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1. Biomedical articles (top 50; 2010 to 2015)
1. |||||||||. 100%  Lozano de la Torre MJ, Pallás Alonso CR, Hernández Aguilar MT, Aguayo Maldonado J, Arena Ansótegui J, Ares Segura S, Gómez Papí A, Díaz Gómez M, Jiménez Moya A, Landa Rivera L, Landa Velillas JJ, Martín-Calama Valero J, Martín Morales M, Paricio Talayero JM, Romero Escós MD, Comité de Lactancia Materna de la Asociación Española de Pediatría: [Use of pacifiers and breastfeeding]. An Pediatr (Barc); 2011 Apr;74(4):271.e1-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Use of pacifiers and breastfeeding].
  • Pacifiers are widely used in developed societies.
  • The use of pacifiers has been associated, however, with a shorter duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding, with higher rates of otitis media and dental problems, as well as a higher risk of accidents during infancy.
  • Recent studies have also described a relationship between pacifier use and SIDS, especially when used during infant́s sleep.
  • Due to the existing controversy of scientific findings, the Committee on Breastfeeding of the Spanish Paediatrics Society, publishes this review, trying to summarise present evidence with the objective of, after analysing scientific results and recommendations, making recommendations regarding the use of the pacifier in the breastfed infant.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Feeding. Pacifiers
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21256098.001).
  • [ISSN] 1695-9531
  • [Journal-full-title] Anales de pediatría (Barcelona, Spain : 2003)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] An Pediatr (Barc)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Practice Guideline
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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2. |||||||... 70%  Aliprandini P, Ferreira F, Bertol L, Kindlein Júnior W: Comparison of design, materials selection and characterization of pacifiers produced in Brazil. Australas Med J; 2011;4(2):76-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Comparison of design, materials selection and characterization of pacifiers produced in Brazil.
  • BACKGROUND: A pacifier is an object designed for use by children aged two weeks to around five years old.
  • METHOD: This study evaluates different models of pacifiers available on the market, taking into consideration the design, materials and attendance to Brazilian Standards.
  • RESULTS: The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of the five different models of pacifiers indicates the use of different materials.

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  • [Cites] Chemosphere. 2010 May;79(9):949-52 [20334893.001]
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  • (PMID = 23386883.001).
  • [ISSN] 1836-1935
  • [Journal-full-title] The Australasian medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Australas Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3562927
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Product design / bisphenol A / materials selection / pacifiers
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3. ||||||.... 58%  Keim SA, Fletcher EN, TePoel MR, McKenzie LB: Injuries associated with bottles, pacifiers, and sippy cups in the United States, 1991-2010. Pediatrics; 2012 Jun;129(6):1104-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Injuries associated with bottles, pacifiers, and sippy cups in the United States, 1991-2010.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology of injuries related to bottles, pacifiers, and sippy cups among young children in the United States.
  • METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted by using data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System for children <3 years of age treated in emergency departments (1991-2010) for an injury associated with a bottle, pacifier, or sippy cup.
  • Most injuries involved bottles (65.8%), followed by pacifiers (19.9%) and sippy cups (14.3%).
  • Given the number of injuries, particularly those associated with falls while using the product, greater efforts are needed to promote proper usage, ensure safety in product design, and increase awareness of American Academy of Pediatrics' recommendations for transitioning to a cup and discontinuing pacifier use.
  • [MeSH-major] Accidents / trends. Bottle Feeding / adverse effects. Bottle Feeding / trends. Pacifiers / adverse effects. Pacifiers / trends
  • [MeSH-minor] Accidental Falls / statistics & numerical data. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Lacerations / epidemiology. Lacerations / etiology. Male. Retrospective Studies. United States / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 22585773.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-4275
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatrics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. ||||||.... 62%  Vidavsky Y, Anaby A, Lemcoff NG: Chelating alkylidene ligands as pacifiers for ruthenium catalysed olefin metathesis. Dalton Trans; 2012 Jan 7;41(1):32-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Chelating alkylidene ligands as pacifiers for ruthenium catalysed olefin metathesis.

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  • (PMID = 22020679.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-9234
  • [Journal-full-title] Dalton transactions (Cambridge, England : 2003)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dalton Trans
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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5. |||||..... 51%  Sette GC, Mello MJ, Correia JB, Sette IS, Pontes da Silva GA, Soares de Lima L: Do pacifiers increase the risk of nosocomial diarrhoea? A cohort study. BMJ Open; 2012;2(2):e000427
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Do pacifiers increase the risk of nosocomial diarrhoea? A cohort study.
  • PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence and risk factors for ND and rates of pacifier faecal contamination.
  • ND occurred in 8.2% (16/194) of pacifier users compared with 9.2% (17/184) in non-users (adjusted OR=0.88, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.80).
  • Faecal coliforms were isolated in 16% (27/169) of tested pacifiers, 77.8% of which had more than 100 000 CFU/ml.
  • The log-rank test showed no statistical difference between pacifier users and non-users.
  • CONCLUSIONS: ND is a frequent healthcare-associated infection in paediatric wards, but the use of pacifiers during the stay in hospital does not seem to affect the incidence of ND in infants in many settings where the burden of diarrhoea is still high.

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  • (PMID = 22508955.001).
  • [ISSN] 2044-6055
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ open
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Open
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3332242
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6. |||....... 27%  Abdun-Nur D, Abdun-Nur K: Do pacifiers reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome? Am Fam Physician; 2010 Sep 1;82(5):456; authors reply 457-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Do pacifiers reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome?
  • [MeSH-major] Pacifiers. Sudden Infant Death / prevention & control
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Infant. Sucking Behavior

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  • [CommentOn] Am Fam Physician. 2009 May 15;79(10):870-4 [19496386.001]
  • [CommentOn] Am Fam Physician. 2009 Apr 15;79(8):681-5 [19405412.001]
  • (PMID = 20822076.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0650
  • [Journal-full-title] American family physician
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Fam Physician
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. ||||||.... 57%  Wellington L, Prasad S: PURLs. Should breastfeeding babies be given pacifiers? J Fam Pract; 2012 May;61(5):E1-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] PURLs. Should breastfeeding babies be given pacifiers?
  • Tell breastfeeding moms who ask that question that pacifier use will not interfere.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Feeding. Pacifiers
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Confidence Intervals. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Meta-Analysis as Topic. Mother-Child Relations. Time Factors. United Nations. Weaning. World Health Organization

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  • [Cites] Breastfeed Rev. 2001 Jul;9(2):11-8 [11550600.001]
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  • (PMID = 22577637.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-7294
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of family practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Fam Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3343725
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8. |||||..... 54%  Chamele J, Bhat C, Saraf T, Jadhav A, Beg A, Jagtap C, Ubeja R, Patil P: Efficacy of microwaves and chlorhexidine for disinfection of pacifiers and toothbrushes: an in vitro study. J Contemp Dent Pract; 2012 Sep-Oct;13(5):690-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Efficacy of microwaves and chlorhexidine for disinfection of pacifiers and toothbrushes: an in vitro study.
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, the contamination of toothbrushes and pacifiers by Streptococcus mutans, and the efficacy of microwave and chlorhexidine for their disinfection.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty pacifiers and 60 toothbrushes were contaminated with S. mutans and then divided into groups according to the disinfection protocol: Group 1-chlorhexidine solution; group 2-microwave sterilization; and group 3-sterile tap water.
  • CONCLUSION: The 0.12% chlorhexidine solution spray and 7 minutes of microwave irradiation were almost equally effective for disinfection of pacifiers and toothbrushes.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorhexidine / therapeutic use. Disinfectants / therapeutic use. Disinfection / methods. Equipment Contamination / prevention & control. Microwaves / therapeutic use. Pacifiers / microbiology. Toothbrushing / instrumentation
  • [MeSH-minor] Bacterial Load / drug effects. Bacterial Load / radiation effects. Humans. Infant. Microbial Viability / drug effects. Microbial Viability / radiation effects. Streptococcus mutans / drug effects. Streptococcus mutans / radiation effects. Surface Properties

