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1. Biomedical articles (top 50; 2009 to 2014)
1. |||||..... 50%  Roh JE, Lee SY, Cha SH, Cho BS, Jeon MH, Kang MH: Sequential magnetic resonance imaging finding of intramedullary spinal cord abscess including diffusion weighted image: a case report. Korean J Radiol; 2011 Mar-Apr;12(2):241-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sequential magnetic resonance imaging finding of intramedullary spinal cord abscess including diffusion weighted image: a case report.
  • Intramedullary spinal cord abscess (ISCA) is a rare infection of the central nervous system.
  • We describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, including the diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) findings, of ISCA in a 78-year-old man.
  • The initial conventional MRI of the thoracic spine demonstrated a subtle enhancing nodule accompanied by significant edema.
  • On the follow-up MRI after seven days, the nodule appeared as a ring-enhancing nodule.
  • The non-enhancing central portion of the nodule appeared hyperintense on DWI with a decreased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value on the ADC map.
  • [MeSH-major] Abscess / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Spinal Cord Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Drainage. Humans. Male. Paraplegia / etiology. Thoracic Vertebrae

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  • (PMID = 21430942.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-8330
  • [Journal-full-title] Korean journal of radiology : official journal of the Korean Radiological Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3052616
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Diffusion-weighted imaging / Intramedullary spinal cord abscess / Magnetic resonance imaging
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2. |||||..... 49%  Cohen-Adad J, Zhao W, Wald LL, Oaklander AL: 7T MRI of spinal cord injury. Neurology; 2012 Nov 27;79(22):2217
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] 7T MRI of spinal cord injury.
  • A man with 25 years of mild left neck, arm, and leg paresthesias had initial MRI in 1996 identifying a left C3-4 dorsal horn cavernous hemangioma.
  • Three months after surgical resection, left upper-body pain recurred; 2 years later, disabling colocalizing itch recurred.(1) In 2012, ultra-high-resolution 7T MRI (figure) localized hemosiderin to specific dorsal horn laminae and detected rostral (C1-3) hypersignal invisible on conventional MRIs, most likely representing Wallerian degeneration.(2) These new imaging findings demonstrate the benefit of high-field spinal cord MRI and generate the hypothesis that his late-onset central itch might be related to delayed white matter degeneration.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Vertebrae / pathology. Hemangioma, Cavernous, Central Nervous System / pathology. Hematoma, Epidural, Spinal / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Thoracic Vertebrae / pathology. Wallerian Degeneration / pathology

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  • (PMID = 23183281.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-632X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / K24NS59892; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P41RR14075
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3570817
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3. |||||..... 45%  Flint JJ, Lee CH, Hansen B, Fey M, Schmidig D, Bui JD, King MA, Vestergaard-Poulsen P, Blackband SJ: Magnetic resonance microscopy of mammalian neurons. Neuroimage; 2009 Jul 15;46(4):1037-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Magnetic resonance microscopy of mammalian neurons.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is now a leading diagnostic technique.
  • In 1986 MR microscopy (MRM) was demonstrated with resolutions in the tens of micrometers, and is now an established subset of MRI with broad utility in biological and non-biological applications.
  • Using newly developed microsurface coils and an improved slice preparation technique for correlative histology, we report here for the first time direct visualization of single neurons in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) using native MR signal at a resolution of 4-8 microm.
  • Thus MRM has matured into a viable complementary cellular imaging technique in mammalian tissues.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System / cytology. Imaging, Three-Dimensional / methods. Microscopy / methods. Neurons / cytology. Spinal Cord / cytology

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  • (PMID = 19286461.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-9572
  • [Journal-full-title] NeuroImage
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroimage
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P41 RR16105; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R01 EB012874; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS36992
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS102572; NLM/ PMC3184249
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4. ||||...... 44%  Cohen AB, Neema M, Arora A, Dell'oglio E, Benedict RH, Tauhid S, Goldberg-Zimring D, Chavarro-Nieto C, Ceccarelli A, Klein JP, Stankiewicz JM, Houtchens MK, Buckle GJ, Alsop DC, Guttmann CR, Bakshi R: The relationships among MRI-defined spinal cord involvement, brain involvement, and disability in multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimaging; 2012 Apr;22(2):122-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The relationships among MRI-defined spinal cord involvement, brain involvement, and disability in multiple sclerosis.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the interrelationships between MRI-defined lesion and atrophy measures of spinal cord involvement and brain involvement and their relationships to disability in a small cohort of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS).
  • BACKGROUND: Although it is known that cervical spinal cord atrophy correlates with disability in MS, it is unknown whether it is the most important determinant when compared to other regions of the central nervous system (CNS).
  • Furthermore, it is not clear to what extent brain and cord lesions and atrophy are related.
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: 3T MRI of the whole brain and whole spinal cord was obtained in 21 patients with MS, including 18 with relapsing-remitting, one with secondary progressive, one with primary progressive, and one with a clinically isolated syndrome.
  • Spinal cord contour volume was segmented in whole by a semi-automated method with bins assigned to either the cervical or thoracic regions.
  • Brain and cord T2 hyperintense lesions were segmented using a semi-automated edge finding tool.
  • RESULTS: Among all MRI measures, only upper cervical spinal cord volume significantly correlated with Expanded Disability Status Scale score (r =-.515, P = .020).
  • The brain cord relationships between whole or regional spinal cord volume or lesions and gray matter, white matter, or whole brain volume or whole brain lesions were generally weak and all nonsignificant.
  • CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this preliminary study of mildly disabled, treated MS patients, cervical spinal cord atrophy most strongly correlates with physical disability in MS when accounting for a wide range of other CNS measures of lesions and atrophy, including thoracic or whole spinal cord volume, and cerebral gray, white or whole brain volume.
  • The weak relationship between spinal cord and brain lesions and atrophy may suggest that they progress rather independently in patients with MS.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / pathology. Multiple Sclerosis / pathology. Nerve Fibers, Myelinated / pathology. Spinal Cord / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Atrophy / pathology. Disability Evaluation. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2011 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.
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  • (PMID = 21447024.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6569
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuroimaging : official journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neuroimaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / 1R01NS055083-01; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS055083; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS055083-01A1; United States / CSR NIH HHS / RG / RG3705A1; United States / CSR NIH HHS / RG / RG3798A2
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS278114; NLM/ PMC3128174
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5. ||||||.... 57%  Duczkowska A, Bekiesinska-Figatowska M, Herman-Sucharska I, Duczkowski M, Romaniuk-Doroszewska A, Jurkiewicz E, Dubis A, Urbanik A, Furmanek M, Walecki J: Magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of the fetal spinal canal contents. Brain Dev; 2011 Jan;33(1):10-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of the fetal spinal canal contents.
  • Ultrasonography (US) remains the first method in the evaluation of fetal central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities but in case of the spinal canal and cord it is often insufficient since the bony structures may obscure these structures.
  • Prenatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is therefore the final noninvasive tool for the assessment of these malformations allowing for correction of sonographic findings, revealing the full extent of complex lesions and choosing the candidates for in utero treatment.
  • The authors present the most frequent anomalies of spinal canal and spinal cord in the consecutive phases of pregnancy, illustrated with their own MR images, with reference to the literature and own experience.
  • In 58 out of 252 fetuses examined due to suspicion of CNS anomalies (23.0%) the spinal canal and spinal cord abnormalities were found on MRI.
  • The cases of diastematomyelia, myelomeningocele, tethered cord, caudal regression syndrome, anterior meningocele, cystic sacrococcygeal teratoma and syringohydromyelia are demonstrated.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System / abnormalities. Fetus / abnormalities. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Nervous System Malformations / ultrasonography. Spinal Canal / abnormalities. Spinal Canal / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Prenatal


