSN] 1469-493X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Cochrane database of systematic reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cochrane Database Syst Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
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41. |......... 3%  Hesselmar B, Sjöberg F, Saalman R, Aberg N, Adlerberth I, Wold AE: Pacifier cleaning practices and risk of allergy development. Pediatrics; 2013 Jun;131(6):e1829-37
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  • [Title] Pacifier cleaning practices and risk of allergy development.
  • Oral microbes may be transferred from parents to infants via pacifiers.
  • We investigated whether pacifier cleaning practices affected the risk of allergy development.
  • Pacifier use and pacifier cleaning practices were recorded during interviews with the parents when the children were 6 months old.
  • The oral microbiota of the infants was characterized by analysis of saliva samples collected at 4 months of age.
  • RESULTS: Children whose parents "cleaned" their pacifier by sucking it (n = 65) were less likely to have asthma (odds ratio [OR] 0.12; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.01-0.99), eczema (OR 0.37; 95% CI 0.15-0.91), and sensitization (OR 0.37; 95% CI 0.10-1.27) at 18 months of age than children whose parents did not use this cleaning technique (n = 58).
  • Vaginal delivery and parental pacifier sucking yielded independent and additive protective effects against eczema development.
  • The salivary microbiota differed between children whose parents cleaned their pacifier by sucking it and children whose parents did not use this practice.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Parental sucking of their infant's pacifier may reduce the risk of allergy development, possibly via immune stimulation by microbes transferred to the infant via the parent's saliva.
  • [MeSH-major] Hypersensitivity / epidemiology. Mouth / microbiology. Pacifiers / microbiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Asthma / epidemiology. Asthma / prevention & control. Eczema / epidemiology. Eczema / prevention & control. Female. Health Behavior. Humans. Immunization. Incidence. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Metagenome. Pregnancy. Public Health Practice. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 23650304.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-4275
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatrics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; allergy / asthma / child / eczema / infant / microbiota / pacifiers / sensitization
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42. |......... 3%  Jenik AG, Vain NE, Gorestein AN, Jacobi NE, Pacifier and Breastfeeding Trial Group: Does the recommendation to use a pacifier influence the prevalence of breastfeeding? J Pediatr; 2009 Sep;155(3):350-4.e1
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Does the recommendation to use a pacifier influence the prevalence of breastfeeding?
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the recommendation to offer a pacifier once lactation is well established reduces the prevalence or duration of breastfeeding.
  • They were assigned to offer versus not to offer pacifiers.
  • RESULTS: At 3 months, 85.8% infants in the offer pacifier group and 86.2% in the not offer pacifier group were exclusively breastfeeding (risk difference, 0.4%; 95% CI, -4.9%-4.1%), satisfying the pre-specified non-inferiority requirement of -7%.
  • Furthermore, the recommendation to offer a pacifier did not produce a significant decrease in the frequency of exclusive and any breastfeeding at different ages or in the duration of lactation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The recommendation to offer a pacifier at 15 days does not modify the prevalence and duration of breastfeeding.
  • Because pacifier use is associated with reduced incidence of sudden infant death syndrome, the recommendation to offer a pacifier appears safe and appropriate in similar populations.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Feeding / epidemiology. Infant Care / instrumentation. Infant Care / methods. Pacifiers / utilization
  • [MeSH-minor] Follow-Up Studies. Guideline Adherence. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Interviews as Topic. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Prevalence. Single-Blind Method. Sudden Infant Death / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 19464025.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6833
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Investigator] Lopez N; Rossato N; Corral G; Russo S; Degregori MC; Covas MC; Ventura S; Rodríguez S; Fariña D; Bergel E; Abadie P
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43. |......... 3%  Thomaz EB, Valença AM: Relationship between childhood underweight and dental crowding in deciduous teething. J Pediatr (Rio J); 2009 Mar-Apr;85(2):110-6
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  • RESULTS: The association between low anthropometric measures and dental crowding was statistically significant only when considering the weight-for-age index and among those children who did not use pacifiers.
  • CONCLUSION: This study suggests that low anthropometric measures are associated with dental crowding in deciduous teething among children who do not use pacifiers.

