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1. Biomedical articles (top 50; 2009 to 2014)
1. |||||..... 50%  Kara A, Celik H, Seker A, Uysal MA, Uzun M, Malkoc M: Granuloma formation secondary to Achilles tendon repair with nonabsorbable suture. Int J Surg Case Rep; 2014;5(10):720-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Granuloma formation secondary to Achilles tendon repair with nonabsorbable suture.
  • INTRODUCTION: Several complications can be observed after Achilles tendon repairs.
  • In this study we aimed to report granuloma formation secondary to Achilles tendon repair with Ethibond (Ethicon INC, Somerville, New Jersey) suture.
  • PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 31 year-old man operated for Achilles tendon rupture.
  • The Ethibond suture was used for primary repair.
  • A mass around distal portion of the Achilles tendon was detected.
  • DISCUSSION: The results of primary repair of Achilles tendon are good but several complications were reported.
  • In tendon repairs generally nonabsorbable sutures are used.
  • In the literature, granuloma formations secondary to the suture materials such as polygylactine and braided polyethylen-polyester after Achilles tendon repair were reported but granuloma secondary to the Ethibond is very rare.
  • CONCLUSION: Although Ethibond suture is a strong and safe material for Achilles tendon repairs it may cause soft tissue problems such as granuloma.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 25212905.001).
  • [ISSN] 2210-2612
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgery case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Surg Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4189067
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Achilles tendon repair / Ethibond / Granuloma formation
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2. |||||..... 45%  Chan AP, Chan YY, Fong DT, Wong PY, Lam HY, Lo CK, Yung PS, Fung KY, Chan KM: Clinical and biomechanical outcome of minimal invasive and open repair of the Achilles tendon. Sports Med Arthrosc Rehabil Ther Technol; 2011;3(1):32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical and biomechanical outcome of minimal invasive and open repair of the Achilles tendon.
  • INTRODUCTION: With evolutions in surgical techniques, minimally invasive surgical (MIS) repair with Achillon applicator has been introduced.
  • Twenty-six patients (19 male and 7 female; age 40.4 ± 9.2 years) had experienced a complete Achilles tendon rupture with operative repair.
  • Nineteen of the patients, 10 MIS versus 9 open repairs (13 men with a mean age of 40.54 ± 10.43 (range 23-62 yrs) and 6 women with a mean age of 45.33 ± 7.71 (range 35-57 yrs) were further invited to attend a thorough clinical assessment using Holz's scale and biomechanical evaluation at a mean of 25.3 months after operation.
  • The mean percentage stance time of the injured leg for MIS patient was 58.44% while the mean percentage stance time of the injured leg for patients with open repair was 56.57%.
  • There is no statistical significance difference in clinical outcome, the stance time to strike time ratio and biomechanical properties on the leg receiving Achilles tendon repair using MIS method and open surgery.

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  • (PMID = 22185429.001).
  • [ISSN] 1758-2555
  • [Journal-full-title] Sports medicine, arthroscopy, rehabilitation, therapy & technology : SMARTT
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sports Med Arthrosc Rehabil Ther Technol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3259046
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3. ||||...... 36%  Bhattacharyya M, Gerber B: Mini-invasive surgical repair of the Achilles tendon--does it reduce post-operative morbidity? Int Orthop; 2009 Feb;33(1):151-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mini-invasive surgical repair of the Achilles tendon--does it reduce post-operative morbidity?
  • The surgical benefit of minimally invasive tendo Achilles repair (n = 25) with early weight-bearing mobilisation after rupture of the tendo Achilles was compared with operative treatment using an open technique (n = 34) with full weight-bearing after 8 weeks of surgical repair.
  • However, we noted that increased post-operative morbidity in terms of wound infection (n = 7) leading to delayed wound healing and wound pain requiring opiate-based analgesia post-operatively in the open repair group may have an additional impact on the patients and health care providers.
  • This study showed that the mini-invasive open surgical repair of the Achilles tendon with the Achillon instrument and early weight-bearing mobilisation in an orthosis for the accelerated rehabilitation may offer cost-effectiveness and less financial burden on the health care provider in terms of associated nursing and physiotherapy costs.
  • [MeSH-major] Achilles Tendon / injuries. Achilles Tendon / surgery. Orthopedic Procedures / adverse effects. Pain / etiology. Surgical Procedures, Minimally Invasive / adverse effects. Surgical Wound Infection / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18496690.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-5195
  • [Journal-full-title] International orthopaedics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Orthop
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2899245
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4. |||....... 29%  Philip J, Hackl F, Canseco JA, Kamel RA, Kiwanuka E, Diaz-Siso JR, Caterson EJ, Junker JP, Eriksson E: Amnion-derived multipotent progenitor cells improve achilles tendon repair in rats. Eplasty; 2013;13:e31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Amnion-derived multipotent progenitor cells improve achilles tendon repair in rats.
  • OBJECTIVE: Tendon injuries produce considerable morbidity, long-lasting disability, and remain a considerable challenge for clinicians and patients.
  • The objective of the study was to assess the effect of amnion-derived multipotent progenitor (AMP) cells and amnion-derived cell cytokine solution on Achilles tendon healing by using a rat model.
  • METHODS: Achilles tendons of Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed and transected.
  • Tendons from each group (n = 6-13) were collected at weeks 1, 2, and 4 postoperatively and assessed for material properties (ultimate tensile strength, Young modulus, yield strength, and breaking strength).
  • Tendons were also evaluated histologically for cross-sectional area by using hematoxylin-eosin and trichrome stains.
  • RESULTS: Mechanical testing showed that the Young modulus was significantly higher in AMP cells-treated tendons at week 4 compared with both saline-treated and amnion-derived cell cytokine solution-treated tendons.
  • DISCUSSION: Amnion-derived multipotent progenitor cells have a positive effect on healing tendons by improving mechanical strength and elastic modulus during the healing process.
  • The presented findings suggest the clinical utility of AMP cells in facilitating the healing of ruptured tendons.
  • Both the Young modulus and yield strengths of tendons increased significantly following treatment with AMP cells.