6. ||||||.... 62%  Kim W, Park MS, Lee SH, Kim SH, Jung IJ, Takahashi T, Misu T, Fujihara K, Kim HJ: Characteristic brain magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities in central nervous system aquaporin-4 autoimmunity. Mult Scler; 2010 Oct;16(10):1229-36
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Characteristic brain magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities in central nervous system aquaporin-4 autoimmunity.
  • METHODS: We aimed to characterize the brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder patients who are seropositive for anti-aquaporin-4 autoantibody (AQP4 Ab).
  • Of 236 consecutive patients with inflammatory demyelinating central nervous system diseases, we retrospectively analyzed MRI characteristics of 78 patients who were seropositive for AQP4 Ab.
  • RESULTS: For an average observational period of 6.3 years, 62 patients (79%) had brain lesions on MRI.
  • Twenty-four patients (31%) had brain MRI abnormalities at the onset of disease, and 35 (45%) had symptomatic brain involvement.
  • Characteristic brain MRI abnormalities were classified into five categories:.
  • Fifty-four patients (69%) showed at least one kind of brain abnormality among the five characteristic MRI lesions.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In central nervous system AQP4 autoimmunity, brain MRI abnormalities were more common than is generally appreciated and were characterized by their unique localization and configuration.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age of Onset. Aged. Contrast Media. Demyelinating Autoimmune Diseases, CNS / immunology. Demyelinating Autoimmune Diseases, CNS / pathology. Disability Evaluation. Disease Progression. Female. Gadolinium DTPA / diagnostic use. Humans. Immunoglobulin G / analysis. Immunoglobulin G / immunology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neuromyelitis Optica / pathology. Recurrence. Retrospective Studies. Spinal Cord / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20685766.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-0970
  • [Journal-full-title] Multiple sclerosis (Houndmills, Basingstoke, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mult. Scler.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aquaporin 4; 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Immunoglobulin G; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
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7. ||||||.... 57%  Sqalli Houssaini A, Ouazzani A, El Abdi B, Benchaaboune H, El Hassani M, Chakir N, Belfquih H, Arkha Y, Derraz S, El Ouahabi A, El Khamlichi A, Jiddane M: Magnetic resonance imaging for spinal cord tumors. A report of twenty cases. Neuroradiol J; 2010 Sep;23(4):484-95
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Magnetic resonance imaging for spinal cord tumors. A report of twenty cases.
  • This paper discusses spinal cord tumors including imaging characteristics with emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging and advances in treatment.
  • This is a retrospective study of 20 cases patients with neoplasms arising from the spinal cord.
  • All of our cases were explored by magnetic resonance imaging (1.5T) using T1-weighted imaging (Spin Echo), T2-weighted imaging (Spin Echo) and T1-weighted imaging with Gadolinium administration.
  • In MRI most tumors are isointense or slightly hypointense compared to the normal cord signal with homogenous or irregular enhancement.
  • We describe the characteristic magnetic resonance findings and differential diagnosis of spinal cord tumors.
  • Spinal cord lesions comprise approximately 2-4% of all central nervous system neoplasms.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging plays a central role in the imaging of spinal cord neoplasms.

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  • (PMID = 24148644.001).
  • [ISSN] 1971-4009
  • [Journal-full-title] The neuroradiology journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroradiol J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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8. ||||...... 44%  Lu M: Imaging diagnosis of spinal intramedullary tuberculoma: case reports and literature review. J Spinal Cord Med; 2010;33(2):159-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Imaging diagnosis of spinal intramedullary tuberculoma: case reports and literature review.
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Spinal intramedullary tuberculoma is rare, accounting for 2/100,000 of cases of tuberculosis and only 2% of all cases of tuberculosis of the central nervous system.
  • Diagnostic imaging is essential to improving diagnosis and management of this disease.
  • RESULTS: In 2 cases, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed thickening of the spinal cord and oval lesions with a low T1-weighted image signal and a typical "target sign" T2-weighted image signal.
  • CONCLUSIONS: MRI findings of spinal intramedullary tuberculoma were specific, and accurate diagnosis could be obtained.
  • MRI is the optimal measure because it shows location, size, and number of lesions and the presence of degeneration and necrosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System / pathology. Spinal Cord Diseases / pathology. Tuberculoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20486535.001).
  • [ISSN] 1079-0268
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of spinal cord medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Spinal Cord Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 5
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2869271
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9. ||||||.... 56%  Wang XY, Lin L, Liu J: [Magnetic resonance imaging expression of central nervous system due to angiostrongyliasis cantonensis]. Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi; 2012 Feb 29;30(1):49-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Magnetic resonance imaging expression of central nervous system due to angiostrongyliasis cantonensis].
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the MRI characteristics of the central nervous system (CNS) due to infection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis.
  • METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out to analyze MRI expression of CNS in 25 cases of angiostrongyliasis cantonensis in the First People's Hospital of Yunnan Province from May 1997 to July 2011.
  • RESULTS: Among the 25 patients, 8 cases were normal on MRI, 7 manifested meningitis, 8 showed parenchymal pathological change, and 2 patients showed spinal meningitis and ventriculomegaly, respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: MRI image of angiostrongyliasis cantonensis was diverse.
  • Multiple linear and nodular enhancement in the brain and spinal cord and enhancement in the leptomeninges were the main findings, but the MRI findings are mostly nonspecific.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System / parasitology. Central Nervous System / pathology. Spinal Cord / parasitology. Spinal Cord / pathology. Strongylida Infections / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Animals. China. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 22913191.001).
  • [ISSN] 1000-7423
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo ji sheng chong xue yu ji sheng chong bing za zhi = Chinese journal of parasitology & parasitic diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Angiostrongyliasis
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10. |||||..... 55%  Murakami T, Koyanagi I, Kaneko T, Yoneta A, Keira Y, Wanibuchi M, Hasegawa T, Mikuni N: Intramedullary spinal cord ganglioglioma presenting as hyperhidrosis: unique symptoms and magnetic resonance imaging findings: case report. J Neurosurg Spine; 2013 Feb;18(2):184-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intramedullary spinal cord ganglioglioma presenting as hyperhidrosis: unique symptoms and magnetic resonance imaging findings: case report.
  • Hyperhidrosis is caused by a sympathetic dysfunction of the central or peripheral nervous system.
  • Intramedullary spinal cord lesions can be a cause of hyperhidrosis.
  • The authors report a rare case of intramedullary thoracic spinal cord ganglioglioma presenting as hyperhidrosis.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging showed an intramedullary tumor at the right side of the spinal cord at the T2-3 level.
  • Hyperhidrosis is a rare clinical manifestation of intramedullary spinal cord tumors, and only a few cases have been reported in the literature.
  • The location of the tumor origin, around the right gray matter of the lateral spinal cord, may account for the hyperhidrosis as the initial symptom in this patient.
  • Physicians should examine the spinal cord using MRI studies when a patient has hyperhidrosis with some motor or sensory symptoms of the extremities.
  • [MeSH-major] Ganglioglioma / complications. Hyperhidrosis / etiology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 23198806.001).
  • [ISSN] 1547-5646
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Spine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. |||||..... 55%  Parzefall B, Driver CJ, Benigni L, Davies E: Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics in four dogs with central nervous system neosporosis. Vet Radiol Ultrasound; 2014 Sep-Oct;55(5):539-46
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics in four dogs with central nervous system neosporosis.
  • Neosporosis is a polysystemic disease that can affect dogs of any age and can cause inflammation of the central nervous system.
  • A previous report described cerebellar lesions in brain MRI studies of seven dogs and proposed that these may be characteristic for central nervous system Neosporosis.
  • The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe MRI characteristics in another group of dogs with confirmed central nervous system neosporosis and compare them with the previous report.
  • The hospital's database was searched for dogs with confirmed central nervous system neosporosis and four observers recorded findings from each dog's MRI studies.
  • Neurologic examination was indicative of a forebrain and cerebellar lesion in dog 2 and multifocal central nervous system disease in dogs 1, 3, and 4.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging showed mild bilateral and symmetrical cerebellar atrophy in three of four dogs (dogs 2, 3, 4), intramedullary spinal cord changes in two dogs (dogs 3, 4) and a mesencephalic and metencephalic lesion in one dog (dog 2).
  • Findings indicated that central nervous system neosporosis may be characterized by multifocal MRI lesions as well as cerebellar involvement in dogs.