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  • (PMID = 19283324.001).
  • [ISSN] 1678-4782
  • [Journal-full-title] Jornal de pediatria
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pediatr (Rio J)
  • [Language] eng; por
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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44. |......... 3%  Salustiano LP, Diniz AL, Abdallah VO, Pinto Rde M: [Factors associated with duration of breastfeeding in children under six months]. Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet; 2012 Jan;34(1):28-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The factors most related to the abandonment of exclusive breastfeeding in infants under six months were maternal employment outside the home (OR=2.73; 95%CI=1.74-4.29) and use of pacifiers (OR=4.26; 95%CI=2.85-6.38).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding in the municipality of Uberlândia is among the highest in the country and the factors most often associated with the practice of early weaning were maternal employment outside the home, offering pacifiers to the infants, receiving postpartum care in the private health sector, and primiparity.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Time Factors. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 22358345.001).
  • [ISSN] 1806-9339
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista brasileira de ginecologia e obstetrícia : revista da Federação Brasileira das Sociedades de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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45. |......... 3%  Telles FB, Ferreira RI, Magalhães Ldo N, Scavone-Junior H: Effect of breast- and bottle-feeding duration on the age of pacifier use persistence. Braz Oral Res; 2009 Oct-Dec;23(4):432-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effect of breast- and bottle-feeding duration on the age of pacifier use persistence.
  • This study evaluated the effect of breast- and bottle-feeding duration on the age of pacifier use persistence.
  • The children were also assigned to 4 groups by age of pacifier use persistence, as well as by age of bottle-feeding persistence: no habits, up to 2 years, 3-4 years and 5-6 years.
  • Associations between nutritive sucking habits and pacifier use were analyzed using logistic regression.
  • Many children discontinued pacifier use and bottle-feeding at 3-4 years of age (24.9% and 40.1%, respectively).
  • Chances of non-breastfed children (G1) with prolonged pacifier-sucking habits, in the three age ranges, were progressively higher in comparison with group G4 (OR: 4.0-7.5, p < 0.01).
  • When comparing bottle-fed with non bottle-fed children, the age range at which bottle-feeding had been discontinued was significantly associated with that of pacifier use cessation: up to 2 years (OR = 6.2), 3-4 years (OR = 7.6) and 5-6 years (OR = 27.0), p < 0.01.
  • It may be suggested that breastfeeding duration has an inversely proportional effect on the age of pacifier use persistence.
  • Bottle-fed children who use pacifiers tend to discontinue these habits at the same period.
  • [MeSH-major] Bottle Feeding / statistics & numerical data. Breast Feeding / statistics & numerical data. Pacifiers / utilization. Sucking Behavior
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Logistic Models. Male. Questionnaires. Sex Factors. Socioeconomic Factors. Time Factors. Tooth, Deciduous

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  • (PMID = 20027451.001).
  • [ISSN] 1807-3107
  • [Journal-full-title] Brazilian oral research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Braz Oral Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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46. |......... 3%  Perrine CG, Scanlon KS, Li R, Odom E, Grummer-Strawn LM: Baby-Friendly hospital practices and meeting exclusive breastfeeding intention. Pediatrics; 2012 Jul;130(1):54-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: In the 2005-2007 Infant Feeding Practices Study II, women completed a prenatal questionnaire and approximately monthly questionnaires through 12 months.
  • Primary predictor variables included 6 Baby-Friendly hospital practices: breastfeeding within 1 hour of birth, giving only breast milk, rooming in, breastfeeding on demand, no pacifiers, and information on breastfeeding support.
  • Beginning breastfeeding within 1 hour of birth and not being given supplemental feedings or pacifiers were associated with achieving exclusive breastfeeding intention.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Feeding. Hospitals / standards. Infant Care / methods. Intention. Mothers / psychology. Postnatal Care / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bottle Feeding. Female. Humans. Infant Formula. Infant, Newborn. Logistic Models. Longitudinal Studies. Pregnancy. Questionnaires. United States