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  • (PMID = 23250176.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-3711
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of contemporary dental practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Contemp Dent Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Disinfectants; R4KO0DY52L / Chlorhexidine
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9. |||||..... 52%  Nelson-Filho P, da Silva LA, Ds Silva RA, da Silva LL, Ferreira PD, Ito IY: Efficacy of microwaves and chlorhexidine on the disinfection of pacifiers and toothbrushes: an in vitro study. Pediatr Dent; 2011 Jan-Feb;33(1):10-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Efficacy of microwaves and chlorhexidine on the disinfection of pacifiers and toothbrushes: an in vitro study.
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, the contamination of toothbrushes and pacifiers by Streptococcus mutans, and the efficacy of microwave and chlorhexidine for their disinfection.
  • METHODS: Sixty pacifiers and 60 toothbrushes were contaminated with S mutans and then divided into groups according to the disinfection protocol: Group 1-chlorhexidine solution; Group 2-microwave sterilization; and Group 3-sterile tap water.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The 0.12% chlorhexidine solution spray and 7 minutes of microwave irradiation were effective for disinfection of pacifiers and toothbrushes.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Infective Agents, Local / pharmacology. Chlorhexidine / pharmacology. Dental Devices, Home Care / microbiology. Disinfection / methods. Microwaves. Pacifiers / microbiology. Toothbrushing / instrumentation
  • [MeSH-minor] Biofilms / drug effects. Biofilms / radiation effects. Humans. Infant. Microscopy, Electron, Scanning. Streptococcus mutans / drug effects. Streptococcus mutans / radiation effects

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  • (PMID = 21406141.001).
  • [ISSN] 0164-1263
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric dentistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Dent
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Infective Agents, Local; R4KO0DY52L / Chlorhexidine
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10. |||||..... 52%  Do pacifiers discourage breastfeeding? Child Health Alert; 2010 Jan;28:1-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Do pacifiers discourage breastfeeding?
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Feeding. Pacifiers
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn

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  • (PMID = 20222200.001).
  • [ISSN] 1064-4849
  • [Journal-full-title] Child health alert
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Child Health Alert
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. |||||..... 51%  Yildiz A, Arikan D: The effects of giving pacifiers to premature infants and making them listen to lullabies on their transition period for total oral feeding and sucking success. J Clin Nurs; 2012 Mar;21(5-6):644-56
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The effects of giving pacifiers to premature infants and making them listen to lullabies on their transition period for total oral feeding and sucking success.
  • AIM AND OBJECTIVE: This research aimed to assess the effect of giving pacifiers to premature infants and making them listen to lullabies on the transition period to total oral feeding, their sucking success and their vital signs (peak heart rate, respiration rate and oxygen saturation).
  • BACKGROUND: It is very important that preterm infants start oral feeding as soon as possible to survive and get healthy quickly.
  • Previous studies have shown that by using some external stimuli, premature babies can move to oral feeding at an earlier period than 34th gestational week, have increased daily weight gain and be discharged from hospital earlier.
  • DESIGN: In this quasi-experimental and prospective study, 90 premature infants were studied with 30 premature infants allocated to each of pacifier, lullaby and control groups.
  • RESULTS: We found that the group who proceeded to the oral feeding in the shortest period was the pacifier group (p < 0·05), followed by the lullaby group and the control group, respectively (p > 0·05).
  • We also found that the highest sucking success was achieved by infants in the pacifier group (p < 0·05) followed by the lullaby group (p > 0·05).
  • CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that giving pacifiers to premature infants and making them listen to lullabies has a positive effect on their transition period to oral feeding, their sucking success and vital signs (peak heart rate and oxygen saturation).
  • RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Neonatal intensive care nurses can accelerate premature infants' transition to oral feeding and develop their sucking success by using the methods of giving them pacifiers and making them listen to lullabies during gavage feeding.
  • [MeSH-major] Bottle Feeding / methods. Feeding Behavior / physiology. Infant, Premature / physiology. Music Therapy. Pacifiers. Sucking Behavior / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Child Development / physiology. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Infant Care / methods. Infant, Newborn. Intensive Care Units, Neonatal. Male. Prospective Studies. Time Factors. Weight Gain

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  • [Copyright] © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
  • (PMID = 21668549.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2702
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical nursing
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Nurs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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12. |||||||... 66%  Gederi A, Coomaraswamy K, Turner PJ: Pacifiers: a review of risks vs benefits. Dent Update; 2013 Mar;40(2):92-4, 97-8, 101
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pacifiers: a review of risks vs benefits.
  • Pacifiers, otherwise known as dummies, have been around for many centuries.
  • The purpose of this article is to review some of the evidence available for and against the use of pacifiers and make recommendations for their application, maintenance and weaning.
  • CLNICAL RELEVANCE: Dental healthcare professionals need to consider the evidence available for and against pacifiers when making recommendations to patients and their parents.
  • [MeSH-major] Pacifiers
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Infant. Maxillofacial Development / physiology. Risk Assessment. Sucking Behavior / physiology. Tooth Diseases / etiology

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  • [CommentIn] Dent Update. 2013 Sep;40(7):590 [24147394.001]
  • (PMID = 23600033.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-5000
  • [Journal-full-title] Dental update
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dent Update
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
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13. |||....... 27%  Muneer M: Re: Pacifiers: review of risks vs benefits. Dent Update; 2013 Sep;40(7):590
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Re: Pacifiers: review of risks vs benefits.
  • [MeSH-major] Pacifiers

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  • [CommentOn] Dent Update. 2013 Mar;40(2):92-4, 97-8, 101 [23600033.001]
  • (PMID = 24147394.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-5000
  • [Journal-full-title] Dental update
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dent Update
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
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14. ||........ 23%  Kair LR, Jaffe AC, Phillipi CA: In healthy term infants, does restriction from pacifiers in the first two to four weeks of life increase breastfeeding duration? Paediatr Child Health; 2013 Nov;18(9):473-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] In healthy term infants, does restriction from pacifiers in the first two to four weeks of life increase breastfeeding duration?