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  • [Copyright] © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.
  • (PMID = 24766225.001).
  • [ISSN] 1740-8261
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary radiology & ultrasound : the official journal of the American College of Veterinary Radiology and the International Veterinary Radiology Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Radiol Ultrasound
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; central nervous system / dog / magnetic resonance imaging / neospora
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12. |||||..... 54%  Patkar D, Narang J, Yanamandala R, Lawande M, Shah GV: Central nervous system tuberculosis: pathophysiology and imaging findings. Neuroimaging Clin N Am; 2012 Nov;22(4):677-705
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Central nervous system tuberculosis: pathophysiology and imaging findings.
  • With the onset of the human immunodeficiency virus pandemic, the incidence of tuberculosis, including central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis, has increased in developed countries.
  • The imaging appearance has become more complex with the onset of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.
  • Imaging plays an important role in the early diagnosis of CNS tuberculosis and may prevent unnecessary morbidity and mortality.
  • This article presents an extensive review of typical and atypical imaging appearances of intracranial tuberculosis, and discusses pathogenesis, patterns of involvement, and advances in imaging of intracranial tuberculosis.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / diagnosis. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / physiopathology. Cerebral Angiography. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Tuberculosis, Central Nervous System / diagnosis. Tuberculosis, Central Nervous System / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Brain / pathology. Cross-Sectional Studies. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Incidence. Meninges / pathology. Prognosis. Sensitivity and Specificity. Spinal Cord / pathology. Spine / pathology


13. |||||..... 52%  Sakai Y, Matsuyama Y, Imagama S, Ito Z, Wakao N, Ishiguro N: Clinical utility of multidetector row computed tomography for diagnosing spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas undiagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging. Geriatr Gerontol Int; 2010 Jul;10(3):255-63
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  • [Title] Clinical utility of multidetector row computed tomography for diagnosing spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas undiagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging.
  • Two elderly patients with dural arteriovenous fistulas (AVF), the abnormal vessels of which were not presented on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are reported.
  • Although spinal AVF was suspected from hyperintensity in the spinal cord, dilated vessels were not detected on MRI.
  • Computed tomography (CT) angiography was performed with a 64-detector row multidetector row CT (MDCT) system in both cases.
  • In case 1, axial scan and the dorsal section of the coronal view demonstrated continuity of the radiculomedullary artery and intercostal artery through the spinal branch at the left Th12 level.
  • MRI findings suggestive of dural AVF have described that intradural perimedullary tortuous low signal intensities posterior to the spinal cord, known as flow void, on T(2)-weighted images is the most consistent.
  • Recently, MDCT angiography confirmed the presence of a fistula previously suspected after MRI.
  • There are no previous reports that describe cases of dural AVF diagnosed by MDCT angiography of which abnormal vessels were undetected by MRI images.
  • MDCT can detect abnormal vessels which were not depicted on MRI.
  • When dural AVF are suspected on MRI, MDCT angiography should be performed before selective angiography to diagnose.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiography / methods. Central Nervous System Vascular Malformations / radiography. Lumbar Vertebrae / radiography. Thoracic Vertebrae / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male

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  • (PMID = 20629759.001).
  • [ISSN] 1447-0594
  • [Journal-full-title] Geriatrics & gerontology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Geriatr Gerontol Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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14. |||||..... 50%  Rocca MA, Absinta M, Filippi M: The role of advanced magnetic resonance imaging techniques in primary progressive MS. J Neurol; 2012 Apr;259(4):611-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The role of advanced magnetic resonance imaging techniques in primary progressive MS.
  • Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a valuable tool to quantify the disease burden in the brain and spinal cord of patients with MS, measures derived from conventional MRI, including T2-visible lesions, gadolinium-enhancing lesions and atrophy, are correlated only weakly with the clinical manifestations of PPMS.
  • On the contrary, advanced MRI techniques are contributing significantly to the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the irreversible accumulation of disability in PPMS patients.
  • Data from quantitative MRI studies suggest that the extent and topography of "diffuse" damage in different central nervous system (CNS) compartments (i.e. normal-appearing brain white matter and grey matter and the spinal cord) is associated with the severity of disability in PPMS and can predict subsequent medium-term disease evolution.
  • Functional MRI studies have shown that the impairment of the adaptive capacity of the cortex to limit the clinical consequences of structural CNS damage is yet another factor contributing to the manifestations of this condition.
  • [MeSH-major] Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Multiple Sclerosis, Chronic Progressive / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Brain / pathology. Humans. Spinal Cord / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21814822.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1459
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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15. |||||..... 49%  Bot JC, Barkhof F: Spinal-cord MRI in multiple sclerosis: conventional and nonconventional MR techniques. Neuroimaging Clin N Am; 2009 Feb;19(1):81-99
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Spinal-cord MRI in multiple sclerosis: conventional and nonconventional MR techniques.
  • Multiple sclerosis is a diffuse disease of the central nervous system, and MRI of the spinal cord is highly recommended in the clinical evaluation of patients suspected of having multiple sclerosis.
  • Within the new diagnostic criteria, spinal cord MRI increases sensitivity and possibly specificity for MS, but further work is needed to investigate other criteria that may give greater weight to the presence of cord lesions in patients with clinically isolated syndromes or suspected relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Multiple Sclerosis / diagnosis. Spinal Cord / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy / methods


16. |||||..... 47%  Uchida K, Nakajima H, Takamura T, Kobayashi S, Tsuchida T, Okazawa H, Baba H: Neurological improvement associated with resolution of irradiation-induced myelopathy: serial magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography findings. J Neuroimaging; 2009 Jul;19(3):274-6
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  • [Title] Neurological improvement associated with resolution of irradiation-induced myelopathy: serial magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography findings.
  • We document serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and [(18)F] 2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) findings in the process of improvement from delayed radiation necrosis of the spinal cord.
  • Forty-six months later she developed a left-sided Brown-Séquard syndrome, suggesting incomplete cervical cord transection below the cervico-thoracic junction.
  • Neurological improvement was associated with gradual resolution of an extensive high-intensity area within the cervico-thoracic spinal cord on MRI.
  • Initially, the FDG-PET showed linear and uniform increase in FDG uptake throughout the cervical spinal cord with standardized uptake value of 2.68 +/- 0.16 (mean +/- SD), but it returned to normal value (1.90 +/- 0.14) at final follow-up.
  • Considering that the normalization of FDG uptake correlated with neurological recovery, the uniform- and diffuse-increased FDG uptake noted in the initial course of myelopathy could reflect the metabolic activity of the compromised spinal cord.
  • [MeSH-major] Brown-Sequard Syndrome / drug therapy. Central Nervous System Agents / therapeutic use. Radiation Injuries / drug therapy. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Steroids / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 / diagnostic use. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Mouth Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Positron-Emission Tomography. Recovery of Function. Spinal Cord / pathology. Spinal Cord / physiopathology. Spinal Cord / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 18681929.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6569
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuroimaging : official journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neuroimaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Central Nervous System Agents; 0 / Steroids; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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17. |||||..... 46%  Filippi M, Rocca MA: New magnetic resonance imaging biomarkers for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. Expert Opin Med Diagn; 2012 Mar;6(2):109-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] New magnetic resonance imaging biomarkers for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis.
  • INTRODUCTION: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is sensitive in revealing focal white matter (WM) lesions in patients suspected of having multiple sclerosis (MS).
  • As a consequence, MRI has become an established tool in addition to clinical evaluation in the diagnostic work-up of these patients.
  • AREAS COVERED: This review discusses the role of MRI biomarkers in patients at presentation with clinically isolated syndromes (CIS) suggestive of MS.
  • Conventional MRI has been formally included in the diagnostic work-up of these patients, and imaging criteria have been proposed and are updated on a regular basis.
  • Since in patients with established MS, pathologic and MRI studies have demonstrated that the disease affects the normal-appearing WM and gray matter of the brain and spinal cord in a distributed fashion, significant efforts have been devoted to the development of quantitative MR measures, sensitive to damage to these central nervous system compartments, to better characterize lesion burden at disease onset, to differentiate MS from other neurological conditions and to identify objective markers of an unfavorable clinical evolution in the subsequent years.
  • The potential and utility of novel advanced MRI techniques in these patients still need to be fully evaluated.

