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1. Biomedical articles (top 50; 2009 to 2014)
3. ||||||.... 56%  Donoso S A, Urzúa R, Slachevsky C H A, Silva R C: [Paretic neurosyphilis: report of five patients]. Rev Med Chil; 2012 May;140(5):625-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • In all, the cerebrospinal fluid had a mononuclear pleocytosis and a positive VDRL.

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  • (PMID = 23096668.001).
  • [ISSN] 0717-6163
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista médica de Chile
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Chil
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Chile
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Penicillins
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5. |||||..... 50%  Casal CA, Silva MO, Costa IB, Araújo Eda C, Corvelo TC: Molecular detection of Treponema pallidum sp. pallidum in blood samples of VDRL-seroreactive women with lethal pregnancy outcomes: a retrospective observational study in northern Brazil. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop; 2011 Jul-Aug;44(4):451-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Molecular detection of Treponema pallidum sp. pallidum in blood samples of VDRL-seroreactive women with lethal pregnancy outcomes: a retrospective observational study in northern Brazil.
  • INTRODUCTION: Although control measures of maternal and congenital syphilis are available in Brazil, difficulties exist within the healthcare network in providing a laboratory diagnosis of the infection during the prenatal period.
  • The objective of this study was to confirm the presence of Treponema pallidum by PCR in women with positive VDRL serology and lethal pregnancy outcomes, i.e., abortion, stillbirth and neonatal death.
  • Serum samples and DNA from whole blood were obtained at the time of screening by the VDRL test.
  • RESULTS: During the study period, 0.7% (36/4,912) of women with lethal pregnancy outcomes presented a positive VDRL test.
  • Among women who were submitted to the VDRL test during the prenatal period, only four of the nine seroreactive patients underwent treatment.

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  • (PMID = 21789353.001).
  • [ISSN] 1678-9849
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Bacterial; 0 / Cardiolipins; 0 / Immunoglobulin G; 0 / Immunoglobulin M; 0 / Phosphatidylcholines; 0 / VDRL antigen; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol
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7. ||||...... 45%  Campos AL, Araújo MA, Melo SP, Gonçalves ML: [Epidemiology of gestational syphilis in Fortaleza, Ceará State, Brazil: an uncontrolled disease]. Cad Saude Publica; 2010 Sep;26(9):1747-55
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Epidemiology of gestational syphilis in Fortaleza, Ceará State, Brazil: an uncontrolled disease].
  • This cross-sectional study investigated the epidemiological profile of pregnant women with positive VDRL in Fortaleza, Ceará State, Brazil, in 2008.

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  • (PMID = 20877935.001).
  • [ISSN] 1678-4464
  • [Journal-full-title] Cadernos de saúde pública
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cad Saude Publica
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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8. |||||..... 46%  Gitaí LL, Jaláli PS, Takayanagui OM: Neurosyphilis in the age of AIDS: clinical and laboratory features. Neurol Sci; 2009 Dec;30(6):465-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Neurosyphilis in the age of AIDS: clinical and laboratory features.
  • The aim of our study was to identify and report the clinical and laboratory profile of neurosyphilis, comparing features of HIV-infected and HIV-negative patients.
  • A retrospective investigation of all cases of neurosyphilis, defined as positive VDRL test on cerebrospinal fluid, diagnosed at Hospital das Clínicas, Ribeirão Preto School of Medicine between January 1988 and December 2005, was carried out.
  • HIV-infected patients were younger (34.6 years), presented with a higher frequency of the early forms of neurosyphilis, higher titers of serum VDRL and higher mean proteinorrachia at the suboccipital level.
  • Neurosyphilis is still characterized by clinical polymorphism and there are significant differences in its epidemiological, clinical and laboratory profile when HIV-infected patients are compared with HIV-negative patients.

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  • (PMID = 19768370.001).
  • [ISSN] 1590-3478
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurological sciences : official journal of the Italian Neurological Society and of the Italian Society of Clinical Neurophysiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biological Markers; 0 / Cardiolipins; 0 / Phosphatidylcholines; 0 / VDRL antigen; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol
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9. ||||...... 39%  Adolf R, Bercht F, Aronis ML, Lunardi LW, Schechter M, Sprinz E: Prevalence and risk factors associated with syphilis in a cohort of HIV positive individuals in Brazil. AIDS Care; 2012;24(2):252-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prevalence and risk factors associated with syphilis in a cohort of HIV positive individuals in Brazil.
  • Inclusion criteria were having CD4 + T cell count and viral load at baseline, and syphilis serology tests (venereal disease research laboratory [VDRL] > 1:64 or a positive VDRL plus a positive treponemal test).

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  • (PMID = 21780954.001).
  • [ISSN] 1360-0451
  • [Journal-full-title] AIDS care
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS Care
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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10. ||||...... 37%  Maloney K: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension as an initial presentation of systemic lupus erythematosus. BMJ Case Rep; 2013;2013
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • She had no prior history of headaches, use of hormonal contraception or other medications, recent weight changes or family history of autoimmune disease.
  • Laboratory investigations revealed a normochromic normocytic anaemia, leucopenia and lymphopenia.
  • Further investigations revealed a positive direct coombs test, positive antinuclear antibodies (ANA) positive antidouble-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and false positive VDRL.

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  • (PMID = 23943808.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-790X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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11. ||||...... 43%  Badie, Yavari Z, Esmaeeli S, Paydary K, Emamzadeh-Fard S, Seyedalinaghi S, Rasoulinejad M, Mohraz M: Prevalence survey of infection with Treponema pallidum among HIV-positive patients in Tehran. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed; 2013 Apr;3(4):334-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prevalence survey of infection with Treponema pallidum among HIV-positive patients in Tehran.
  • OBJECTIVE: To identify the frequency of syphilis among Iranian HIV-positive patients.
  • The lab tests including CD4 cell count, cerebrospinal fluid, veneral disease research laboratory (VDRL), fluorescent treponema antibody-absorption (FTA-Abs) and viral load were performed for all the patients.
  • RESULTS: Of all 450 HIV-positive patients, 24 (5.3%) had a positive VDRL test and only two men had a FTA-Abs positive test which means 0.45% of them had a definite co-infection of syphilis.
  • 65.3% of the HIV-positive patients were injection drug users that the co-infection prevalence of them was 0.7%.