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  • (PMID = 24426809.001).
  • [ISSN] 1205-7088
  • [Journal-full-title] Paediatrics & child health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Paediatr Child Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3885104
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15. ||........ 22%  Panknin HT: [Nosocomial diarrhea in young children: pacifiers are not a risk]. Kinderkrankenschwester; 2014 Apr;33(4):146-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Nosocomial diarrhea in young children: pacifiers are not a risk].
  • [MeSH-minor] Bacteriological Techniques. Brazil. Cohort Studies. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Nursing Records. Pacifiers / microbiology. Prospective Studies. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 25077285.001).
  • [ISSN] 0723-2276
  • [Journal-full-title] Kinderkrankenschwester : Organ der Sektion Kinderkrankenpflege / Deutsche Gesellschaft für Sozialpädiatrie und Deutsche Gesellschaft für Kinderheilkunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kinderkrankenschwester
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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16. |......... 8%  Goldman RD: Pacifier use in the first month of life. Can Fam Physician; 2013 May;59(5):499-500
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pacifier use in the first month of life.
  • QUESTION: As a family physician who frequently attends deliveries and follows up with neonates, parents often ask me if they can provide their newborns with pacifiers in order to calm infants down, reduce crying, and improve sleep.
  • Is pacifier use safe in the first month of life?
  • ANSWER: While pacifiers are useful for soothing, there is concern that their use might cause early weaning of breastfeeding owing to "nipple confusion."
  • Several organizations, such as the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund, recommend avoiding use of pacifiers in term infants who breastfeed.
  • However, evidence suggests that it might not be pacifier use that causes premature cessation of breastfeeding, and that use of pacifiers might only be a sign of a maternal decision to stop breastfeeding.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Feeding. Pacifiers / adverse effects. Weaning
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Mothers. Time Factors

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  • [Cites] JAMA. 2001 Jul 18;286(3):322-6 [11466098.001]
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  • (PMID = 23673585.001).
  • [ISSN] 1715-5258
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian family physician Médecin de famille canadien
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can Fam Physician
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3653652
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17. |......... 7%  Mauch CE, Scott JA, Magarey AM, Daniels LA: Predictors of and reasons for pacifier use in first-time mothers: an observational study. BMC Pediatr; 2012;12:7
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  • [Title] Predictors of and reasons for pacifier use in first-time mothers: an observational study.
  • BACKGROUND: The use of pacifiers is commonplace in Australia and has been shown to be negatively associated with breastfeeding duration.
  • In order to influence behaviour related to the use of pacifiers it is important to understand the reasons for their use.
  • The primary aim of this observational study was to investigate who (if anyone) advises first-time mothers to give a pacifier and the reasons for which they first give (or try to give) a pacifier to their infant.
  • Additionally, this study investigated the predictors of pacifier use and the relationship between pacifier use and breastfeeding duration.
  • METHODS: In total, 670 Australian first-time mothers recruited as part of the NOURISH trial completed a questionnaire regarding infant feeding and pacifier use.
  • RESULTS: Pacifiers were introduced by 79% of mothers, of whom 28.7% were advised to use a pacifier by their mother/mother-in-law with a further 22.7% being advised by a midwife.
  • The majority of mothers used a pacifier in order to soothe their infant (78.3%), to help put them to sleep (57.4%) and to keep them comforted and quiet (40.4%).
  • Pacifiers given to infants before four weeks (adjHR 3.67; 95%CI 2.14-6.28) and used most days (adjHR 3.28; 95%CI 1.92-5.61) were significantly associated with shorter duration of breastfeeding.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study identifies an opportunity for educating new mothers and their support network, particularly their infant's grandmothers, with regards to potential risks associated with the early and frequent use of a pacifier, and alternative methods for soothing their infant, in order to reduce the use of pacifiers and their potentially negative effect on breastfeeding duration.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Feeding / statistics & numerical data. Maternal Behavior / psychology. Pacifiers / utilization
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Australia. Female. Humans. Infant. Interpersonal Relations. Logistic Models. Multivariate Analysis. Parity. Proportional Hazards Models. Questionnaires. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 22257532.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2431
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3323436
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18. |......... 6%  Horne RS, Hauck FR, Moon RY, L'hoir MP, Blair PS, Physiology and Epidemiology Working Groups of the International Society for the Study and Prevention of Perinatal and Infant Death: Dummy (pacifier) use and sudden infant death syndrome: potential advantages and disadvantages. J Paediatr Child Health; 2014 Mar;50(3):170-4
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  • [Title] Dummy (pacifier) use and sudden infant death syndrome: potential advantages and disadvantages.
  • The large decline in deaths due to the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in the last 20 years in many countries is largely due to risk-reduction advice resulting from observational studies that examined the relationship between infant care practices and SIDS.
  • However, advice surrounding the apparent protective effect of dummies (also known as pacifiers) has been controversial.
  • Several systematic reviews have demonstrated a strong association between the lack of a pacifier being used by the infant for the final sleep and SIDS, but it is not clear how pacifiers confer protection or if this is a marker for something as yet unmeasured.
  • The Epidemiology and Physiology Working Groups of the International Society for the Study and Prevention of Perinatal and Infant Death (ISPID) are comprised of leading SIDS researchers with an objective to provide evidence-based position statements surrounding the factors associated with SIDS (http://www.ispid.org/) and risk-reduction strategies.
  • The evidence, discussion and conclusions from these working groups regarding dummies (pacifiers) are described below to help inform this debate and describe the future evidence required so that we might find a common recommendation about dummies (pacifiers) and SIDS.

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  • [Copyright] © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
  • (PMID = 24674245.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1754
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of paediatrics and child health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Paediatr Child Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; general paediatrics / infant sleep / risk reduction / sudden infant death syndrome.
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19. |......... 6%  Festini F, Giusti F, Paoletti E, Biancalani L, Poggi GM: Is early use of pacifier a risk factor for diarrhea? Minerva Pediatr; 2012 Jun;64(3):303-5
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  • [Title] Is early use of pacifier a risk factor for diarrhea?
  • Previous studies have suggested that pacifiers may get contaminated but only three studies have shown a possible association between the use of pacifiers and diarrhea or enteric infections.
  • The goal of this study was to investigate whether the early start of pacifier within the first month of life is a risk factor for diarrhea in early childhood.
  • RESULTS: Among cases (N.=63), those who had started using pacifier in the first month of life were 61.9%, while among controls (N.=78) they were 29.4%, OR 3.89, CI95% 1.92-7.85.
  • Type and frequency of pacifier hygiene practices were not associated with diarrhea.
  • CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the recommendation to postpone pacifier use after the first month of life not to interfere with the duration of breastfeeding, may have also the effect to reduce the risk of episodes of diarrhea in the first three years of life.
  • [MeSH-major] Diarrhea / epidemiology. Diarrhea / etiology. Infant Care. Pacifiers / adverse effects. Pacifiers / utilization
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Case-Control Studies. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Hygiene. Infant. Italy / epidemiology. Male. Mothers. Questionnaires. Risk Factors. Time Factors


20. |......... 5%  Kair LR, Kenron D, Etheredge K, Jaffe AC, Phillipi CA: Pacifier restriction and exclusive breastfeeding. Pediatrics; 2013 Apr;131(4):e1101-7
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  • [Title] Pacifier restriction and exclusive breastfeeding.
  • OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that removing pacifiers from routine distribution in our mother-baby unit (MBU) would be associated with greater breastfeeding initiation or exclusivity during the birth hospitalization.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively compared exclusive breastfeeding, breastfeeding plus supplemental formula feeding, and exclusive formula feeding rates for 2249 infants admitted to the MBU at our university teaching hospital during the 5 months before and 8 months after restriction of routine pacifier distribution.
  • RESULTS: Of the 2249 infants, 79% were exclusively breastfed from July through November 2010, when pacifiers were routinely distributed.
  • During the 8-month period after pacifier restriction, this proportion decreased significantly to 68% (P < .001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Restricting pacifier distribution during the newborn hospitalization without also restricting access to formula was associated with decreased exclusive breastfeeding, increased supplemental formula feeding, and increased exclusive formula feeding.
  • Because high-quality, prospective medical literature addressing pacifier use and breastfeeding does not conclusively show an adverse relationship in women who are motivated to breastfeed, more studies are needed to help determine what effect, if any, pacifiers have on breastfeeding initiation and exclusivity in the immediate newborn period.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Feeding / statistics & numerical data. Infant Care / methods. Infant Formula / statistics & numerical data. Pacifiers. Postnatal Care / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Hospital Units / standards. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Male. Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care). Practice Guidelines as Topic. Retrospective Studies