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  • (PMID = 23480654.001).
  • [ISSN] 1753-0067
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on medical diagnostics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Med Diagn
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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18. ||||...... 44%  Leep Hunderfund AN, Wijdicks EF: Intramedullary spinal cord hemorrhage (hematomyelia). Rev Neurol Dis; 2009;6(2):E54-61
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  • [Title] Intramedullary spinal cord hemorrhage (hematomyelia).
  • Intramedullary spinal cord hemorrhage (hematomyelia) is an uncommon cause of myelopathy and can present in an acute, subacute, stepwise, or chronic fashion.
  • Spinal vascular malformations such as intramedullary cavernomas and intradural arteriovenous malformations are the most common cause of atraumatic intramedullary spinal cord hemorrhage based on the existing literature.
  • Additional considerations include warfarin or heparin anticoagulation, hereditary or acquired bleeding disorders, primary spinal cord tumors, spinal cord metastases, Gowers' intrasyringal hemorrhage, or a delayed complication of spinal radiation.
  • Prompt diagnosis of hematomyelia first requires recognition of a myelopathy syndrome (transverse, central, anterior, posterior, or hemi-cord) often accompanied by sudden, severe back or neck pain and sometimes radicular pain.
  • MRI with and without gadolinium is the preferred imaging modality.
  • There are no clinical trials to guide the management of acute intramedullary spinal cord hemorrhage, and subsequent treatment is usually directed toward the underlying cause.
  • [MeSH-major] Spinal Cord / blood supply. Spinal Cord / pathology. Spinal Cord Diseases / diagnosis. Spinal Cord Diseases / etiology. Spinal Cord Vascular Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Anticoagulants / adverse effects. Blood Coagulation Disorders, Inherited / complications. Central Nervous System Vascular Malformations / complications. Central Nervous System Vascular Malformations / pathology. Central Nervous System Vascular Malformations / physiopathology. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / standards. Pain / etiology. Pain / pathology. Pain / physiopathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 19587631.001).
  • [ISSN] 1949-4378
  • [Journal-full-title] Reviews in neurological diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Neurol Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticoagulants
  • [Number-of-references] 77
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19. ||||...... 44%  Louge P, Gempp E, Hugon M: MRI features of spinal cord decompression sickness presenting as a Brown-Sequard syndrome. Diving Hyperb Med; 2012 Jun;42(2):88-91
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] MRI features of spinal cord decompression sickness presenting as a Brown-Sequard syndrome.
  • Decompression sickness often manifests as central nervous system impairment.
  • We report a 49-year-old woman who developed an unusual case of spinal cord decompression sickness presenting as complete Brown-Sequard syndrome.
  • Initial MRI revealed increased signal intensity in the left side of the cervical cord at the level of C2-C3.
  • A second MRI at 10 days post-injury showed signal abnormalities corresponding to an infarction in the posterior spinal artery territory.
  • [MeSH-major] Brown-Sequard Syndrome / etiology. Decompression Sickness / complications. Spinal Diseases / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Diving / adverse effects. Female. Humans. Hyperbaric Oxygenation. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged


20. ||||...... 44%  Gläsker S, Shah MJ, Hippchen B, Neumann HP, van Velthoven V: Doppler-sonographically guided resection of central nervous system hemangioblastomas. Neurosurgery; 2011 Jun;68(2 Suppl Operative):267-75; discussion 274-5
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  • [Title] Doppler-sonographically guided resection of central nervous system hemangioblastomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) hemangioblastomas are a benign condition, which can be permanently cured by complete surgical removal.
  • METHODS: We used the SonoWand Invite (Sonowand AS, Trondheim, Norway) intraoperative navigation system in a consecutive series of hemangioblastomas operated on at our institution.
  • RESULTS: The system was used on n = 64 consecutive hemangioblastomas operated on at our institution from 2007 to 2009.
  • The tumors were localized in the cerebellum (n = 26), spinal cord (n = 27), brainstem (n = 10), and supratentorial (n = 1).
  • Postoperative MRI follow-up revealed remnant/recurrent tumors in 2 cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioblastoma / surgery. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery. Surgery, Computer-Assisted. Ultrasonography, Doppler. von Hippel-Lindau Disease / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cerebellar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cerebellar Neoplasms / etiology. Cerebellar Neoplasms / surgery. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21346656.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. ||||...... 43%  Monden Y, Yamagata T, Kuroiwa Y, Takahashi T, Mori M, Fukuda T, Sugie H, Momoi MY: A case of ADEM with atypical MRI findings of a centrally-located long spinal cord lesion. Brain Dev; 2012 May;34(5):380-3
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  • [Title] A case of ADEM with atypical MRI findings of a centrally-located long spinal cord lesion.
  • The patient was a 14-year-old male diagnosed with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) with acute onset of multifocal central nervous system symptoms.
  • Spinal MRI showed a centrally-located long spinal cord lesion (LCL) involving 17 vertebral bodies from C2 to T11 that later expanded into the white matter, and lesions on the ventral side of the medulla.
  • In this case, LCL is considered to be associated with ADEM, an acute autoimmune response to myelin, and vascular inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord.
  • [MeSH-major] Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated / pathology. Spinal Cord / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Myelin Sheath / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2011 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21783334.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7131
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain & development
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Dev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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22. ||||...... 43%  Svendsen KB, Sørensen L, Jensen TS, Hansen HJ, Bach FW: MRI of the central nervous system in MS patients with and without pain. Eur J Pain; 2011 Apr;15(4):395-401
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  • [Title] MRI of the central nervous system in MS patients with and without pain.
  • BACKGROUND: Central pain (CP) is a common symptom in MS.
  • METHODS: All patients underwent a bedside sensory examination and MRI of the brain and spinal cord.
  • MR imaging was acquired on an 1.5 Tesla MR equipment.
  • A trained neuroradiologist, blinded to pain status, evaluated the MRI.
  • CP was associated with allodynia, suggesting central hyperexcitability.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System / pathology. Multiple Sclerosis / complications. Multiple Sclerosis / pathology. Pain / etiology. Pain / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Brain / pathology. Cross-Sectional Studies. Data Interpretation, Statistical. Demyelinating Diseases / pathology. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Pain Measurement. Sensation Disorders / etiology. Sensation Disorders / pathology. Spinal Cord / pathology. Spinothalamic Tracts / pathology. Thalamus / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20947397.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2149
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pain (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Pain
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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23. ||||...... 43%  Millward JM, Schnorr J, Taupitz M, Wagner S, Wuerfel JT, Infante-Duarte C: Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles highlight early involvement of the choroid plexus in central nervous system inflammation. ASN Neuro; 2013;5(1):e00110
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  • [Title] Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles highlight early involvement of the choroid plexus in central nervous system inflammation.
  • Both processes can be visualized by MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), in multiple sclerosis patients and in the animal model EAE (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis).
  • We previously showed that VSOPs (very small superparamagnetic iron oxide particles) reveal CNS (central nervous system) lesions in EAE which are not detectable by conventional contrast agents in MRI.
  • We examined the distribution of VSOP in the CNS by MRI and histology.
  • Prior to disease onset, in asymptomatic mice, VSOP accumulated in the choroid plexus and in spinal cord meninges in the absence of overt inflammation.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System / pathology. Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental / pathology. Magnetics. Nanoparticles / diagnostic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Calcium-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Choroid Plexus. Female. Freund's Adjuvant / toxicity. Gadolinium DTPA / diagnostic use. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism. Laminin / metabolism. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Mice. Microfilament Proteins / metabolism. Myelin Proteolipid Protein / toxicity. Peptide Fragments / toxicity

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  • (PMID = 23452162.001).
  • [ISSN] 1759-0914
  • [Journal-full-title] ASN neuro
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ASN Neuro
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aif1 protein, mouse; 0 / Calcium-Binding Proteins; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Laminin; 0 / Microfilament Proteins; 0 / Myelin Proteolipid Protein; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / myelin proteolipid protein (139-151); 9007-81-2 / Freund's Adjuvant; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3610189
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24. ||||...... 43%  Hetts SW, Moftakhar P, English JD, Dowd CF, Higashida RT, Lawton MT, Douglas VC, Halbach VV: Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas and intrathecal venous drainage: correlation between digital subtraction angiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and clinical findings. J Neurosurg Spine; 2012 May;16(5):433-40
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  • [Title] Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas and intrathecal venous drainage: correlation between digital subtraction angiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and clinical findings.
  • OBJECT: Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (SDAVFs) cause myelopathy through arterialization of the perimedullary venous plexus and venous congestion of the spinal cord.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review of the authors' institution's radiology databases identified 31 patients with SDAVFs who had undergone digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and MRI examinations of the spine.
  • The authors counted the number of vertebral body levels of spinal cord enhancement and intrathecal vessel enhancement on T1-weighted postcontrast MRI studies.
  • They also counted the number of levels of cord hyperintensity and intrathecal flow voids on T2-weighted MRI studies.
  • RESULTS: Enlargement of the intrathecal draining veins averaged 10 ± 7.7 spinal levels on DSA.
  • Patients with enlarged draining veins extending 10 or more spinal levels on DSA had worse ALS scores (mean gait 3.4, mean micturition 1.5) than patients with draining veins extending fewer than 10 levels (mean gait 1.8, mean micturition 0.6; p = 0.009 and 0.02, respectively).
  • More extensive enlarged draining veins were associated with more spinal cord T2 hyperintensity, T2 intrathecal flow voids, and T1 vessel enhancement but not cord enhancement.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Vascular Malformations / complications. Central Nervous System Vascular Malformations / diagnosis. Hyperemia / complications. Hyperemia / diagnosis. Spinal Cord Diseases / complications. Spinal Cord Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Angiography, Digital Subtraction. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Severity of Illness Index