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  • (PMID = 23620862.001).
  • [ISSN] 2221-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian Pacific journal of tropical biomedicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian Pac J Trop Biomed
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3634935
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Co-infection / HIV/AIDS / Syphilis
  • [General-notes] NLM/ Original DateCompleted: 20130508
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13. |||....... 33%  Lin CF, Twu SJ, Chen PH, Cheng JS, Wang JD: Prevalence and determinants of hepatitis B antigenemia in 15,007 inmates in Taiwan. J Epidemiol; 2010;20(3):231-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Blood samples were collected and screened for hepatitis B surface antigen and Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) reactivity.
  • The prevalence of a positive VDRL test result was 1.01%.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Blood Transfusion / adverse effects. Child. Disease Transmission, Infectious / statistics & numerical data. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Odds Ratio. Prevalence. Questionnaires. Risk Factors. Seroepidemiologic Studies. Serologic Tests. Substance Abuse, Intravenous / complications. Taiwan / epidemiology. Tattooing / adverse effects. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20431237.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-9092
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of epidemiology / Japan Epidemiological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Epidemiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hepatitis B Surface Antigens
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3900846
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4. |||....... 32%  Spinner CD, Noe S, Schwerdtfeger C, Todorova A, Gaa J, Schmid RM, Busch DH, Neuenhahn M: Acute hypophysitis and hypopituitarism in early syphilitic meningitis in a HIV-infected patient: a case report. BMC Infect Dis; 2013;13:481
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: A 46 year old HIV-positive male patient came in to our emergency department in the late evening with acute fever, rapidly progressive cephalgia and photophobia.
  • A reactive Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) assay with positive Treponema pallidum-specific IgG/IgM immunofluorescence as well as a highly reactive Veneral diseases research laboratory (VDRL) test confirmed the diagnosis.
  • Liquor pleocytosis, liquor protein elevation and a highly positive VDRL test in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were interpreted in context of the clinical symptoms as neurosyphilitic manifestations within an early syphilis infection (stage II).
  • Advanced endocrine laboratory testing revealed hypopituitarism.
  • CONCLUSION: We report to the best of our knowledge the first case of a HIV-positive patient with acute hypophysitis and hypopituarism due to early neurosyphilis infection.

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  • (PMID = 24134407.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2334
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC infectious diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3853997
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15. |......... 2%  Nayak S, Acharjya B: VDRL test and its interpretation. Indian J Dermatol; 2012 Jan;57(1):3-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] VDRL test and its interpretation.
  • Venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL) test is a nontreponemal test, used for screening of syphilis due to its simplicity, sensitivity and low cost.
  • Prozone phenomenon and biological false positive (BFP) reaction are two shortcomings of this test.
  • Quantitative estimation of VDRL is essential in treatment evaluation.
  • CSF VDRL test is very specific for neurosyphilis though its sensitivity is low.
  • Interpretation of VDRL in HIV infection is incompletely understood.

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  • (PMID = 22470199.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-3611
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3312652
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Prozone phenomenon / VDRL / syphilis
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16. ||||...... 36%  Giugno CS, Silva AL, Fuhrich DG, Rabaioli PS, Gonçalves KG, Sartor NC, Savaris RF: Daily dose of clindamycin versus standard divided doses in obstetrical and gynecological infections: a retrospective cohort study. Int J STD AIDS; 2013 Nov;24(11):893-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • To compare the rates of cure of septic abortion and pelvic inflammatory disease using a daily dose of clindamycin with gentamicin versus divided doses, we conducted a retrospective cohort study, where the electronic records of 661 patients who used clindamycin 1 × , 3 × or 4 ×/day (groups 1, 3 and 4, respectively) between September 2002 and August 2010 were analysed.
  • Secondary endpoints were percentage of adverse effects related to medication regimen and the prevalence of positive VDRL and HIV.
  • Similar conditions were observed in all groups - septic abortion: 167/116/123; pelvic inflammatory disease: 73/95/87 (groups 1, 3 and 4, respectively).
  • [MeSH-major] Abortion, Septic / drug therapy. Anti-Bacterial Agents / administration & dosage. Clindamycin / administration & dosage. Gentamicins / administration & dosage. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 23970615.001).
  • [ISSN] 1758-1052
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of STD & AIDS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J STD AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Gentamicins; 3U02EL437C / Clindamycin
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; PID / Septic abortion / antibiotics / clindamycin / dose / gentamicin / pelvic inflammatory disease / sexually transmitted infection / treatment
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17. |||....... 33%  Jäger S, Meier FM: [Syphilis-associated uveitis in Switzerland]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd; 2011 Apr;228(4):330-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • All patients tested positive for syphilis-specific serologic testing (VDRL, TPPA, FTA-ABS test).
  • 5 patients showed a weakly positive VDRL and FTA-ABS test in the cerebrospinal fluid, one patient tested clearly positive.
  • In addition 5 patients tested positive for HIV.
  • Ophthalmologists can play an important role in the diagnosis and management of this severe disease.

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  • [Copyright] © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
  • (PMID = 21484640.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-3999
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Monbl Augenheilkd
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q42T66VG0C / Penicillin G
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18. |||....... 29%  Kang-Birken SL, Castel U, Prichard JG: Oral doxycycline for treatment of neurosyphilis in two patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Pharmacotherapy; 2010 Apr;30(4):119e-22e
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The first patient was a 45-year-old Hispanic man with well-suppressed HIV RNA who had a positive Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) titer of 1:128.
  • His cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) revealed a positive VDRL titer of 1:16, and an elevated white blood cell count of 96 cells/mm(3) and protein level of 89 mg/dl.
  • Two months later, his CSF VDRL titer, white blood cell count, and protein level decreased to 1:4, 5 cells/mm(3), and 60 mg/dl, respectively.
  • The second patient was a 37-year-old Caucasian man with complications from acquired immunodeficiency disease.
  • A routine VDRL titer was found to be 1:64.
  • Although the CSF VDRL was nonreactive, both his white blood cell count and protein level were elevated at 29 cells/mm(3) and 46 mg/dl, respectively.
  • Three months later, the patient's VDRL titer decreased to 1:2; his CSF white blood cell count decreased significantly to 1 cell/mm(3), and his protein level was within normal limits.