21. |......... 5%  Benjamins LJ, Gourishankar A, Yataco-Marquez V, Cardona EH, de Ybarrondo L: Honey pacifier use among an indigent pediatric population. Pediatrics; 2013 Jun;131(6):e1838-41
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  • [Title] Honey pacifier use among an indigent pediatric population.
  • BACKGROUND: Use of honey pacifiers by infants presenting to a pediatric clinic at a county hospital in Houston, Texas, was observed by several of our staff members.
  • Although we could not find any published studies linking the use of honey pacifiers to infant botulism, we also could not find any studies assessing the prevalence of honey pacifier use in general.
  • Approximately 11% of the respondents reported using honey pacifiers with their infant children.
  • Reasons for use included tradition, infant preference, and perceived health benefits (eg, helps with constipation or colic).
  • Approximately 20% of the honey pacifier users and 23% of the entire group reported knowledge of honey potentially causing an illness in children <12 months of age.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Honey pacifier use was relatively common among this population, seen in ∼1 out of 10 respondents.
  • [MeSH-major] Botulism / epidemiology. Honey / adverse effects. Honey / microbiology. Pacifiers / utilization
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Health Surveys. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Poverty. Prevalence. Texas. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 23650307.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-4275
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatrics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; food-borne botulism / herbal medicine / honey / infantile / knowledge / pacifiers
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22. |......... 5%  Hardcastle T: Sucrose has been shown to have analgesic properties when administered to neonates and infants: is there the potential for its use in post-operative pain management? J Perioper Pract; 2010 Jan;20(1):19-22
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  • Much research has been performed over the years into the analgesic effect of sucrose administered for painful procedures performed on the neonate and infant.
  • Studies have reported the endogenous effect of sucrose when used in conjunction with non-nutritive sucking (pacifiers).
  • [MeSH-major] Analgesics / therapeutic use. Pacifiers. Pain, Postoperative / prevention & control. Sucrose / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Analgesia. Evidence-Based Practice. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Neonatal Nursing. Pain Measurement. Sucking Behavior

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  • (PMID = 20225716.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-4589
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of perioperative practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Perioper Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Analgesics; 57-50-1 / Sucrose
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23. |......... 4%  Forrester-Knauss C, Merten S, Weiss C, Ackermann-Liebrich U, Zemp Stutz E: The baby-friendly hospital initiative in Switzerland: trends over a 9-year period. J Hum Lact; 2013 Nov;29(4):510-6
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  • BACKGROUND: This article reports the trends over a 9-year period for 4 steps of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) (exclusive breastfeeding, uninterrupted rooming-in, no use of pacifiers, and initiation of breastfeeding within the first 2 hours after birth) during hospital stays in Switzerland.
  • RESULTS: Significant improvements were found for 3 of the 4 steps of the BFHI between 2000 and 2008: rates of exclusive breastfeeding during postpartum stay (35.9%-57.6%, P < .001), uninterrupted rooming-in (48.2%-73.1%, P < .001), and no use of pacifiers (33.6%-48.1%, P < .001).
  • Exclusive breastfeeding during hospital stay was significantly related to no use of pacifiers (P < .001) and to uninterrupted rooming-in (P < .001) in the years when exclusive breastfeeding particularly increased (2003, 2004, and 2008).

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  • (PMID = 23578942.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-5732
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of human lactation : official journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Hum Lact
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative / breastfeeding / exclusive breastfeeding / initiation of breastfeeding / monitoring / pacifier use / trends / uninterrupted rooming-in
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24. |......... 4%  Roig AO, Martínez MR, García JC, Hoyos SP, Navidad GL, Alvarez JC, Pujalte Mdel M, De León González RG: Factors associated to breastfeeding cessation before 6 months. Rev Lat Am Enfermagem; 2010 May-Jun;18(3):373-80
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  • Lower educational level was associated with cessation of ABF and the use of pacifiers or occasional breast-milk substitutes with cessation of FBF.
  • The use of pacifiers and not-medically indicated breast milk substitutes should be controlled.
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Multivariate Analysis. Socioeconomic Factors. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 20721426.001).
  • [ISSN] 0104-1169
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista latino-americana de enfermagem
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Lat Am Enfermagem
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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25. |......... 4%  Salah M, Abdel-Aziz M, Al-Farok A, Jebrini A: Recurrent acute otitis media in infants: analysis of risk factors. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol; 2013 Oct;77(10):1665-9
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  • We analyzed various risk factors that may affect the prognosis of RAOM, including: age, prematurity, upper respiratory tract infections (URTI), duration of breastfeeding, use of pacifiers, parental smoking, seasonality, the presence of siblings (family size), gender, adenoid hypertrophy, allergy, and craniofacial abnormalities.
  • RESULTS: Use of pacifiers, short duration of breastfeeding, older infantile age, winter season, URTI and presence of adenoid hypertrophy were identified as risk factors for RAOM.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Factors that may cause recurrence of the disease in infant population are use of pacifiers, short duration of breastfeeding, older infantile age, winter season, upper respiratory tract infections and adenoid hypertrophy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Breast Feeding / adverse effects. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Hypersensitivity / complications. Incidence. Infant. Male. Pacifiers / adverse effects. Prognosis. Recurrence. Respiratory Tract Infections / complications. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Seasons. Severity of Illness Index. Siblings. Time Factors. Tobacco Smoke Pollution / adverse effects

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 23953241.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8464
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tobacco Smoke Pollution; 74469-00-4 / Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Acute otitis media / Adenoid / Allergy / Breastfeeding / Infantile infection / Upper respiratory infection
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26. |......... 4%  Oder AL, Stalling DL, Barlow SM: Short-Term Effects of Pacifier Texture on NNS in Neurotypical Infants. Int J Pediatr; 2013;2013:168459
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  • [Title] Short-Term Effects of Pacifier Texture on NNS in Neurotypical Infants.
  • The dense representation of trigeminal mechanosensitive afferents in the lip vermilion, anterior tongue, intraoral mucosa, and temporomandibular joint allows the infant's orofacial system to encode a wide range of somatosensory experiences during the critical period associated with feed development.
  • Our understanding of how this complex sensorium processes texture is very limited in adults, and the putative role of texture encoding in the infant is unknown.
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the short-term effects of a novel textured pacifier experience in healthy term infants (N = 28).
  • Nonnutritive suck (NNS) compression pressure waveforms were digitized in real time using a variety of custom-molded textured pacifiers varying in spatial array density of touch domes.
  • MANCOVA, adjusted for postmenstrual age at test and sex, revealed that infants exhibited an increase in NNS burst attempts at the expense of a degraded suck burst structure with the textured pacifiers, suggesting that the suck central pattern generator (sCPG) is significantly disrupted and reorganized by this novel orocutaneous experience.
  • The current findings provide new insight into oromotor control as a function of the oral somatosensory environment in neurotypically developing infants.