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  • (PMID = 22324803.001).
  • [ISSN] 1547-5646
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Spine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. ||||...... 43%  Alhomoud IA, Bohlega SA, Alkawi MZ, Alsemari AM, Omer SM, Alsenani FM: Primary Sjogren's syndrome with central nervous system involvement. Saudi Med J; 2009 Aug;30(8):1067-72
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  • [Title] Primary Sjogren's syndrome with central nervous system involvement.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical, laboratory, and radiological features of Primary Sjogren's syndrome (PSS) with central nervous system (CNS) involvement.
  • Brain MRI showed scattered white matter changes in 7 patients (58%).
  • Spine MRI showed multiple foci of hyperintensity in T2-weighted image in 6 patients (50%), and long segment of hyperintensity at the cervical spinal cord in 2 patients (16%).
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Diseases / etiology. Sjogren's Syndrome / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19668890.001).
  • [ISSN] 0379-5284
  • [Journal-full-title] Saudi medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
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26. ||||...... 43%  Flanagan EP, O'Neill BP, Porter AB, Lanzino G, Haberman TM, Keegan BM: Primary intramedullary spinal cord lymphoma. Neurology; 2011 Aug 23;77(8):784-91
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  • [Title] Primary intramedullary spinal cord lymphoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: Among the rare causes of myelopathies is primary intramedullary spinal cord lymphoma (PISCL).
  • As PISCL is often underrecognized, delaying appropriate treatment, we sought to describe its presentation, imaging characteristics, and outcomes.
  • Inclusion criteria were clinical myelopathic presentation, intramedullary spinal cord abnormalities, and pathologically confirmed CNS lymphoma.
  • CNS lymphoma was pathologically confirmed by biopsy (brain 6; spinal cord 4), CSF cytology (3), and autopsy (1).
  • Most patients had multifocal, persistently enhancing lesions on spinal MRI and 8 had involvement of conus medullaris, cauda equina, or both.
  • Spinal MRI demonstrating multifocal lesions, persistent gadolinium enhancement, and conus medullaris or cauda equina involvement is characteristic.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma / pathology. Spinal Cord / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Central Nervous System / pathology. Databases, Factual / statistics & numerical data. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 21832220.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-632X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. ||||...... 43%  Wang K, Xu Z, Xiong G, Benyan L: Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system manifested with seizures. J Clin Neurosci; 2010 Feb;17(2):277-8
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  • [Title] Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system manifested with seizures.
  • Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system (CNS) is caused by repeated hemorrhage into the subarachnoid space with resultant hemosiderin deposition in the subpial layers of the brain and spinal cord.
  • He was diagnosed eventually as having superficial siderosis of the CNS through brain MRI; however, he presented with only mild hearing impairment without any cerebellar deficits.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System / pathology. Hearing Loss, Sensorineural / etiology. Seizures / etiology. Siderosis / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anticonvulsants / therapeutic use. Carbamazepine / therapeutic use. Cerebellar Ataxia / etiology. Cerebellar Ataxia / physiopathology. Cerebellum / pathology. Cerebellum / physiopathology. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Mesencephalon / pathology. Mesencephalon / physiopathology. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage / complications. Subarachnoid Space / pathology. Subarachnoid Space / physiopathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20006512.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2653
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticonvulsants; 33CM23913M / Carbamazepine
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28. ||||...... 42%  Kim MS, Yoon DH, Shin DA: Primary spinal cord melanoma. J Korean Neurosurg Soc; 2010 Aug;48(2):157-61
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  • [Title] Primary spinal cord melanoma.
  • Primary central nervous system (CNS) melanoma is a rare condition that accounts for only 1% of all melanomas.
  • Spinal magnetic resonance image (MRI) revealed a spinal cord tumor at the level of T4, which was hyperintense on T1-weighted imaging and hypointense on T2-weighted imaging.
  • We present the details of this case along with a comprehensive review of spinal cord melanoma.

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  • (PMID = 20856666.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-7876
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Korean Neurosurg Soc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2941860
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Melanoma / Prognosis / Spinal neoplasm / Surgical treatment
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29. ||||...... 42%  Rykken JB, Diehn FE, Hunt CH, Eckel LJ, Schwartz KM, Kaufmann TJ, Wald JT, Giannini C, Wood CP: Rim and flame signs: postgadolinium MRI findings specific for non-CNS intramedullary spinal cord metastases. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2013 Apr;34(4):908-15
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  • [Title] Rim and flame signs: postgadolinium MRI findings specific for non-CNS intramedullary spinal cord metastases.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: No highly specific MR imaging features distinguishing ISCMs from primary cord masses have been described.
  • Our purpose was to retrospectively compare peripheral enhancement features on postgadolinium MR imaging of ISCMs with primary intramedullary cord masses.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A consecutive group of patients with firmly diagnosed ISCM (45 patients with 64 ISCMs) and a comparison group with consecutive pathologically proved primary intramedullary spinal cord masses (64 patients with 64 primary spinal cord masses: ependymoma, astrocytoma, hemangioblastoma, ganglioglioma, and cavernous malformation) were included.
  • The frequency of rim and/or flame signs in ISCMs and primary cord masses was compared (χ2 test).
  • RESULTS: Rim and flame signs, alone and in combination, were seen more frequently in ISCMs than in primary cord masses (P<.0001 for each).
  • Specificity and sensitivity, respectively, for diagnosing ISCMs among spinal cord masses on a per-patient basis were the following: rim sign, 97%, 47%; flame sign, 97%, 40%; at least 1 sign, 94%, 60%; and both signs concurrently, 100%, 27%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The rim and flame signs are common in and specific for ISCM and are rare in primary spinal cord masses.
  • [MeSH-major] Ependymoma / diagnosis. Ependymoma / secondary. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / diagnosis. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / secondary. Central Nervous System / abnormalities. Central Nervous System / pathology. Central Nervous System Vascular Malformations / diagnosis. Central Nervous System Vascular Malformations / pathology. Female. Gadolinium / diagnostic use. Ganglioglioma / diagnosis. Ganglioglioma / secondary. Hemangioblastoma / diagnosis. Hemangioblastoma / secondary. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retina / abnormalities. Retina / pathology. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 23079405.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-959X
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] AU0V1LM3JT / Gadolinium; Cavernous Malformations of CNS and Retina
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30. ||||...... 42%  Salvarani C, Brown RD Jr, Calamia KT, Christianson TJ, Huston J 3rd, Meschia JF, Giannini C, Miller DV, Hunder GG: Primary central nervous system vasculitis presenting with intracranial hemorrhage. Arthritis Rheum; 2011 Nov;63(11):3598-606
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  • [Title] Primary central nervous system vasculitis presenting with intracranial hemorrhage.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe a subset of cases in a large retrospectively identified cohort of patients with primary central nervous system vasculitis (PCNSV) who present with intracranial hemorrhage.
  • The diagnosis of PCNSV was based on findings of brain or spinal cord biopsy, cerebral angiography, or both.
  • Intracranial hemorrhage at presentation was defined as the presence of intracerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhage on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain within 3 months of the date of PCNSV diagnosis.
  • Compared with the 115 patients without intracranial hemorrhage, the 16 patients presenting with intracranial hemorrhage were more frequently women, less frequently had altered cognition, a persistent neurologic deficit, or stroke at presentation, less frequently had MRI evidence of cerebral infarctions, and less frequently needed therapy at last followup.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / radiography. Intracranial Hemorrhages / etiology. Vasculitis, Central Nervous System / complications