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  • (PMID = 20334461.001).
  • [ISSN] 1875-9114
  • [Journal-full-title] Pharmacotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pharmacotherapy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; N12000U13O / Doxycycline
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19. |......... 3%  Kuliash GIu, Sabaev MI, Erko LV, Mardanly SG, Bakhilina NV: [About effectiveness and perspective of application of test of venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL) for diagnostic of neurosyphilis in the Russian Federation]. Klin Lab Diagn; 2013 Mar;(3):30-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [About effectiveness and perspective of application of test of venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL) for diagnostic of neurosyphilis in the Russian Federation].
  • The liquor from 100 patients with syphilis was analyzed using Bordet-Gengou test, VDRL test and micro-precipitation reaction with cardiolipin antigen.
  • The Bordet-Gengou test and VDRL test made in Russia or abroad are equally effective in analysis of positive samples of liquor and twice surpass the same capacity of micro-precipitation reaction with cardiolipin antigen in case of neurosyphilis with symptoms and thrice surpass in case of asymptomatic neurosyphilis.
  • VDRL test is a simple standardized nontreponema reaction which can substitute labor-consuming non-unified liquorologic complex in laboratory diagnostic of neurosyphilis.
  • The testing of liquor on the basis of micro-precipitation reaction with cardiolipin antigen is non-effective and results in false negative results in Bordet-Gengou and VDRL positive tests determining high risk of erroneous clinical considerations.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antibodies, Bacterial / diagnostic use. Antibodies, Bacterial / immunology. Cardiolipins / diagnostic use. Cardiolipins / immunology. Clinical Laboratory Techniques. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Russia. Treponema pallidum / immunology. Treponema pallidum / isolation & purification. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 23808023.001).
  • [ISSN] 0869-2084
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinicheskaia laboratornaia diagnostika
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin. Lab. Diagn.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Bacterial; 0 / Cardiolipins
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20. |......... 1%  Tafuri S, Prato R, Martinelli D, Melpignano L, De Palma M, Quarto M, Germinario C: Prevalence of Hepatitis B, C, HIV and syphilis markers among refugees in Bari, Italy. BMC Infect Dis; 2010;10:213
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  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) serological markers and the prevalence of VDRL positive subjects in a population of refugees of various nationalities, living in the Asylum Seeker Centre in Bari Palese, Southern Italy.
  • VDRL syphilis screening was also carried out on the serum samples.
  • Of these, 510 were from Africa and 19 from Asia.Forty-four individuals (8.3%) were HBsAg positive and 241 (45.6%) were anti-HBc positive.
  • A total of 24 (4.5%) individuals were anti-HCV positive.
  • Eight asylum seekers (1.5%) were HIV positive.
  • VDRL tests were performed on 269 subjects and 4 (1.5%) were positive.

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  • [Cites] Health Policy. 2001 Nov;58(2):121-31 [11551662.001]
  • [Cites] Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2002;33 Suppl 3:131-2 [12971493.001]
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  • (PMID = 20646306.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2334
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC infectious diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cardiolipins; 0 / HIV Antibodies; 0 / Hepatitis B Antibodies; 0 / Hepatitis B Surface Antigens; 0 / Hepatitis C Antibodies; 0 / Phosphatidylcholines; 0 / VDRL antigen; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2916911
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21. |......... 1%  Kayal AK, Goswami M, Das M, Paul B: Clinical spectrum of neurosyphilis in North East India. Neurol India; 2011 May-Jun;59(3):344-50
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  • Thirteen patients had positive venereal disease research laboratory test (VDRL) and/or high Treponema pallidum hemagglutination titer in blood.
  • Cerebrospinal fluid was positive for VDRL in 14 patients, raised protein was seen in 13 patients and lymphocytic pleocytosis was seen in 10 patients.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Brain / pathology. Cardiolipins / analysis. Cholesterol / analysis. Female. Humans. India / epidemiology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Mental Disorders / etiology. Middle Aged. Motor Neuron Disease / etiology. Myelitis / etiology. Penicillin G Procaine / therapeutic use. Phosphatidylcholines / analysis. Prospective Studies. Risk-Taking. Spinal Cord / pathology. Substance-Related Disorders / complications. Treponema pallidum. Young Adult

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  • [CommentIn] Neurol India. 2011 Sep-Oct;59(5):794-5; author reply 795 [22019688.001]
  • (PMID = 21743160.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3886
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurology India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol India
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Cardiolipins; 0 / Phosphatidylcholines; 0 / VDRL antigen; 17R794ESYN / Penicillin G Procaine; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol
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22. |......... 1%  Vincentelli C, Schniederjan MJ, Brat DJ: 35-year-old HIV-positive woman with Basal forebrain mass. Brain Pathol; 2010 Jan;20(1):265-8
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  • [Title] 35-year-old HIV-positive woman with Basal forebrain mass.
  • VDRL was non-reactive.
  • Immunohistochemistry was strongly positive for adenovirus and negative for HSV, CMV, SV40 and EBV.


23. |......... 1%  Nurfahzura MJ, Hanizasurana H, Zunaina E, Adil H: Successful treatment of syphilitic uveitis in HIV-positive patients. Clin Ophthalmol; 2013;7:1651-4
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  • [Title] Successful treatment of syphilitic uveitis in HIV-positive patients.
  • We report successful treatment of syphilitic uveitis in a case series of three Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients at Malaysia's Selayang Hospital eye clinic.
  • Each patient showed a high Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) titer at presentation and they were also newly diagnosed as HIV positive with variable CD4 counts.
  • At 3 months posttreatment, there was reduction in VDRL titer with improvement of vision in the affected eye.
  • All syphilitic uveitis cases should have HIV screening and vice versa, as syphilis is one of the most common infectious diseases associated with HIV-positive patients.

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  • (PMID = 23986629.001).
  • [ISSN] 1177-5467
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical ophthalmology (Auckland, N.Z.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3754817
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; HIV-positive patient / neurosyphilis / penicillin / syphilitic uveitis
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24. |......... 1%  Naesens R, Vermeiren S, Van Schaeren J, Jeurissen A: False positive Lyme serology due to syphilis: report of 6 cases and review of the literature. Acta Clin Belg; 2011 Jan-Feb;66(1):58-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] False positive Lyme serology due to syphilis: report of 6 cases and review of the literature.
  • VDRL and TPPA testing was positive, and finally, the diagnosis of neurosyphilis was established.
  • We subsequently screened our database on patients with positive VIDAS Lyme screening and negative confirmatory testing by Western blot, and found another 5 cases in which Lyme screening was false positive due to cross-reactivity with Treponema pallidum antibodies.
  • Our data show that in patients with positive Lyme screening and negative confirmatory testing, performance of lues serology should be considered.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cross Reactions. False Positive Reactions. Humans. Male. Serologic Tests. Syphilis Serodiagnosis / methods