47. |......... 3%  Hsu NY, Wu PC, Bornehag CG, Sundell J, Su HJ: Feeding bottles usage and the prevalence of childhood allergy and asthma. Clin Dev Immunol; 2012;2012:158248
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • This study aimed to examine the association between the length of use of feeding bottles or pacifiers during childhood and the prevalence of respiratory and allergic morbidities.
  • Moreover, significant dose-dependent relationships were further established after an adjustment for confounders was performed that included children's ages, gender, gestational age, birth weight, length of breastfeeding, the age when first given infant formula or complementary foods, family history, parental educational levels, and smoking status, as well as the problem of indoor water damage.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Birth Weight. Breast Feeding / statistics & numerical data. Child. Child, Preschool. Educational Status. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant Formula. Male. Pacifiers / adverse effects. Prevalence. Questionnaires. Respiratory Sounds. Risk Factors. Smoking. Taiwan / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 22291844.001).
  • [ISSN] 1740-2530
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & developmental immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Dev. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3265220
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48. |......... 3%  Walsh P, Vieth T, Rodriguez C, Lona N, Molina R, Habebo E, Caldera E, Garcia C, Veazey G: Using a pacifier to decrease sudden infant death syndrome: an emergency department educational intervention. PeerJ; 2014;2:e309
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Using a pacifier to decrease sudden infant death syndrome: an emergency department educational intervention.
  • Background. Pacifier use decreases the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).
  • Objectives. To test the hypotheses (1) that caregivers were less familiar with the role of pacifiers in sudden infant death (SIDS) prevention than other recommendations, and (2) that an ED educational intervention would increase pacifier use in infants younger than six months, and (3) that otitis media would not occur more frequently in pacifier users.
  • We measured pacifier use infants and baseline knowledge of SIDs prevention recommendations in caregivers.
  • We followed up three months later to determine pacifier use, and 12 months later to determine episodes of otitis media.
  • Only 268/777 (35%) knew the recommendation to offer a pacifier at bedtime.
  • At enrollment 449/780 (58%) did not use a pacifier.
  • Of 210/338 infants aged less than 6 months followed up 41/112 (37%) non-users had started using a pacifier at bedtime (NNT 3).
  • Over the same period, 37/98 (38%) users had discontinued their pacifier.
  • Conclusion. Caregiver knowledge of the role of pacifiers in SIDS prevention was less than for other recommendations.
  • Our educational intervention appeared to increase pacifier use.
  • Pacifier use was not associated with increased otitis media.

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  • (PMID = 24688883.001).
  • [ISSN] 2167-8359
  • [Journal-full-title] PeerJ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PeerJ
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3961164
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Education in the emergency department / Emergency department / Infant / Pacifier / Sudden infant death syndrome
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49. |......... 3%  Silveira LM, Prade LS, Ruedell AM, Haeffner LS, Weinmann AR: Influence of breastfeeding on children's oral skills. Rev Saude Publica; 2013 Feb;47(1):37-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Influence of breastfeeding on children's oral skills.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of oral habits and breastfeeding on the oral skills of children.
  • METHODS: Cross-sectional study evaluated the oral skills of 125 nine-month-old-children born at term, belonging to Macro-Midwest region of Rio Grande do Sul between August 2010 and March 2011.
  • Variables included evaluating oral skills and information on breastfeeding and weaning.
  • RESULTS: Breastfeeding positively influenced the acquisition of oral skills sucking at nine months of age (OR 3.1, 95%CI 1.2;8.3) and using a pacifier had a negative effect (OR 0.1, 95%CI 0.03;0.6).
  • CONCLUSIONS: It was found that breastfeeding contributed to mature orofacial as it improved the ability of oral suction.
  • Pacifier use was shown to affect the functioning of the stomatognathic system.
  • This should be made clear to parents and the use of pacifiers during infancy should be avoided.
  • [MeSH-minor] Bottle Feeding. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Mouth / physiology. Pacifiers / adverse effects. Stomatognathic System / physiology

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  • (PMID = 23703128.001).
  • [ISSN] 1518-8787
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de saúde pública
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Saude Publica
  • [Language] eng; por
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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50. |......... 3%  Cooper IF, Siadaty MS: 'Pharmacologic Substances or Antibiotics or Clinical Drugs' associated with 'Brushes Tooth': Top Publications. BioMedLib Review; PharmacologicSubstanceAntibiotic;BrushesTooth:705410801. ISSN: 2331-5717. 2014/4/27
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  • Chamele J et al: Efficacy of microwaves and chlorhexidine for disinfection of pacifiers and toothbrushes: an in vitro study.
  • Nelson-Filho P et al: Efficacy of microwaves and chlorhexidine on the disinfection of pacifiers and toothbrushes: an in vitro study.
  • Grossman E et al: Two long-term clinical studies comparing the plaque removal and gingivitis reduction efficacy of the Oral-B Advantage Plaque Remover to five manual toothbrushes.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2014 Siadaty and Cooper; licensee BioMedLib LLC.
  • (UID = 705410801.001).
  • [ISSN] 2331-5717
  • [Journal-full-title] BioMedLib Review
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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