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.
  • (PMID = 22038406.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-0131
  • [Journal-full-title] Arthritis and rheumatism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arthritis Rheum.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. ||||...... 41%  Niazi F, Badshah M, Irshad M, Rao S: Concurrent intramedullary spinal cord and intracranial tuberculomas. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak; 2010 Feb;20(2):132-4
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  • [Title] Concurrent intramedullary spinal cord and intracranial tuberculomas.
  • Tubeculosis commonly involves the nervous system, but involvement of spinal cord in the form of intramedullary tuberculoma is rare and concurrent occurrence of cranial and intramedullary tuberculomas is extremely rare.
  • MRI spine showed a well circumscribed lesion opposite T6, which was diagnosed as intramedullary tuberculoma.
  • On cranial imaging, she was found to have multiple round contrast enhancing lesions which were diagnosed as intracranial tuberculomas based on their typical MRI findings.
  • The follow-up MRI of patient showed disappearance and complete resolution of most of the lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Tuberculoma / diagnosis. Tuberculoma, Intracranial / diagnosis. Tuberculosis, Central Nervous System / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Antitubercular Agents / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Paraplegia / etiology. Spinal Cord / microbiology. Spinal Cord / pathology. Thoracic Vertebrae / microbiology. Thoracic Vertebrae / pathology. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 20378044.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-386X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Antitubercular Agents
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32. ||||...... 41%  Hassen WB, Bégou M, Traore A, Moussa AB, Boehm N, Ghandour MS, Renou JP, Boespflug-Tanguy O, Bonny JM: Characterisation of spinal cord in a mouse model of spastic paraplegia related to abnormal axono-myelin interactions by in vivo quantitative MRI. Neuroimage; 2009 May 15;46(1):1-9
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  • [Title] Characterisation of spinal cord in a mouse model of spastic paraplegia related to abnormal axono-myelin interactions by in vivo quantitative MRI.
  • Patients lacking the major proteins of the central nervous system myelin, the proteolipoproteins (PLP1) exhibit an ascending axonopathy, named spastic paraplegia type 2.
  • Our objective was to examine the interest of using quantitative MRI for non invasive detection of spinal cord (SC) consequences of the PLP1 defect in a mouse model of SPG2 (PLP1-/Y).
  • For this purpose an MRI acquisition and retrospective correction chain was set up to map apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) and T2 in the mouse cervical SC which improve the intra- and inter-animal homogeneity.
  • This reliable imaging processing protocol allowed to detect significant changes between PLP1-/Y and wild type 15-month old SC, mainly no longer detected ex vivo after SC fixation.
  • The present study demonstrated the interest of quantitative MRI for phenotyping in vivo the WM and GM changes in SC neurodegenerative disorders related to myelin and impaired glia-axonal interaction.
  • [MeSH-major] Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Paraplegia / pathology. Spinal Cord / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19457399.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-9572
  • [Journal-full-title] NeuroImage
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroimage
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Myelin Proteolipid Protein; 0 / Plp1 protein, mouse
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33. ||||...... 41%  Alexiou GA, Siozos G, Stefanaki K, Moschovi M, Prodromou N: Intramedullary spinal cord primitive neuroectodermal tumor presenting with hydrocephalus. J Child Neurol; 2013 Feb;28(2):246-50
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  • [Title] Intramedullary spinal cord primitive neuroectodermal tumor presenting with hydrocephalus.
  • Spinal primitive neuroectodermal tumors are exceedingly rare.
  • Herewith, we present the first case of an intramedullary spinal cord tumor associated with hydrocephalus in a 2-month-old boy that presented with left hemiparesis.
  • The patient had been diagnosed on prenatal ultrasound with enlarged ventricular system.
  • At his current admission, a brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed hydrocephalus and an intramedullary lesion extending from the second cervical to the first thoracic vertebrae.
  • Dissemination of the tumor was revealed intracranially and in the spinal canal.
  • The tumor was diagnosed as a central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumor (World Health Organization grade IV).
  • Spinal intramedullary primitive neuroectodermal tumors are extremely rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Hydrocephalus / complications. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / complications. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism. Spinal Cord / metabolism. Spinal Cord / pathology. Transcription Factors / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 22532539.001).
  • [ISSN] 1708-8283
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of child neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Child Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / SMARCB1 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors
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34. ||||...... 41%  Watanabe T, Frahm J, Michaelis T: Myelin mapping in the central nervous system of living mice using contrast-enhanced magnetization transfer MRI. Neuroimage; 2012 Nov 1;63(2):812-7
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  • [Title] Myelin mapping in the central nervous system of living mice using contrast-enhanced magnetization transfer MRI.
  • This work compares magnetization transfer (MT) MRI of living mice with contrast-enhanced MT MRI using intraventricular administration of gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA), systemic administration of MnCl2, and both.
  • In MT MRI at 9.4 T, the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) between white matter (WM) and gray matter (GM) increased by 85% after Gd-DTPA injection into the lateral ventricle.
  • When applied in conjunction with manganese-enhanced MT MRI (117 μm isotropic resolution, 6 min measuring time), Gd-DTPA boosted the CNR increase from +56% to +117%.
  • Finally, a 156% CNR increase between GM and WM for contrast-enhanced MT MRI at 9.4T using both Gd-DTPA and manganese allowed for 60μm isotropic resolution (102 min measuring time), which delineated myelinated fibers and layers even within GM areas such as the thalamus and cerebellar cortex.
  • Improved MT contrasts were also seen in the cervical spinal cord.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / ultrastructure. Brain Mapping / methods. Contrast Media / diagnostic use. Image Enhancement / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Myelin Sheath / ultrastructure

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • (PMID = 22796983.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-9572
  • [Journal-full-title] NeuroImage
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroimage
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 02F3473H9O / Magnesium Chloride; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
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35. ||||...... 41%  Na SJ, Lee KO, Ko JH: Eosinophilic vasculitis of the spinal cord associated with Churg-Strauss syndrome. J Neurol Sci; 2010 Aug 15;295(1-2):107-9
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  • [Title] Eosinophilic vasculitis of the spinal cord associated with Churg-Strauss syndrome.
  • Eosinophilic vasculitis has been described as part of Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS), but it also affects the central nervous system in <10% of cases.
  • However, spinal cord involvement in CSS has not been reported.
  • Spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed high-signal-intensity lesions at the C3-C5 and T1-T4 spinal levels on T2-weighted images.
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of eosinophilic vasculitis of the spinal cord associated with CSS, and the patient responded well to steroids.
  • [MeSH-major] Churg-Strauss Syndrome / complications. Eosinophilia / complications. Spinal Cord / pathology. Vasculitis / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods


36. ||||...... 40%  Makino T, Ito S, Mori M, Kuwabara S: Diffuse neurosarcoidosis involving only the leptomeninges of the brainstem and spinal cord. Intern Med; 2009;48(21):1909-13
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  • [Title] Diffuse neurosarcoidosis involving only the leptomeninges of the brainstem and spinal cord.
  • MRI findings of sarcoidosis are usually intraparenchymal granuloma with leptomeningeal lesions.
  • MRI showed diffuse leptomeningeal lesions throughout the brainstem and spinal cord without intraparenchymal lesions.
  • Only leptomeningeal lesions throughout the brainstem and spinal cord could be observed in sarcoidosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem / pathology. Central Nervous System Diseases / pathology. Sarcoidosis / pathology. Spinal Cord / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Glucocorticoids / therapeutic use. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Methylprednisolone / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Prednisolone / therapeutic use. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19881245.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7235
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone; X4W7ZR7023 / Methylprednisolone
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37. ||||...... 40%  Kelly TG, Madhavan VL, Peters JM, Kazacos KR, Silvera VM: Spinal cord involvement in a child with raccoon roundworm (Baylisascaris procyonis) meningoencephalitis. Pediatr Radiol; 2012 Mar;42(3):369-73
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  • [Title] Spinal cord involvement in a child with raccoon roundworm (Baylisascaris procyonis) meningoencephalitis.
  • MRI demonstrated T2 hyperintensity and enhancement of the cerebral white matter, cerebellum and spinal cord.
  • This is a unique case in which spinal cord involvement was established by imaging.
  • Knowledge of this combination of imaging findings expands the known imaging phenotype of this noteworthy infection.
  • [MeSH-major] Ascaridida Infections / pathology. Ascaridoidea. Central Nervous System Protozoal Infections / parasitology. Central Nervous System Protozoal Infections / pathology. Raccoons / parasitology. Spinal Cord / parasitology. Spinal Cord / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male