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  • [CommentIn] Acta Clin Belg. 2012 Jan-Feb;67(1):56; author reply 57 [22480045.001]
  • (PMID = 21485767.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5512
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta clinica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Clin Belg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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25. |......... 1%  Kyebambe PS: Neurosyphilis masquerading as hemiparesis and Jacksonian epilepsy in an HIV positive patient: a case report. Afr Health Sci; 2010 Jun;10(2):211-4
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  • [Title] Neurosyphilis masquerading as hemiparesis and Jacksonian epilepsy in an HIV positive patient: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Neurosyphilis is a common but often missed disease worldwide, mainly because it has many manifestations making its diagnosis difficult.
  • OBJECTIVES: To describe one of our cases of neurosyphilis in HIV, raise awareness about the reality of neurosyphilis in Africa and share our experiences in diagnosis and management of the disease.
  • METHODS: A 40 year old, HIV positive female was admitted with a 2 month history of left sided facial and limb weakness followed by delirium, aphasia and Jacksonian epilepsy.
  • She underwent clinical and laboratory evaluation.
  • The VDRL on the CSF was positive.


26. |......... 1%  Bukar M, Audu BM, Takai UI, Ajayi BB, Kullima AA: Is routine antenatal screening for syphilis in Nigeria still justified clinically and economically? Saudi Med J; 2009 Oct;30(10):1311-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: A retrospective chart analysis of venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL) results among pregnant women at the UMTH, Maiduguri, Nigeria, during a 10-year period (from 1st January 1999 to 31st December 2008) was undertaken.
  • Only 12 of the 18,101 screened were seropositive by VDRL, 9 (75%) were confirmed by Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA), giving a seroprevalence rate of 0.05%.
  • Three (25%) were biological false-positive.
  • The cost for VDRL testing per patient in UMTH is US$2.
  • The total amount of money spent on VDRL tests over the study period was US$37,424.


27. |......... 1%  Maity S, Bhunia SC, Biswas S, Saha MK: Syphilis seroprevalence among patients attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic in West Bengal, India. Jpn J Infect Dis; 2011;64(6):506-8
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  • [Title] Syphilis seroprevalence among patients attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic in West Bengal, India.
  • Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) and is a major public health concern in India.
  • Blood samples were collected from 250 consecutive patients per year (a total of 1,250 samples over 5 years); the patients attended the STD clinic for 12 weeks (October-December) each year, and the serostatus of syphilis was determined qualitatively with the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test using serum samples.
  • A quantitative VDRL test was then performed at a dilution of 1:8 using serum samples that yielded positive results in the qualitative VDRL test.
  • Finally, serum samples that yielded positive results in the quantitative VDRL test were also subjected to the Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA).
  • The serum samples that yielded positive results in both the tests were considered syphilis seropositive.
  • All seropositive serum samples from the quantitative VDRL test were also found to be positive results in TPHA.

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  • HSDB. structure - CHOLESTEROL.
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  • (PMID = 22116330.001).
  • [ISSN] 1884-2836
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of infectious diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cardiolipins; 0 / Phosphatidylcholines; 0 / VDRL antigen; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol
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28. |......... 1%  Vaideeswar P: Syphilitic aortitis: rearing of the ugly head. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2010 Oct-Dec;53(4):624-7
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  • CONTEXT: Syphilitic aortitis has been relegated to the category of rare cardiovascular disease or a "medical curiosity" in the west.
  • They were predominantly seen in males in the fifth decade, who often presented with valvular regurgitation, aneurysmal disease or myocardial ischemia; 13.6 % of patients were asymptomatic.
  • Blood VDRL results were available in 19 patients; 84.2 % were positive.

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  • (PMID = 21045381.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-5130
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cardiolipins; 0 / Phosphatidylcholines; 0 / VDRL antigen; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol
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29. |......... 1%  Kim GH, Kim BU, Lee JH, Choi YH, Chae HB, Park SM, Youn SJ, Lee JY, Yoon TY, Sung R: Cholestatic hepatitis and thrombocytosis in a secondary syphilis patient. J Korean Med Sci; 2010 Nov;25(11):1661-4
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  • Laboratory findings suggested an acute hepatitis and thrombocytosis.
  • Serologic test results were positive for VDRL.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adult. Alkaline Phosphatase / blood. Bilirubin / blood. Epidermis / pathology. Humans. Jaundice. Male. Penicillin G Benzathine / therapeutic use. Syphilis Serodiagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Cites] South Med J. 1982 Sep;75(9):1136-8 [7123342.001]
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  • (PMID = 21060758.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-6357
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Korean Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.1.3.1 / Alkaline Phosphatase; RFM9X3LJ49 / Bilirubin; RIT82F58GK / Penicillin G Benzathine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2967006
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Hepatitis / Syphilis, Cutaneous / Thrombocytosis
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30. |......... 1%  Naha K, Vivek G, Dasari S, Manthappa M, Dias L, Acharya R: An unusual cause for hyponatremia with seizures. BMJ Case Rep; 2012;2012
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Clinical examination and basic laboratory parameters were entirely normal except for significant hyponatremia.
  • Screening for a chronic meningitis underlying SIADH, yielded positive blood and CSF titres for venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL), which were confirmed by Treponema pallidum haemagglutination (TPHA).
  • On follow-up, she remained TPHA positive but VDRL titres became negative.

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  • (PMID = 22605698.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-790X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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31. |......... 1%  Vulcano F, Milazzo L, Volpi S, Battista MM, Barca A, Hassan HJ, Pimpinelli F, Giampaolo A: Italian national survey of blood donors: external quality assessment (EQA) of syphilis testing. J Clin Microbiol; 2010 Mar;48(3):753-7
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  • Each panel consisted of both positive and negative serum samples.
  • The results confirmed that the use of a single nontreponemal test (the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory [VDRL] and the rapid plasma reagin [RPR] tests) is the least sensitive means of identifying samples that are positive for syphilis antibodies.
  • We also found that the interpretation of the results of manual techniques, such as the RPR test, the VDRL test, the Treponema pallidum hemagglutination (TPHA) assay, and the T. pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) assay, can vary greatly among different TSs and operators.
  • However, the determination of syphilis on the basis of the results of a single test is not sufficient for an accurate screening; and all blood units should thus be assessed by two distinct treponemal tests, that is, a total Ig EIA and the TPHA or the TPPA assay.
  • [MeSH-major] Bacteriological Techniques / standards. Health Services Research. Syphilis / diagnosis. Syphilis / transmission. Treponema pallidum / isolation & purification