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  • (PMID = 23737804.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-9740
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3657447
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27. |......... 4%  Caminha Mde F, Serva VB, dos Anjos MM, Brito RB, Lins MM, Batista Filho M: [Exclusive breastfeeding among professionals in a Family Healthcare Program]. Cien Saude Colet; 2011 Apr;16(4):2245-50
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  • A tendency of statistical significance was found in relation to the use of pacifiers among children whose mothers did not breastfeed exclusively (p=0.051).
  • The difficulties found during breastfeeding among the workers of the Family Health Program of the IV Sanitary Health District and the use of pacifiers among their children are problems that deserve attention, due to the fact that they represent a group that serves as a model for the community.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Child, Preschool. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Government Programs. Humans. Infant. Male. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21584465.001).
  • [ISSN] 1678-4561
  • [Journal-full-title] Ciência & saúde coletiva
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cien Saude Colet
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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28. |......... 4%  Jaafar SH, Jahanfar S, Angolkar M, Ho JJ: Pacifier use versus no pacifier use in breastfeeding term infants for increasing duration of breastfeeding. Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2011;(3):CD007202
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  • [Title] Pacifier use versus no pacifier use in breastfeeding term infants for increasing duration of breastfeeding.
  • BACKGROUND: To successfully initiate and maintain breastfeeding for a longer duration, the World Health Organization's Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding recommends total avoidance of artificial teats or pacifiers for breastfeeding infants.
  • Offering the pacifier instead of the breast to calm the infant may lead to less frequent episodes of breastfeeding and as a consequence may reduce breast milk production and shorten duration of breastfeeding; however, this remains unclear.
  • OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of pacifier use versus no pacifier use in healthy full-term newborns whose mothers have initiated breastfeeding and intend to exclusively breastfeed, on the duration of breastfeeding, other breastfeeding outcomes and infant health.
  • SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing pacifier use versus no pacifier use in healthy full-term newborns who have initiated breastfeeding regardless of whether they were born at home or in the hospital.
  • Meta-analysis of the two combined studies showed that pacifier use in healthy breastfeeding infants had no significant effect on the proportion of infants exclusively breastfed at three months (risk ratio (RR) 1.00; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.95 to 1.06), and at four months of age (RR 0.99; 95% CI 0.92 to 1.06) and also had no effect on the proportion of infants partially breastfed at three months (RR 1.00; 95% CI 0.97 to 1.02), and at 4 months of age (RR 1.01; 95% CI 0.98 to 1.03).
  • AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Pacifier use in healthy term breastfeeding infants, started from birth or after lactation is established, did not significantly affect the prevalence or duration of exclusive and partial breastfeeding up to four months of age.
  • However, evidence to assess the short-term breastfeeding difficulties faced by mothers and long-term effect of pacifiers on infants' health is lacking.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Feeding / epidemiology. Pacifiers / statistics & numerical data
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Motivation. Prevalence. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Time Factors

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  • [UpdateIn] Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;7:CD007202 [22786506.001]
  • (PMID = 21412899.001).
  • [ISSN] 1469-493X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Cochrane database of systematic reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cochrane Database Syst Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
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29. |......... 4%  Jaafar SH, Jahanfar S, Angolkar M, Ho JJ: Effect of restricted pacifier use in breastfeeding term infants for increasing duration of breastfeeding. Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2012;7:CD007202
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effect of restricted pacifier use in breastfeeding term infants for increasing duration of breastfeeding.
  • BACKGROUND: To successfully initiate and maintain breastfeeding for a longer duration, the World Health Organization's Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding recommends total avoidance of artificial teats or pacifiers for breastfeeding infants.
  • Offering the pacifier instead of the breast to calm the infant may lead to less frequent episodes of breastfeeding and as a consequence may reduce breast milk production and shorten duration of breastfeeding; however, this remains unclear.
  • OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of unrestricted versus restricted pacifier use in healthy full-term newborns whose mothers have initiated breastfeeding and intend to exclusively breastfeed, on the duration of breastfeeding, other breastfeeding outcomes and infant health.
  • SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing unrestricted versus restricted pacifier use in healthy full-term newborns who have initiated breastfeeding regardless of whether they were born at home or in the hospital.
  • Meta-analysis of the two combined studies showed that pacifier use in healthy breastfeeding infants had no significant effect on the proportion of infants exclusively breastfed at three months (risk ratio (RR) 0.99; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93 to 1.05), and at four months of age (RR 0.99; 95% CI 0.92 to 1.06) and also had no effect on the proportion of infants partially breastfed at three months (RR 1.00; 95% CI 0.98 to 1.13), and at 4 months of age (RR 1.01; 95% CI 0.98 to 1.03).
  • AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Pacifier use in healthy term breastfeeding infants, started from birth or after lactation is established, did not significantly affect the prevalence or duration of exclusive and partial breastfeeding up to four months of age.
  • However, evidence to assess the short-term breastfeeding difficulties faced by mothers and long-term effect of pacifiers on infants' health is lacking.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Feeding / statistics & numerical data. Pacifiers / utilization
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Lactation. Motivation. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Time Factors

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  • [UpdateOf] Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;(3):CD007202 [21412899.001]
  • (PMID = 22786506.001).
  • [ISSN] 1469-493X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Cochrane database of systematic reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cochrane Database Syst Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
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30. |......... 4%  Buccini Gdos S, Benício MH, Venancio SI: Determinants of using pacifier and bottle feeding. Rev Saude Publica; 2014 Aug;48(4):571-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Determinants of using pacifier and bottle feeding.
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the factors associated with the use of pacifiers and/or bottle feeding in infants aged under one year.
  • The analysis considered three outcomes: exclusive use of pacifier, exclusive use of bottle feeding, and use of artificial nipples (pacifier and bottle feeding).
  • RESULTS: The following factors were associated with exclusive use of the pacifier: mother working outside the home, primiparity, child was not breastfed within the first hour, and child had consumed tea on the first day at home.
  • The following factors were associated with use of artificial nipples (pacifier and bottle feeding): mother working outside the home, primiparity, cesarean delivery, the male gender, low birth weight, born in a hospital not accredited as "baby friendly", required health baby monitoring in the Primary Health Care Unit (PR = 0.91), and child had consumed milk formula, water, or tea on the first day at home.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study identified profiles of exclusive users of pacifiers, bottle feeding, and both.

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  • (PMID = 25210816.001).
  • [ISSN] 1518-8787
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de saúde pública
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Saude Publica
  • [Language] eng; por
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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31. |......... 4%  Kandasamy Y, Smith R, Wright IM, Hartley L: Pain relief for premature infants during ophthalmology assessment. J AAPOS; 2011 Jun;15(3):276-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: The ophthalmological examination of premature infants, which is essential for the detection of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), can be painful and distressing for the infant.
  • Various researchers have investigated the benefits of topical anesthesia, oral sucrose, and non pharmacological intervention for pain relief.
  • Oral sucrose did not significantly reduce pain scores during ROP examinations, and withholding feeding before the examination was not beneficial.
  • Infants given pacifiers had lower pain scores than those without pacifiers, and infants who were nested experienced less distress during and after the procedure.
  • Contrary to standard practice, it appears that patients are more comfortable if they are fed before the examination, and there is no benefit of oral sucrose.
  • Nonpharmacological interventions, including sucking on a pacifier and nesting, may also be beneficial.
  • [MeSH-major] Anesthesia, Local / methods. Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological. Eye Pain / therapy. Infant, Premature. Palliative Care / methods. Retinopathy of Prematurity / diagnosis. Sucrose / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Anesthetics, Local / administration & dosage. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Propoxycaine / administration & dosage