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  • (PMID = 21629989.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1998
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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38. ||||...... 40%  Poloni G, Minagar A, Haacke EM, Zivadinov R: Recent developments in imaging of multiple sclerosis. Neurologist; 2011 Jul;17(4):185-204
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  • [Title] Recent developments in imaging of multiple sclerosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has revolutionized the diagnosis and management of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS).
  • Metrics derived from conventional MRI are now routinely used to detect therapeutic effects and extend clinical observations.
  • Conventional MRI measures have insufficient sensitivity and specificity to reveal the true degree of pathologic changes occurring in MS.
  • T2-weighted and T1-weighted imaging cannot distinguish between inflammation, edema, demyelination, Wallerian degeneration, and axonal loss.
  • Nonconventional MRI techniques are now emerging and proving to be more related with the most disabling features of MS.
  • REVIEW SUMMARY: The large variety of MRI metrics presently available are summarized, including measurement of T1-weighted hypointense lesions, central nervous system atrophy, magnetization transfer imaging, myelin water fraction, diffusion tensor imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and susceptibility-weighted imaging.
  • The most up-to-date MRI techniques and their relationship with central nervous system pathology are described, and a comprehensive overview of the use of MRI in patients with MS is offered.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Advanced MRI techniques provide a better understanding of the pathologic processes that most likely are related to disease activity and clinical progression.
  • Despite these promising results none of these techniques have been adopted in the MRI consensus guidelines for imaging of the brain and spinal cord in patients with MS due to lack of standardization.
  • [MeSH-major] Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Multiple Sclerosis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Atrophy / pathology. Brain / pathology. Contrast Media / metabolism. Diffusion Tensor Imaging / methods. Disease Progression. Humans. Sensitivity and Specificity


39. ||||...... 40%  Kinsella JA, O'Brien W, Mullins GM, Brewer J, Whyte S: Primary angiitis of the central nervous system with diffuse cerebral mass effect and giant cells. J Clin Neurosci; 2010 May;17(5):674-6
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  • [Title] Primary angiitis of the central nervous system with diffuse cerebral mass effect and giant cells.
  • Primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS), also called primary CNS vasculitis, is an idiopathic inflammatory condition affecting only intracranial and spinal cord vessels, particularly medium-sized and smaller arteries and arterioles.
  • Angiography and histopathology typically do not reveal evidence of systemic vasculitis.(1,2) Histopathology usually reveals granulomatous inflammation affecting arterioles and small arteries of the parenchyma and/or leptomeninges, similar to that seen in Takayasu's or giant cell arteritis.(1-3) We report a patient with biopsy-proven PACNS with giant cells and cerebral mass effect on MRI.
  • Magnetic resonance angiography and cerebral angiography appeared normal and there was no evidence of extracranial vasculitis.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / pathology. Giant Cells / pathology. Vasculitis, Central Nervous System / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Cerebral Angiography. Cerebrovascular Circulation. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Prednisolone / therapeutic use. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20303761.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2653
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone
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40. ||||...... 40%  See-Sebastian EH, Marks ER: Spinal cord intramedullary cavernoma: A case report. W V Med J; 2013 May-Jun;109(3):28-30
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  • [Title] Spinal cord intramedullary cavernoma: A case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Spinal Cord Intramedullary Cavernoma is a rare disease.
  • It is a vascular disorder composed of capillary-liked vessels without intervening neurons within a spinal lesion.
  • An MRI revealed a cavernous angioma at the T5 level.
  • CONCLUSION: A multitude of neurologic deficits could lead to a patient presenting with a Spinal Cord Cavernoma.
  • Prompt imaging is warranted in cases presenting with the symptoms to allow appropriate diagnoses and treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma, Cavernous, Central Nervous System / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 23798278.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-3284
  • [Journal-full-title] The West Virginia medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] W V Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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41. ||||...... 39%  Ting SK, Prakash KM: A rare cause of cerebellar ataxia syndrome: superficial siderosis of central nervous system. Acta Neurol Taiwan; 2011 Dec;20(4):257-61
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  • [Title] A rare cause of cerebellar ataxia syndrome: superficial siderosis of central nervous system.
  • PURPOSE: To describe and emphasize importance of recognizing superficial siderosis (SS) of the central nervous system (CNS) when assessing cerebellar ataxia syndrome CASE REPORT: Superficial siderosis (SS) of the central nervous system (CNS) is a rare disorder that results from chronic hemosiderin deposition in the subpial layers of the brain and the spinal cord.
  • We describe a case of progressive gait imbalance that was initially misdiagnosed for several years until a brain MRI study showed evidence of diffuse hemosiderin deposition suggestive of SS of CNS.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Diseases / complications. Cerebellar Ataxia / etiology. Siderosis / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Syndrome

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  • (PMID = 22315176.001).
  • [ISSN] 1028-768X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurologica Taiwanica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurol Taiwan
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
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42. ||||...... 39%  Boutarbouch M, Ben Salem D, Giré L, Giroud M, Béjot Y, Ricolfi F: Multiple cerebral and spinal cord cavernomas in Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome. J Clin Neurosci; 2010 Aug;17(8):1073-5
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  • [Title] Multiple cerebral and spinal cord cavernomas in Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome.
  • We report a 55-year-old male with KTWS harboring multiple cavernous angiomas in the thoracic spinal cord and the brainstem, as revealed by MRI.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebral Cortex / pathology. Hemangioma, Cavernous, Central Nervous System / complications. Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber Syndrome / complications. Spinal Cord / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged


43. ||||...... 39%  Calabrese M, Gallo P: Magnetic resonance evidence of cortical onset of multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler; 2009 Aug;15(8):933-41
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  • [Title] Magnetic resonance evidence of cortical onset of multiple sclerosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Despite clinical symptoms and signs of central nervous system dysfunction, conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain and spinal cord may appear normal in multiple sclerosis (MS) at clinical onset.
  • OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate cortical pathology, namely the presence of cortical lesions (CLs) in patients with symptoms/signs suggestive of MS but having normal appearing white matter (WM) on MRI.
  • METHODS: CLs were disclosed by double inversion recovery (DIR) MRI sequence.
  • RESULTS: We describe four patients with MS, in which CLs were observed by DIR months/years before the MRI evidence of inflammatory lesions in the WM.
  • DIR sequence should be included in the MRI examination of suspected patients with MS with normal conventional MRI sequences at clinical onset.
  • CLs should be evaluated for their inclusion in the MRI diagnostic criteria for MS.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebral Cortex / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Multiple Sclerosis / pathology