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  • HSDB. structure - CHOLESTEROL.
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  • [Cites] Commun Dis Public Health. 2000 Sep;3(3):158-62 [11014025.001]
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  • (PMID = 20042617.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-660X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Microbiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Bacterial; 0 / Cardiolipins; 0 / Immunoglobulin G; 0 / Phosphatidylcholines; 0 / Reagins; 0 / VDRL antigen; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2832432
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32. |......... 1%  Sanhueza D, Ramírez E, Navarrete N, Santander E, Garmendia ML, Martínez MJ: [Human T-lymphotropic virus I/II detection in Chilean patients from Sexually Transmitted Diseases clinics]. Rev Med Chil; 2012 Oct;140(10):1239-44
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  • Only one of the 200 samples was positive (0.5%) and it came from a 70 year-old woman, housewife, with a stable single partner, a history of recurrent genital ulcers, VDRL (-) and positive serology for herpes simplex virus.

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  • (PMID = 23559279.001).
  • [ISSN] 0717-6163
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista médica de Chile
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Chil
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Chile
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33. |......... 1%  Del Boccio M, Lobefalo L, Pennelli A, Toniato E, Martinotti S, Tenaglia R, Neri G, Del Boccio G, Gallenga PE: Can latent synergism of intestinal pathogens be responsible for inflammaging process causing Reiter's syndrome in a young patient HLA-B27 infected by atypical pathogens? A holistic view and clinical biochemical reinterpretation. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents; 2012 Oct-Dec;26(4):741-55
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • VDRL, Lupus anti-coagulant (LAC) and Widal-Wright (WWR), resulted positive.
  • The antibodies (IgG/IgA anti-Ct) against chronic Chlamydia trachomatis inflammation were positive.
  • Parasitological research and digestibility test were performed, resulting a latent chronic bowel inflammation, including certain enteroinvasive pathogens, such as, Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia and Campylobacter (Enteric Pathogens Group, EPG) and Escherichia Coli pathogens (Escherichia Coli Pathogens Group, ECPG).
  • The Salmonella typhi-DNA resulted positive, while 90% of the total microbic charge (TMC) was represented by C. freundi in culture analyses.
  • Interpreting the VDRL positive test as early triggering of autoimmune disease, a few acute phase proteins as a pauci-symptomatic chronic phlogistic process, the amylase and alkaline phosphatase alterations as tissue markers of early intestinal inflammation, the Widal's reaction positivity together with the precocious clinical and faecal manifestations, this study suggests the prime triggering role of these atypical pathogens to cause a chronic low grade autoimmune response against the tissue/organ susceptible target, causing inflammaging phenomenon in young patient with chronic latent infection by Salmonella typhi, leading to Reiter's syndrome, in HLA-B27 positive patient.

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  • (PMID = 23241124.001).
  • [ISSN] 0393-974X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biological regulators and homeostatic agents
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biol. Regul. Homeost. Agents
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / HLA-B27 Antigen; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents
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34. |......... 1%  Souza Varella Frazão M, Guimarães Vilaça T, Olavo Aragão Andrade Carneiro F, Toma K, Eliane Reina-Forster C, Ryoka Baba E, Cheng S, Ferreira de Souza T, Guimarães Hourneaux de Moura E, Sakai P: Endoscopic aspects of gastric syphilis. Case Rep Med; 2012;2012:646525
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  • Syphilis serologies were positive for VDRL and Treponema pallidum reagents.
  • Immunohistochemical tests were positive for Treponema pallidum and CD138.
  • Patients with gastric symptoms that mimic neoplastic disease should be investigated thoroughly based on the fact that clinical, endoscopic, and histological findings can easily be mistaken for lymphoma or plastic linitis.

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  • [Cites] Gastrointest Endosc. 1990 Nov-Dec;36(6):624-6 [2279662.001]
  • [Cites] Ann Surg. 1922 Oct;76(4):449-56 [17864709.001]
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  • (PMID = 22924047.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-9635
  • [Journal-full-title] Case reports in medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Case Rep Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3423921
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35. |......... 1%  Benzaken AS, Sabidó M, Galban E, Pedroza V, Araújo AJ, Peeling RW, Mabey D: Field performance of a rapid point-of-care diagnostic test for antenatal syphilis screening in the Amazon region, Brazil. Int J STD AIDS; 2011 Jan;22(1):15-8
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  • [Title] Field performance of a rapid point-of-care diagnostic test for antenatal syphilis screening in the Amazon region, Brazil.
  • We evaluated an immunochromatographic point-of-care (POC) syphilis test in 712 pregnant women under field conditions in remote communities of the Amazon region (Brazil), and identified risk factors for syphilis.
  • Women were screened by POC test using whole blood obtained by fingerprick, the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-Abs) test as the gold standard and the Venereal Diseases Research Laboratory (VDRL) test to determine test performance in active syphilis.
  • Among women, 2.2% had syphilis (positive FTA-Abs) and 0.8% active syphilis (FTA-Abs and VDRL positive).
  • In all, 2.2% of samples were positive by the POC test.
  • The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 62.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 38.6-81.5), 99.1% (95% CI: 98.1-99.6), 62.5% (95% CI: 38.6-81.5) and 99.1% (95% CI: 98.1-99.6), respectively.
  • The POC test identified 62.5% (10/16) of syphilis cases, 66.7% (4/6) of active syphilis cases and all high-titre syphilis cases (VDRL > 1:8).
  • The rapid test performed moderately well as a screening tool for low-risk populations.


36. |......... 1%  Bala M, Toor A, Malhotra M, Kakran M, Muralidhar S, Ramesh V: Evaluation of the usefulness of Treponema pallidum hemagglutination test in the diagnosis of syphilis in weak reactive Venereal Disease Research Laboratory sera. Indian J Sex Transm Dis; 2012 Jul;33(2):102-6
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  • [Title] Evaluation of the usefulness of Treponema pallidum hemagglutination test in the diagnosis of syphilis in weak reactive Venereal Disease Research Laboratory sera.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Biological false positive (BFP) reactivity by the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test used for diagnosis of syphilis is a cause for concern.
  • The use of the VDRL as a screening procedure is challenged by some studies.
  • The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of BFP reactions in different subject groups and to assess the usefulness of Treponema pallidum hemagglutination (TPHA) test in low titre VDRL reactive sera.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 5785 sera from sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic attendees, antenatal clinic attendees, husbands of antenatal cases, peripheral health centres attendees (representing community population) and from patients referred from different OPDs/wards were screened for BFP reactions by the VDRL test.
  • Sera reactive in the VDRL test were confirmed by the TPHA test.
  • RESULTS: Out of 80 qualitative VDRL reactive sera, 68 had <1:8 titre on quantitation and TPHA was positive in 59 samples, indicating BFP reactivity in 0.2% in all the subject groups.
  • VDRL and TPHA positivity was highest (76%) in the age group of 20-29 years.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study highlight that the TPHA positivity was high (86.8%) in sera with VDRL titre less than 1:8.
  • Therefore, for the diagnosis of syphilis, it is recommended that a confirmatory test such as TPHA should be performed on all sera with a reactive VDRL regardless of its titre.