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2011 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21641250.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-3933
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus / American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J AAPOS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anesthetics, Local; 57-50-1 / Sucrose; B4OB0JHI1X / proxymetacaine; EPD1EH7F53 / Propoxycaine
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32. |......... 4%  Brasileiro AA, Ambrosano GM, Marba ST, Possobon Rde F: [Breastfeeding among children of women workers]. Rev Saude Publica; 2012 Aug;46(4):642-8
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  • Among the participants, 100 mother-infant dyads received guidance and support for the practice of breastfeeding within an oral health prevention program, and the other 100 dyads were addressed in a child vaccination campaign.
  • The following women had higher odds of stopping breastfeeding: mothers not participating in the incentive program (OR = 3.04 [95%CI: 1.35;6.85]), mothers who did not have a 30-minute break during the working hours (OR = 4.10 [95%CI: 1.81;9.26]), and mothers whose children used pacifiers (OR = 2.68 [95%CI: 1.23;5.83]) or bottles (OR = 14.47 [95%CI: 1.85;113.24].
  • CONCLUSIONS: The mothers who participated in the breastfeeding incentive group, who did not offer pacifiers and bottles to their babies and who had a break during the working hours stopped breastfeeding after the fourth month.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Brazil. Female. Humans. Infant. Logistic Models. Male. Mothers. Odds Ratio. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 22832805.001).
  • [ISSN] 1518-8787
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de saúde pública
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Saude Publica
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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33. |......... 4%  Salustiano LP, Diniz AL, Abdallah VO, Pinto Rde M: [Factors associated with duration of breastfeeding in children under six months]. Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet; 2012 Jan;34(1):28-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The factors most related to the abandonment of exclusive breastfeeding in infants under six months were maternal employment outside the home (OR=2.73; 95%CI=1.74-4.29) and use of pacifiers (OR=4.26; 95%CI=2.85-6.38).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding in the municipality of Uberlândia is among the highest in the country and the factors most often associated with the practice of early weaning were maternal employment outside the home, offering pacifiers to the infants, receiving postpartum care in the private health sector, and primiparity.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Time Factors. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 22358345.001).
  • [ISSN] 1806-9339
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista brasileira de ginecologia e obstetrícia : revista da Federação Brasileira das Sociedades de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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34. |......... 4%  Silveira LM, Prade LS, Ruedell AM, Haeffner LS, Weinmann AR: Influence of breastfeeding on children's oral skills. Rev Saude Publica; 2013 Feb;47(1):37-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Influence of breastfeeding on children's oral skills.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of oral habits and breastfeeding on the oral skills of children.
  • METHODS: Cross-sectional study evaluated the oral skills of 125 nine-month-old-children born at term, belonging to Macro-Midwest region of Rio Grande do Sul between August 2010 and March 2011.
  • Variables included evaluating oral skills and information on breastfeeding and weaning.
  • RESULTS: Breastfeeding positively influenced the acquisition of oral skills sucking at nine months of age (OR 3.1, 95%CI 1.2;8.3) and using a pacifier had a negative effect (OR 0.1, 95%CI 0.03;0.6).
  • CONCLUSIONS: It was found that breastfeeding contributed to mature orofacial as it improved the ability of oral suction.
  • Pacifier use was shown to affect the functioning of the stomatognathic system.
  • This should be made clear to parents and the use of pacifiers during infancy should be avoided.
  • [MeSH-minor] Bottle Feeding. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Mouth / physiology. Pacifiers / adverse effects. Stomatognathic System / physiology

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  • (PMID = 23703128.001).
  • [ISSN] 1518-8787
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de saúde pública
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Saude Publica
  • [Language] eng; por
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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35. |......... 3%  Hesselmar B, Sjöberg F, Saalman R, Aberg N, Adlerberth I, Wold AE: Pacifier cleaning practices and risk of allergy development. Pediatrics; 2013 Jun;131(6):e1829-37
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  • [Title] Pacifier cleaning practices and risk of allergy development.
  • Oral microbes may be transferred from parents to infants via pacifiers.
  • We investigated whether pacifier cleaning practices affected the risk of allergy development.
  • Pacifier use and pacifier cleaning practices were recorded during interviews with the parents when the children were 6 months old.
  • The oral microbiota of the infants was characterized by analysis of saliva samples collected at 4 months of age.
  • RESULTS: Children whose parents "cleaned" their pacifier by sucking it (n = 65) were less likely to have asthma (odds ratio [OR] 0.12; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.01-0.99), eczema (OR 0.37; 95% CI 0.15-0.91), and sensitization (OR 0.37; 95% CI 0.10-1.27) at 18 months of age than children whose parents did not use this cleaning technique (n = 58).
  • Vaginal delivery and parental pacifier sucking yielded independent and additive protective effects against eczema development.
  • The salivary microbiota differed between children whose parents cleaned their pacifier by sucking it and children whose parents did not use this practice.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Parental sucking of their infant's pacifier may reduce the risk of allergy development, possibly via immune stimulation by microbes transferred to the infant via the parent's saliva.
  • [MeSH-major] Hypersensitivity / epidemiology. Mouth / microbiology. Pacifiers / microbiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Asthma / epidemiology. Asthma / prevention & control. Eczema / epidemiology. Eczema / prevention & control. Female. Health Behavior. Humans. Immunization. Incidence. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Metagenome. Pregnancy. Public Health Practice. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 23650304.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-4275
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatrics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; allergy / asthma / child / eczema / infant / microbiota / pacifiers / sensitization
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36. |......... 3%  Walsh P, Vieth T, Rodriguez C, Lona N, Molina R, Habebo E, Caldera E, Garcia C, Veazey G: Using a pacifier to decrease sudden infant death syndrome: an emergency department educational intervention. PeerJ; 2014;2:e309
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Using a pacifier to decrease sudden infant death syndrome: an emergency department educational intervention.
  • Background. Pacifier use decreases the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).
  • Objectives. To test the hypotheses (1) that caregivers were less familiar with the role of pacifiers in sudden infant death (SIDS) prevention than other recommendations, and (2) that an ED educational intervention would increase pacifier use in infants younger than six months, and (3) that otitis media would not occur more frequently in pacifier users.
  • We measured pacifier use infants and baseline knowledge of SIDs prevention recommendations in caregivers.
  • We followed up three months later to determine pacifier use, and 12 months later to determine episodes of otitis media.
  • Only 268/777 (35%) knew the recommendation to offer a pacifier at bedtime.
  • At enrollment 449/780 (58%) did not use a pacifier.
  • Of 210/338 infants aged less than 6 months followed up 41/112 (37%) non-users had started using a pacifier at bedtime (NNT 3).
  • Over the same period, 37/98 (38%) users had discontinued their pacifier.
  • Conclusion. Caregiver knowledge of the role of pacifiers in SIDS prevention was less than for other recommendations.
  • Our educational intervention appeared to increase pacifier use.
  • Pacifier use was not associated with increased otitis media.