44. ||||...... 39%  Chamberlain MC, Johnston SK: Recurrent spinal cord glioblastoma: salvage therapy with bevacizumab. J Neurooncol; 2011 May;102(3):427-32
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  • [Title] Recurrent spinal cord glioblastoma: salvage therapy with bevacizumab.
  • Primary spinal cord tumors constitute 2-4% of all primary central nervous system malignancies in adults of which less than 5% are glioblastoma.
  • A retrospective evaluation to determine toxicity and response to bevacizumab in patients with recurrent spinal cord glioblastoma.
  • Six patients (4 males; 2 females: median age 34 years) with recurrent spinal cord glioblastoma were treated with bevacizumab (10 mg/kg given once every 2 weeks wherein 2 treatments constituted a cycle of therapy).
  • Contrast-enhanced spine MRI was performed after one cycle of therapy and thereafter following every two cycles of bevacizumab.
  • Bevacizumab is well tolerated, has tolerable toxicity and apparent activity in this small cohort of adults with recurrent spinal cord glioblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Glioblastoma / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Salvage Therapy / methods. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20680397.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / bevacizumab
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45. ||||...... 38%  Coffey RJ, Kalin R, Olsen JM: Magnetic resonance imaging conditionally safe neurostimulation leads: investigation of the maximum safe lead tip temperature. Neurosurgery; 2014 Feb;74(2):215-24; discussion 224-5
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  • [Title] Magnetic resonance imaging conditionally safe neurostimulation leads: investigation of the maximum safe lead tip temperature.
  • BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is preferred for imaging the central nervous system (CNS).
  • An important hazard for neurostimulation patients is heating at the electrode interface induced, for example, by 64-MHz radiofrequency (RF) magnetic fields of a 1.5T scanner.
  • Cumulative equivalent minutes at 43 °C was used to normalize the data to exposure times and temperatures expected during MRI.
  • RESULTS: Deep brain and spinal RF heating up to 43 °C for 30 minutes produced indistinguishable effects compared with 37 °C controls.
  • MRI-related RF heating above 43 °C or longer than 30 minutes may be associated with increased risk of clinically evident thermal damage to neural structures immediately surrounding implanted leads.
  • The establishment of a thermal dose limit is a first step toward making specific neurostimulation systems conditionally safe during MRI procedures.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain. Deep Brain Stimulation / instrumentation. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Spinal Cord. Spinal Cord Stimulation / instrumentation
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Female. Fever / etiology. Fever / pathology. Hot Temperature. Humans. Hyperthermia, Induced. Implantable Neurostimulators / adverse effects. Neoplasms / therapy. Sheep. Spinal Nerve Roots / pathology. Temperature. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 24176957.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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46. ||||...... 38%  Estiasari R, Matsushita T, Masaki K, Akiyama T, Yonekawa T, Isobe N, Kira J: Comparison of clinical, immunological and neuroimaging features between anti-aquaporin-4 antibody-positive and antibody-negative Sjogren's syndrome patients with central nervous system manifestations. Mult Scler; 2012 Jun;18(6):807-16
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  • [Title] Comparison of clinical, immunological and neuroimaging features between anti-aquaporin-4 antibody-positive and antibody-negative Sjogren's syndrome patients with central nervous system manifestations.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to clarify clinical, immunological, and neuroimaging features in anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody-positive and antibody-negative Sjögren's syndrome (SS) patients with central nervous system (CNS) involvement.
  • METHODS: Medical records and MRI scans were retrospectively analyzed in 22 consecutive SS patients with CNS manifestations.
  • Brain MRI showed that discrete lesions were more commonly found in the cerebrum, brainstem, and optic nerve in anti-AQP4 antibody-positive patients than in antibody-negative patients (p = 0.002, p = 0.006, and p = 0.004, respectively), while spinal cord MRI showed that posterior column lesions in the cervical spinal cord were more frequent in anti-AQP4 antibody-positive patients than in antibody-negative patients (71.4% vs. 14.3%, p = 0.01).
  • SS-A antibody titers were higher in anti-AQP4 antibody-positive patients than in antibody-negative patients (p = 0.012) and were also higher in patients with longitudinally extensive spinal cord lesions (LESCLs) than in those without LESCLs (p = 0.019).
  • CONCLUSIONS: In SS, the presence of anti-AQP4 antibodies is associated with involvement of the optic nerve, cerebrum and brainstem, and with cervical posterior column lesions in the spinal cord.
  • [MeSH-major] Aquaporin 4 / immunology. Autoantibodies / blood. Autoantigens / immunology. Central Nervous System / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neuroimaging / methods. Sjogren's Syndrome / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biological Markers / blood. Brain Stem / pathology. Cerebrum / pathology. Disability Evaluation. Female. Humans. Japan. Male. Middle Aged. Optic Nerve / pathology. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies. Spinal Cord / pathology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 22291033.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-0970
  • [Journal-full-title] Multiple sclerosis (Houndmills, Basingstoke, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mult. Scler.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AQP4 protein, human; 0 / Aquaporin 4; 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Autoantigens; 0 / Biological Markers
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47. ||||...... 38%  Ota KV, Dimaras H, Héon E, Babyn PS, Yau YC, Read S, Budning A, Gallie BL, Chan HS: Toxocariasis mimicking liver, lung, and spinal cord metastases from retinoblastoma. Pediatr Infect Dis J; 2009 Mar;28(3):252-4
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  • [Title] Toxocariasis mimicking liver, lung, and spinal cord metastases from retinoblastoma.
  • A boy with bilateral retinoblastoma underwent metastatic surveillance for increased risk of systemic and central nervous system metastasis because of the extensive choroid and optic nerve invasion in his enucleated eye.
  • Two years after finishing chemotherapy, surveillance MRI showed multiple new liver, lung and spinal cord lesions.
  • This is the first report of early, asymptomatic spinal cord toxocariasis diagnosed incidentally through metastatic surveillance.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Retinal Neoplasms / pathology. Retinoblastoma / diagnosis. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / diagnosis. Toxocariasis / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Albendazole / therapeutic use. Animals. Anthelmintics / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Helminth / blood. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Toxocara / immunology


48. ||||...... 38%  Hegde AN, Mohan S, Lim CC: CNS cavernous haemangioma: "popcorn" in the brain and spinal cord. Clin Radiol; 2012 Apr;67(4):380-8
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  • [Title] CNS cavernous haemangioma: "popcorn" in the brain and spinal cord.
  • Cavernous haemangiomas (CH) are relatively uncommon non-shunting vascular malformations of the central nervous system and can present with seizures or with neurological deficits due to haemorrhage.
  • Radiologists can often suggest the diagnosis of CH based on characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features, thus avoiding further invasive procedures such as digital subtraction angiography or surgical biopsy.
  • Although typical MRI appearance combined with the presence of multiple focal low signal lesions on T2*-weighted images or the presence of one or more developmental venous anomaly within the brain can improve the diagnostic confidence, serial imaging studies are often required if a solitary CH presents at a time when the imaging appearances had not yet matured to the typical "popcorn" appearance.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain. Hemangioma, Cavernous, Central Nervous System / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Spinal Cord

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2011 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 22137800.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-229X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
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49. ||||...... 37%  Papageorgiou SG, Kontaxis T, Samara C, Kalfakis N, Vassilopoulos D: Spinal cavernoma: an unusual cause of acute monoparesis. Neurologist; 2009 Sep;15(5):291-2
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  • [Title] Spinal cavernoma: an unusual cause of acute monoparesis.
  • INTRODUCTION: Cavernous hemangiomas or cavernomas are uncommon vascular malformations of the central nervous system involving most commonly the cerebral hemispheres where they are detected in young to middle aged adults.
  • The initial diagnosis was lacunar stroke, but the brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed a right temporal cavernoma-obviously not associated with her monoparesis.
  • The consequent spinal MRI revealed an intramedullary lesion at the T1 level, consistent with a cavernoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Our patient presented with an acute monoparesis because of a spinal cavernoma, a most unusual occurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma, Cavernous, Central Nervous System / complications. Medulla Oblongata. Paresis / etiology. Spinal Cord Diseases / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Functional Laterality. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neurologic Examination. Stroke / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19741439.001).
  • [ISSN] 2331-2637
  • [Journal-full-title] The neurologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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50. ||||...... 37%  Denic A, Macura SI, Mishra P, Gamez JD, Rodriguez M, Pirko I: MRI in rodent models of brain disorders. Neurotherapeutics; 2011 Jan;8(1):3-18
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  • [Title] MRI in rodent models of brain disorders.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a well-established tool in clinical practice and research on human neurological disorders.
  • Translational MRI research utilizing rodent models of central nervous system (CNS) diseases is becoming popular with the increased availability of dedicated small animal MRI systems.
  • 1) true "pre-clinical" studies involving the use of MRI as a noninvasive disease monitoring tool which serves as a biomarker for selected aspects of the disease and 2) studies investigating the pathomechanism of known human MRI findings in CNS disease models.
  • Most small animal MRI systems operate at 4.7-11.7 Tesla field strengths.
  • In addition to standard T1-, T2-, and T2*-weighted MRI methods, all of the currently available advanced MRI techniques have been utilized in experimental animals, including diffusion, perfusion, and susceptibility weighted imaging, functional magnetic resonance imaging, chemical shift imaging, heteronuclear imaging, and (1)H or (31)P MR spectroscopy.
  • Selected MRI techniques are also exclusively utilized in experimental research, including manganese-enhanced MRI, and cell-specific/molecular imaging techniques utilizing negative contrast materials.
  • In this review, we describe technical and practical aspects of small animal MRI and provide examples of different MRI techniques in anatomical imaging and tract tracing as well as several models of neurological disorders, including inflammatory, neurodegenerative, vascular, and traumatic brain and spinal cord injury models, and neoplastic diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Diseases / diagnosis. Disease Models, Animal. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods

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  • (PMID = 21274681.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-7479
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurotherapeutics : the journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurotherapeutics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3075741
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