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  • [Cites] Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1975 Sep;6(3):413-8 [1241163.001]
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  • (PMID = 23188934.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-3816
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of sexually transmitted diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Sex Transm Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3505284
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Biological false positive / Syphilis / Treponema pallidum hemagglutination / Venereal disease research laboratory
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37. |......... 1%  Vasconcelos P, Borges-Costa J, Loreto H, Marques S: Secondary syphilis mimicking inflammatory bowel disease. Sex Transm Infect; 2013 Mar;89(2):98-9
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  • [Title] Secondary syphilis mimicking inflammatory bowel disease.
  • This study reports the case of a 15-year-old male patient with extensive anal inflammation, cobblestone-like mucosa and areas of ulceration, loose bloody stool and weight loss for 8 weeks, suggestive of inflammatory bowel disease.
  • Genital lesions of syphilides were later observed and Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test was positive, thus benzyl penicillin treatment was prescribed with total resolution of genital and bowel symptoms.

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  • HSDB. structure - CHOLESTEROL.
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  • (PMID = 22645392.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-3263
  • [Journal-full-title] Sexually transmitted infections
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sex Transm Infect
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cardiolipins; 0 / Phosphatidylcholines; 0 / VDRL antigen; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol; Q42T66VG0C / Penicillin G; Syphilis, secondary
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38. |......... 1%  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Discordant results from reverse sequence syphilis screening--five laboratories, United States, 2006-2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep; 2011 Feb 11;60(5):133-7
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  • CDC recommends syphilis serologic screening with a nontreponemal test, such as the rapid plasma reagin (RPR) or Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test, to identify persons with possible untreated infection; this screening is followed by confirmation using one of several treponemal tests.
  • Recently, the availability of automatable treponemal enzyme and chemiluminescence immunoassays (EIA/CIA) has led some laboratories to adopt a reverse sequence of screening in which a treponemal EIA/CIA is performed first, followed by testing of reactive sera with a nontreponemal test.
  • This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that among sera reactive on initial screening with a treponemal EIA/CIA, 56.7% had a nonreactive RPR test.
  • Among discordant sera, the rate of nonreactive confirmatory treponemal tests was 2.9 times higher in a population with low prevalence of syphilis, suggesting that the low-prevalence population had a higher percentage of false-positive test results.
  • [MeSH-minor] False Positive Reactions. Fluorescent Treponemal Antibody-Absorption Test. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Laboratories / statistics & numerical data. Luminescent Measurements. Prevalence. Risk. United States / epidemiology


39. |......... 1%  Cavalcante EG, Araújo MA, Galvão MT, de Moura HJ, Gondim AP, da Silva RM: Sexually transmitted infections associated syndromes assisted in the primary health care in Northeast, Brazil. BMC Public Health; 2012;12:595
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  • It was used Pearson's chi-square test to analyze the differences between the categorical variables, with a significance level of 5%.
  • The Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) was positive in 7.3% of men and in 7.1% of women and the Anti-HIV in 3.1% of men and 0.7% of women.

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  • [Cites] Sex Transm Infect. 1998 Jun;74 Suppl 1:S38-43 [10023352.001]
  • [Cites] Sex Transm Infect. 1999 Feb;75(1):3-17 [10448335.001]
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  • (PMID = 22853173.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2458
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC public health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Public Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3441460
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40. |......... 1%  Friedrich F, Geusau A, Greisenegger S, Ossege M, Aigner M: Manifest psychosis in neurosyphilis. Gen Hosp Psychiatry; 2009 Jul-Aug;31(4):379-81
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  • The positive screening test for syphilis provided the first hint of syphilis and gave direction for further diagnosis and specific treatment.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cardiolipins / diagnostic use. Cholesterol / diagnostic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fluorescent Treponemal Antibody-Absorption Test. Humans. Mass Screening. Phosphatidylcholines / diagnostic use. Physician's Role. Pregnancy. Psychiatric Status Rating Scales. Psychiatry / organization & administration. Schizophrenia, Paranoid / complications. Spinal Puncture


41. |......... 1%  Karaca Y, Cöplü N, Gözalan A, Oncül O, Akin L, Esen B: [Establishment of an algorithm for serological testing of syphilis identification]. Mikrobiyol Bul; 2010 Jan;44(1):35-45
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Serological methods are widely used for the laboratory diagnosis of syphilis or for screening purposes.
  • The aim of this study was to determine an algorithm for the application of laboratory tests that will provide accurate diagnosis of syphilis in a cheap, fast and practical way.
  • A total of 162 serum samples were evaluated by the following tests: VDRL (Venereal Disease Research Laboratory; Omega Diagnostic, UK), TPHA (Treponema pallidum Hemagglutination Test; Omega Diagnostic, UK), ELISA IgG + IgM (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay; DiaPro Diagnostic Bioprobes, Italy), FTA-ABS (Fluorescent Treponemal Antibody-Absorption; IgG, Euroimmun, Germany) and WB (Western Blot; IgG Euroimmun, Germany).
  • When the gold standard was considered as FTA-ABS test, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for VDRL were 77.1%, 100% 100% an 80.6%; for TPHA were 92.8%, 98.7%, 98.7% and 92.9%, for ELISA 98.8%, 98.7%, 98.8% and 98.7%, and for WB 98.8%, 100%, 100% and 98.7%, respectively.
  • When the results of screening with VDRL together with TPHA were compared with FTA-ABS, it was observed that if both VDRL and TPHA results were positive, then there was 100% concordance between the tests.
  • However, when both of the test results were negative, 1.3% of them yielded positive result with FTA-ABS.
  • If either one of VDRL or TPHA results were positive (n = 24), 95.8% (n = 23) was positive with FTA-ABS.
  • Therefore, inconsistent results obtained by VDRL and TPHA requires verification by another method.
  • When ELISA or WB tests were used, the borderline results need verification, however, positive or negative results would be reported.
  • The determination of an algorithm for laboratory tests also depend on the number of patients, cost, cost per positive patient and workload of the laboratory.
  • When the number of cases is low, VDRL/TPHA should be selected, and the results should be verified if they are inconsistent.
  • However, the demographic characteristics of patient groups are also important in test selection and work flow.
  • False positive results are troublesome in case of marriage pre-screening and false negative results in sex workers.
  • When all these factors are taken into consideration it may be suggested that either ELISA or VDRL together with TPHA should be performed and the results should be confirmed by a reference test in case of borderline results in ELISA or inconsistency between VDRL and TPHA results.
  • In case of pregnancy inconsistent VDRL and TPHA results should be verified since no risk could be afforded.