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  • (PMID = 24688883.001).
  • [ISSN] 2167-8359
  • [Journal-full-title] PeerJ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PeerJ
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3961164
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Education in the emergency department / Emergency department / Infant / Pacifier / Sudden infant death syndrome
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37. |......... 3%  Perrine CG, Scanlon KS, Li R, Odom E, Grummer-Strawn LM: Baby-Friendly hospital practices and meeting exclusive breastfeeding intention. Pediatrics; 2012 Jul;130(1):54-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: In the 2005-2007 Infant Feeding Practices Study II, women completed a prenatal questionnaire and approximately monthly questionnaires through 12 months.
  • Primary predictor variables included 6 Baby-Friendly hospital practices: breastfeeding within 1 hour of birth, giving only breast milk, rooming in, breastfeeding on demand, no pacifiers, and information on breastfeeding support.
  • Beginning breastfeeding within 1 hour of birth and not being given supplemental feedings or pacifiers were associated with achieving exclusive breastfeeding intention.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Feeding. Hospitals / standards. Infant Care / methods. Intention. Mothers / psychology. Postnatal Care / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bottle Feeding. Female. Humans. Infant Formula. Infant, Newborn. Logistic Models. Longitudinal Studies. Pregnancy. Questionnaires. United States


38. |......... 3%  Amirav I, Luder A, Chleechel A, Newhouse MT, Gorenberg M: Lung aerosol deposition in suckling infants. Arch Dis Child; 2012 Jun;97(6):497-501
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Since 'suckling' on a pacifier calms infants, they should more readily accept a face mask that incorporates a pacifier.
  • The aim of the present pilot study was to compare lung aerosol deposition while suckling on a pacifier incorporated into a mask with that obtained while inhaling from a conventional mask.
  • METHODS: Twelve infants <12 months old and who regularly used pacifiers participated as their own controls.
  • Lung aerosol deposition was measured scintigraphically (technetium-(99m)DTPA-labelled normal saline aerosol, MMAD (Mass Median Aerodynamic Diameter) 3 um and GSD (Geometric Standard Deviation) of 2) via jet nebuliser using a conventional mask versus 'suckling' on their pacifier incorporated into a unique mask.
  • RESULTS: Mean lung deposition (± SD) while suckling using a mask with attached pacifier (1.6 ± 0.5% in the right lung) was similar to that with a conventional mask (1.7 ± 0.9%, p=0.81).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Lung aerosol deposition during nasal breathing while suckling on a pacifier-equipped mask is similar to that in infants breathing quietly using a conventional mask, and results comparable with previous data in infants and in nasal breathing models of an infant's upper respiratory tract.
  • Using a pacifier during aerosol treatment in infants may be as efficient as conventional treatment without a pacifier.
  • [MeSH-major] Aerosols / administration & dosage. Drug Delivery Systems / methods. Lung / metabolism. Masks. Nebulizers and Vaporizers. Pacifiers
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Inhalation. Cross-Over Studies. Equipment Design. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Pilot Projects. Radionuclide Imaging. Technetium Tc 99m Pentetate / diagnostic use

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  • (PMID = 22362720.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-2044
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of disease in childhood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Dis. Child.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aerosols; VW78417PU1 / Technetium Tc 99m Pentetate
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39. |......... 3%  Hsu NY, Wu PC, Bornehag CG, Sundell J, Su HJ: Feeding bottles usage and the prevalence of childhood allergy and asthma. Clin Dev Immunol; 2012;2012:158248
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • This study aimed to examine the association between the length of use of feeding bottles or pacifiers during childhood and the prevalence of respiratory and allergic morbidities.
  • Moreover, significant dose-dependent relationships were further established after an adjustment for confounders was performed that included children's ages, gender, gestational age, birth weight, length of breastfeeding, the age when first given infant formula or complementary foods, family history, parental educational levels, and smoking status, as well as the problem of indoor water damage.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Birth Weight. Breast Feeding / statistics & numerical data. Child. Child, Preschool. Educational Status. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant Formula. Male. Pacifiers / adverse effects. Prevalence. Questionnaires. Respiratory Sounds. Risk Factors. Smoking. Taiwan / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 22291844.001).
  • [ISSN] 1740-2530
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & developmental immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Dev. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3265220
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40. |......... 3%  Odoi A, Andrew S, Wong FY, Yiallourou SR, Horne RS: Pacifier use does not alter sleep and spontaneous arousal patterns in healthy term-born infants. Acta Paediatr; 2014 Dec;103(12):1244-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pacifier use does not alter sleep and spontaneous arousal patterns in healthy term-born infants.
  • AIM: Impaired arousal from sleep has been implicated in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).
  • Epidemiological studies have shown that pacifier use decreases the risk of SIDS, even when infants sleep prone.
  • We examined spontaneous arousability in infants slept prone and supine over the first 6 months of life and hypothesised that spontaneous arousals would be increased in pacifier users, particularly in the prone position.
  • RESULTS: There was no effect of pacifier use on total time spent sleeping or awake or the number of spontaneous awakenings at any age.
  • There was also no effect of pacifier use on the frequency or duration of the total number of spontaneous arousals or on cortical arousals and subcortical activations.
  • CONCLUSION: Pacifier use did not alter infant spontaneous arousability at any of the three ages studied, in either the prone or supine sleeping position.
  • Any preventative effect of pacifiers for SIDS may be through physiological mechanisms other than increased arousability.

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  • [Copyright] ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
  • (PMID = 25169652.001).
  • [ISSN] 1651-2227
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Paediatr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; arousal: sleep / prone sleeping position / sudden infant death syndrome
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41. |......... 3%  Smith PB, Moore K, Peters L: Implementing baby-friendly practices: strategies for success. MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs; 2012 Jul-Aug;37(4):228-33, quiz 234-5
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  • Specific steps generate more barriers to overcome than others--namely exclusive breastfeeding without supplementation or pacifiers, rooming-in for 23 out of 24 hours, and skin-to-skin contact with a parent immediately after birth and during the hospital stay.
  • [MeSH-minor] Education, Nursing. Female. Guideline Adherence. Health Education. Health Promotion. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Patient Education as Topic. Practice Guidelines as Topic

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  • (PMID = 22596036.001).
  • [ISSN] 1539-0683
  • [Journal-full-title] MCN. The American journal of maternal child nursing
  • [ISO-abbreviation] MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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42. |......... 3%  Bouanene I, ElMhamdi S, Sriha A, Bouslah A, Soltani M: [Knowledge and practices of women in Monastir, Tunisia regarding breastfeeding]. East Mediterr Health J; 2010 Aug;16(8):879-85
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Most (90.8%) knew that breastfeeding helped prevent infections in babies but only 38.5% knew that breast milk supplies all infant feeding needs until 6 months of age.
  • Early weaning was related to using pacifiers and breast-milk substitutes (OR = 0.17; 95% CI: 0.08-0.36 and OR = 0.14; 95% CI: 0.05-0.38 respectively).