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  • (PMID = 20455397.001).
  • [ISSN] 0374-9096
  • [Journal-full-title] Mikrobiyoloji bülteni
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mikrobiyol Bul
  • [Language] tur
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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42. |......... 1%  Sidana R, Mangala HC, Murugesh SB, Ravindra K: Prozone phenomenon in secondary syphilis. Indian J Sex Transm Dis; 2011 Jan;32(1):47-9
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  • Prozone phenomenon is a false negative response resulting from high antibody titer which interferes with formation of antigen- antibody lattice, necessary to visualize a positive flocculation test.
  • She initially tested non- reactive for VDRL testing but tested positive with higher dilution.

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  • [Cites] N Engl J Med. 1956 Jun 14;254(24):1127-30; contd [13322225.001]
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  • (PMID = 21799578.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-3816
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of sexually transmitted diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Sex Transm Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3139290
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Acquired immune deficiency syndrome / flocculation test / prozone phenomenon / syphilis
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43. |......... 1%  Romero C P, Urzúa S C, Gallardo V P, Verdaguer T J, Lechuga C M, Hernández N H, Sanhueza Z F, Andaur L M, Donaire V E: [Ocular syphilis: ten new cases and review of the literature]. Rev Chilena Infectol; 2010 Dec;27(6):525-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Demographic factors, ophthalmologic examination, and laboratory tests were assessed.
  • Disease presentation included: panuveitis (6 patients), optic neuritis (3), retinal vasculitis (1) and Argyll-Robertson pupil (1).
  • Cerebrospinal fluid VDRL test was positive in 6 patients and 3 patients were HIV (+).
  • Not in all the cases the CSF-VDRL test was positive.

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  • (PMID = 21279289.001).
  • [ISSN] 0716-1018
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista chilena de infectología : órgano oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Chilena Infectol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Chile
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; Q42T66VG0C / Penicillin G
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44. |......... 1%  de Almeida SM, Bhatt A, Riggs PK, Durelle J, Lazzaretto D, Marquie-Beck J, McCutchan A, Letendre S, Ellis R: Cerebrospinal fluid human immunodeficiency virus viral load in patients with neurosyphilis. J Neurovirol; 2010 Feb;16(1):6-12
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  • In this study, HIV-infected research subjects (N = 225) were categorized into three groups based on serum rapid plasma reagin (RPR), microhemaglutination for Treponema pallidum (MHA-TP) MHA-TP, and CSF VDRL: 23 with neurosyphilis (NS+; reactive serum RPR and MHA-TP and positive CSF VDRL); 42 with systemic syphilis but not neurosyphilis (Syph+; reactive serum RPR and MHA-TP; negative CSF VDRL), and 160 without syphilis (Syph-; nonreactive serum RPR).
  • Lumbar punctures (LP) done for research purposes diagnosed 23 with neurosyphilis; most (83%) of these reported prior syphilis treatment.

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  • (PMID = 20132081.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-2443
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurovirology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurovirol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / MH 62512; United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / U13 MH081676-05
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antitreponemal Agents; 0 / RNA, Viral
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS282976; NLM/ PMC3076453
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45. |......... 1%  Wong EH, Klausner JD, Caguin-Grygiel G, Madayag C, Barber KO, Qiu JS, Liska S, Pandori MW: Evaluation of an IgM/IgG sensitive enzyme immunoassay and the utility of index values for the screening of syphilis infection in a high-risk population. Sex Transm Dis; 2011 Jun;38(6):528-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: We compared the performance of 1 EIA, the TREP-SURE EIA to that of the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) and Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPPA) in the detection of infection with Treponema pallidum.
  • In total, 674 specimens were tested by VDRL and EIA (356 VDRL-nonreactive and 318 VDRL-reactive).
  • All specimens that were found to be reactive by either the VDRL or EIA were subsequently analyzed by TPPA.
  • RESULTS: We found that the TREP-SURE EIA was marginally less sensitive than the VDRL test for screening, but was significantly more specific.
  • It was found that these values may be instructive regarding the interpretation of test results, as they were found to correlate strongly with the probability of positivity on a TPPA assay.
  • Specimens that reacted positively on the EIA with very high index values were found overwhelmingly to be reactive by TPPA, perhaps obviating the need for the testing of most EIA positive specimens with a secondary treponemal test.
  • CONCLUSIONS: An IgM/IgG sensitive EIA would be an effective alternative to VDRL for syphilis screening.

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  • (PMID = 21233789.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-4521
  • [Journal-full-title] Sexually transmitted diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sex Transm Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR033176; United States / NCATS NIH HHS / TR / UL1 TR000124
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Bacterial; 0 / Immunoglobulin G; 0 / Immunoglobulin M; 0 / Reagent Kits, Diagnostic
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46. |......... 1%  Purwar S, Metgud SC, Gokale SK: Exceptionally high titres in atypical presentation of occult epididymo-orchitis due to brucellosis. J Med Microbiol; 2012 Mar;61(Pt 3):443-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • A Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test was requested by the surgery department to rule out secondary syphilis.
  • Although serum samples gave a negative result in the VDRL test, qualitative screening was performed for Brucella antibodies, as per hospital policy, since brucellosis is endemic in this region.
  • Following a positive reaction, a quantitative standard tube agglutination test was carried out yielding titres that were exceptionally high (STAT = 40 960 IU ml(-1); 2-ME = 1 : 5120).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Animals. Anti-Bacterial Agents / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Bacterial / blood. Cattle. Clinical Laboratory Techniques / methods. Doxycycline / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Streptomycin / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome. Wounds and Injuries / complications