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  • (PMID = 21473131.001).
  • [ISSN] 1020-3397
  • [Journal-full-title] Eastern Mediterranean health journal = La revue de santé de la Méditerranée orientale = al-Majallah al-ṣiḥḥīyah li-sharq al-mutawassiṭ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] East. Mediterr. Health J.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
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43. |......... 3%  Queluz MC, Pereira MJ, dos Santos CB, Leite AM, Ricco RG: [Prevalence and determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in the city of Serrana, São Paulo, Brazil]. Rev Esc Enferm USP; 2012 Jun;46(3):537-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Of the total of 275 infant participants, only 29.8% were exclusively breastfed.
  • Univariate analysis revealed that mothers who work outside the home without maternity leave, mothers who did not work outside the home, adolescent mothers, and the use of pacifiers have a greater chance of interrupting exclusive breastfeeding.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Brazil. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Humans. Infant. Urban Population. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 22773471.001).
  • [ISSN] 0080-6234
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da U S P
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Esc Enferm USP
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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44. |......... 3%  Hanzer M, Zotter H, Sauseng W, Pichler G, Muller W, Kerbl R: Non-nutritive sucking habits in sleeping infants. Neonatology; 2010;97(1):61-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Pacifier use has been postulated to decrease the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).
  • METHODS: Polygraphic recordings were performed in 12 infants with a median age of 55 days (range 7-82) who regularly used a pacifier during sleep.
  • We evaluated the time of suckling in relation to the total time of pacifier use, the median number of bursts per min, the median duration of single bursts and the median interval between 2 sequent bursts.
  • RESULTS: Median sleep time with a pacifier held in mouth was 31.3 min (13.0-117.6), of which 15.5% (6.4-36.7%) was spent with active suckling.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study presents important data for sucking habits in pacifier users which may provide a basis for further investigations concerning the efficacy of pacifiers in SIDS prophylaxis.
  • [MeSH-major] Infant Behavior / physiology. Pacifiers. Sleep / physiology. Sucking Behavior / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Pilot Projects. Polysomnography / methods. Video Recording

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19648773.001).
  • [ISSN] 1661-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] Neonatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neonatology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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45. |......... 3%  Balaban R, Aguiar CM, da Silva Araújo AC, Dias Filho EB: Knowledge of paediatricians regarding child oral health. Int J Paediatr Dent; 2012 Jul;22(4):286-91
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Knowledge of paediatricians regarding child oral health.
  • BACKGROUND: In dentistry, clinical practice is directed towards attitudes that promote oral health and the paediatricians occupy a privileged position in this process.
  • AIM: To assess the knowledge and attitudes of paediatricians in relation to the oral health of their patients.
  • Moreover, 67.8% considered their knowledge on oral health to be insufficient.
  • Concerning pacifiers, 32.6% did not allow it and 66.9% did not either recommend it or restrict it.
  • A total of 83.4% classified the oral health content in their medical education as either nonexistent or deficient; this figure remained high (72.4%) in relation to residency.
  • CONCLUSIONS: It is important to develop oral health information programmes to paediatricians.
  • Information on oral health should be included in medical curricula and residency.
  • [MeSH-major] Attitude of Health Personnel. Education, Medical. Oral Health. Pediatrics / education. Physicians / psychology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Brazil. Cariostatic Agents / therapeutic use. Clinical Competence. Cross-Sectional Studies. Curriculum. Dental Care for Children. Dental Caries / diagnosis. Dentifrices / therapeutic use. Female. Fluorides / therapeutic use. Fluorosis, Dental / diagnosis. Health Education, Dental. Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Pacifiers. Referral and Consultation. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2011 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
  • (PMID = 22092596.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-263X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of paediatric dentistry / the British Paedodontic Society [and] the International Association of Dentistry for Children
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Paediatr Dent
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cariostatic Agents; 0 / Dentifrices; Q80VPU408O / Fluorides
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46. |......... 3%  Galvão DM, da Silva IA: [Portuguese school children breastfeeding experiences]. Rev Esc Enferm USP; 2011 Oct;45(5):1055-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Most children knew that they and their siblings had been breastfed and had used a pacifier.
  • Furthermore, when playing with their dolls, most girls did not pretend to breastfeed, and 771 (71.5%) reported their dolls had bottles, or pacifiers, and pretended to feed their dolls with a bottle.

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  • (PMID = 22031363.001).
  • [ISSN] 0080-6234
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da U S P
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Esc Enferm USP
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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47. |......... 3%  Vieira GO, Martins CC, Vieira TO, Oliveira NF, Silva LR: Factors predicting early discontinuation of exclusive breastfeeding in the first month of life. J Pediatr (Rio J); 2010 Sep-Oct;86(5):441-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • RESULTS: Lack of prior breastfeeding experience (PR 1.24; 95%CI 1.75-1.43), cracked nipples (PR 1.25; 95%CI 1.09-1.43), use of fixed breastfeeding schedules (PR 1.42; 95%CI 1.09-1.84) and pacifier use (PR 1.53; 95%CI 1.34-1.76) were identified as factors predicting discontinuation of exclusive breastfeeding.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Measures to prevent early discontinuation of exclusive breastfeeding must focus on women without breastfeeding experience and include prevention of nipple trauma, encourage breastfeeding on demand, and discourage the use of pacifiers.
  • [MeSH-minor] Brazil. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Male. Mother-Child Relations. Mothers / psychology. Postpartum Period. Prevalence. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 20737114.001).
  • [ISSN] 1678-4782
  • [Journal-full-title] Jornal de pediatria
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pediatr (Rio J)
  • [Language] eng; por
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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48. |......... 3%  Rourke L, Leduc D, Constantin E, Carsley S, Rourke J: Update on well-baby and well-child care from 0 to 5 years: What's new in the Rourke Baby Record? Can Fam Physician; 2010 Dec;56(12):1285-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Anticipatory guidance updates relate to injury prevention, infant swaddling, literacy facilitation, nonparental child care, parenting skills programs, serum lead levels, over-the-counter cough and cold medications, pacifiers, antipyretics, insect repellents, and dental care and oral health.
  • [MeSH-minor] Canada. Child Development. Child, Preschool. Family Relations. Humans. Immunization. Infant. Nonprescription Drugs / therapeutic use. Nutritional Requirements. Physical Examination. Wounds and Injuries / prevention & control

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  • [Cites] Pediatrics. 2002 Apr;109(4):704-12 [11927718.001]
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  • (PMID = 21156890.001).
  • [ISSN] 1715-5258
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian family physician Médecin de famille canadien
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can Fam Physician
  • [Language] eng; fre
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nonprescription Drugs
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3001919
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49. |......... 3%  Sanches MT, Buccini Gdos S, Gimeno SG, Rosa TE, Bonamigo AW: [Factors associated with interruption of exclusive breastfeeding in low birth weight infants receiving primary care]. Cad Saude Publica; 2011 May;27(5):953-65
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The sample included infants with birth weight ≤ 2,500g (including twins) and 5-minute Apgar ≥ 7, followed until the third month of life, and excluded infants/mothers with complications that would impede EBF, besides infant/maternal deaths.
  • The following factors were associated with interruption of EBF in the first three months of life: maternal age ≤ 18 years; informal employment (protective factor); alcohol intake during pregnancy; < 6 prenatal visits; multiple gestations; birth weight ≤ 2,000g; difficulty breastfeeding in the first month; complaints in breastfeeding during the first month; and use of pacifiers in the first two months.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Feeding. Infant, Low Birth Weight. Weaning
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Brazil. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 21655846.001).
  • [ISSN] 1678-4464
  • [Journal-full-title] Cadernos de saúde pública
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cad Saude Publica
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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50. |......... 3%  Ali S, Chambers A, Johnson DW, Newton AS, Vandermeer B, Williamson J, Curtis SJ: Reported practice variation in pediatric pain management: a survey of Canadian pediatric emergency physicians. CJEM; 2014 Sep;16(5):352-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The most common nonpharmacologic interventions used for infants and children were pacifiers and distraction, respectively.

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  • (PMID = 25227643.001).
  • [ISSN] 1481-8035
  • [Journal-full-title] CJEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] CJEM
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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