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  • (PMID = 22194340.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5644
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Microbiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Antibodies, Bacterial; N12000U13O / Doxycycline; Y45QSO73OB / Streptomycin
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47. |......... 1%  Rodríguez Rodríguez D, Garza Rodríguez M, Chavarria AM, Ramos-Jiménez J, Rivera MA, Taméz RC, Farfan-Ale J, Rivas-Estilla AM: Dengue virus antibodies in blood donors from an endemic area. Transfus Med; 2009 Jun;19(3):125-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • In addition, routine tests for donors including Brucella, Hepatitis C virus (HCV), Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL), HIV-1 and HBsAg identification were performed.
  • Routine tests showed that the prevalence of anti-Brucella was 0.71%, anti-HCV 0.71%, anti-HIV-1-2 0.14%, HBsAg 0.14% and VDRL test 0.57%.
  • Although DENV transmission by blood transfusion had not been confirmed in Mexico, the finding of a high prevalence of anti-DENV IgM-positive donors with asymptomatic manifestations and the recent viremia reported in blood donors suggests that this route of transmission might be possible.

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Blood Transfusion and Donation.
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  • (PMID = 19566669.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-3148
  • [Journal-full-title] Transfusion medicine (Oxford, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transfus Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Bacterial; 0 / Antibodies, Viral; 0 / Immunoglobulin G; 0 / Immunoglobulin M
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48. |......... 1%  Queiroz NM, Sampaio Dde A, Santos Ede S, Bezerra AC: Logistic model for determining factors associated with HIV infection among blood donor candidates at the Fundação HEMOPE. Rev Bras Hematol Hemoter; 2012;34(3):217-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Additional indirect immune and western blot confirmation tests for HIV infection were performed and the candidates were classified as HIV positive or negative.
  • The Chi-squared test and stepwise multiple logistic regression were conducted to examine any association between HIV infection and age, gender, place of residence, schooling, number of donations and serological tests for core hepatitis B antigen virus (anti-HBc), the hepatitis C antivirus (anti-HCV), human T-type antivirus lymph cells (anti-HTLV 1 and 2), serological tests for syphilis (VDRL) and the hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg).
  • RESULTS: In the observed sample, 0.204% of blood donor candidates were found to be HIV positive.
  • Among the studied variables, the age, education level, residency, donation type, and serologic status for anti-HBc and VDRL tests were found to be associated with HIV infection.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The younger, spontaneous donor candidates living in the Recife metropolitan area with a low level of education and positive for anti-HBc and VDRL have an higher risk of HIV infection than the other candidates.

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  • [Cites] Braz J Infect Dis. 2002 Feb;6(1):15-21 [11980599.001]
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  • (PMID = 23049423.001).
  • [ISSN] 1806-0870
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista brasileira de hematologia e hemoterapia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Bras Hematol Hemoter
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3459634
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Blood donation / HIV Infections / Logistic models / Risk factors
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49. |......... 1%  Lasso MB, Balcells M ME, Fernández AS, Gaete PG, Serri MV, Pérez JG, Chain CA, Cerón IA, Duque CO, Ramírez AB: [Neurosyphilis in the patients with and without HIV infection: description and comparison of two historical cohorts]. Rev Chilena Infectol; 2009 Dec;26(6):540-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Probability of neurosyphilis in patients with positive serum VDRL was increased in patients infected with HIV compared to HIV negative patients (OR: 62.37 IC:95% (32.1-119.1) p value:< 0,001).
  • In the HIV positive group, they were fever, ocular abnormalities and headache.
  • Neurosyphilis was diagnosed even in patients with blood VDRL of < 1:32, that happened in 17.8% of the HIV positive patients with blood and in 60% of t he HIV negative patients.
  • In patients with clinical neurosyphilis, 93% of HIV negative group, and 54.2% of HIV positive group had persistent neurological after-effects.
  • Three HIV positive patients died due to causes not related to neurosyphilis.

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  • (PMID = 20098789.001).
  • [ISSN] 0716-1018
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista chilena de infectología : órgano oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Chilena Infectol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Chile
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; RIT82F58GK / Penicillin G Benzathine
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50. |......... 1%  Pérez C C, Cerón A I, Fuentes L G, Zañartu S C, Balcells M ME, Ajenjo H C, Rabagliati B R, Labarca L J, Acuña L G: [Hepatitis B, C, Treponema pallidum and Toxoplasma gondii co-infections in HIV infected patients]. Rev Med Chil; 2009 May;137(5):641-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Clinical records of HIV-positive individuals were reviewed.
  • The analysis included: demographical data, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), IgM and IgG anti-HBc, antibodies, anti-HCV antibodies, RPR or VDRL test and IgG anti Tgondii antibodies.


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2. Definitions


3. Related RMF webpages
1. positive vdrl
2. positive wassermann
3. gram positive cocci
4. false positive reactions
5. positive pressure respiration
6. positive serology for syphilis
7. gram positive rods
8. gram positive bacteria
9. mantoux positive finding
10. intermittent positive pressure breathing
11. nonspecific positive culture findings
12. pneumonia cold agglutinin positive
13. cholangiography operative positive contrast
14. abnormal urine positive culture
15. positive culture findings in nose
16. positive culture findings in sputum
17. positive culture findings in wound
18. gram positive cocci meningitis
19. hpv dna test positive
20. invasive positive pressure ventilation
21. inspiratory positive pressure ventilation
22. breathing intermittent positive pressure
23. cd4 positive t lymphocytes
24. cd8 positive t lymphocytes
25. gram positive asporogenous rods
26. gram positive bacterial infections
27. positive pressure respiration intrinsic
28. continuous positive airway pressure
29. intermittent positive pressure ventilation
30. non invasive positive pressure nippv
31. gram positive endospore forming bacteria
32. estrogen receptor positive status er
33. gram positive endospore forming rods
34. positive transcriptional elongation factor b
35. gram positive asporogenous rods irregular
36. positive culture findings in throat situation
37. gram positive asporogenous rods regular
38. t lymphocytopenia idiopathic cd4 positive
39. pregnancy examination or test positive result
40. leukemia myelogenous chronic bcr abl positive
41. bi level positive airway pressure bipap
42. vaginal low risk hpv dna test positive
43. vaginal low risk human papillomavirus dna test positive
44. cervical high risk human papillomavirus hpv dna test positive
45. vaginal high risk human papillomavirus hpv dna test positive
46. asymptomatic hiv hiv test positive

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