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  • (PMID = 23814634.001).
  • [ISSN] 1937-5719
  • [Journal-full-title] Eplasty
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eplasty
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / T32 GM007753
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3690753
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5. |||....... 27%  Maffulli N, Longo UG, Ronga M, Khanna A, Denaro V: Favorable outcome of percutaneous repair of achilles tendon ruptures in the elderly. Clin Orthop Relat Res; 2010 Apr;468(4):1039-46
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Favorable outcome of percutaneous repair of achilles tendon ruptures in the elderly.
  • Percutaneous repair of Achilles tendon (AT) ruptures reportedly reduces the risk of rerupture compared to nonoperative treatment and reduces the risk of wound infection compared to open surgery.
  • We retrospectively reviewed the postoperative Achilles tendon total rupture score (ATRS), and the maximum calf circumference in 35 patients over 65 years of age who sustained an acute tear of the AT and underwent percutaneous repair of the AT.
  • The data suggest that percutaneous repair of the AT is a suitable option for patients older than 65, producing similar outcomes when compared to percutaneous repair in younger patients of previous reports.
  • [MeSH-major] Achilles Tendon / surgery. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods. Surgical Procedures, Minimally Invasive. Tendon Injuries / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19543777.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1132
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical orthopaedics and related research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2835610
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6. |||....... 27%  Kuran FD, Pekedis M, Yıldız H, Aydın F, Eliyatkın N: Effect of hyperbaric oxygen treatment on tendon healing after Achilles tendon repair: an experimental study on rats. Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc; 2012;46(4):293-300
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effect of hyperbaric oxygen treatment on tendon healing after Achilles tendon repair: an experimental study on rats.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of hyperbaric oxygen treatment on early tendon healing in the treatment of Achilles tendon ruptures.
  • The Achilles tendons of all rats were sutured following tenotomy.
  • The Achilles tendons were removed, biomechanically evaluated and histopathologically studied on the 11th postoperative day.
  • CONCLUSION: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy creates a positive histological and biomechanical effect on tendon healing after Achilles tendon repair.
  • [MeSH-major] Achilles Tendon / surgery. Hyperbaric Oxygenation / methods. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods. Tendon Injuries / therapy. Wound Healing

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  • (PMID = 22951751.001).
  • [ISSN] 1017-995X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta orthopaedica et traumatologica turcica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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7. |||....... 26%  Feldbrin Z, Hendel D, Lipkin A, Zin D, Schorr L: Achilles tendon rupture and our experience with the Achillon device. Isr Med Assoc J; 2010 Oct;12(10):609-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Achilles tendon rupture and our experience with the Achillon device.
  • BACKGROUND: Open repair of the Achilles tendon is still the gold standard for treating rupture.
  • This technique has the disadvantages of a long and problematic operative scar and thickly scarred Achilles tendon.
  • OBJECTIVES: To analyze our results of Achilles tendon repair using the Achillon device and compare them with published studies.
  • METHODS: We performed surgical repair of the Achilles tendon in 28 patients during a 4 year period (2004-2008): 14 patients were treated with the Achillon device, 12 with the open suture technique and 2 with the percutaneous method.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This is the first review on this procedure in Israel.
  • [MeSH-major] Achilles Tendon / injuries. Orthopedic Procedures / instrumentation. Tendon Injuries / surgery

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  • (PMID = 21090517.001).
  • [ISSN] 1565-1088
  • [Journal-full-title] The Israel Medical Association journal : IMAJ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Isr. Med. Assoc. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Israel
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8. ||........ 16%  Cooper IF, Siadaty MS: 'Hormones' associated with 'Achilles Repairing Tendons': Top Publications. BioMedLib Review; Hormone;AchillesRepairingTendons:705228849. ISSN: 2331-5717. 2014/12/26
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  • [Title] 'Hormones' associated with 'Achilles Repairing Tendons': Top Publications.
  • [Transliterated title]
  • Background: There are articles published each month which present 'Hormone' for 'achilles repairing tendons'.
  • Finding such articles is important for researchers, clinicians, and patients.
  • However these articles are spread across thousands of journals, and there are many types of 'Hormone'.
  • This makes searching and locating the relevant publications a challenge.
  • We have used BioMedLib's semantic search technology to address the issue, and gathered all the pertinent publications in this review article.
  • Methods: We categorized the publications we found into two groups.
  • We used the strength of textual-association to separate the groups.
  • In group one there are publications with the strongest evidence of association. We focused finding the most relevant publications pertinent to our goal, rather than combining them into a conclusion section. Such textual synthesis will be the focus of our next project.
  • Results: Group one includes 21 publications, and group two 384 publications.
  • Here are the top 10.
  • Akizuki KH et al: The relative stress on the Achilles tendon during ambulation in an ankle immobiliser: implications for rehabilitation after Achilles tendon repair.
  • Makhdom AM et al: Fatal Pulmonary Embolism following Achilles Tendon Repair: A Case Report and a Review of the Literature.
  • Citak M et al: Anatomy of the sural nerve in a computer-assisted model: implications for surgical minimal-invasive Achilles tendon repair.
  • Shepard ME et al: Biomechanical comparison of the simple running and cross-stitch epitenon sutures in achilles tendon repairs.
  • Wang HK et al: Early neuromechanical outcomes of the triceps surae muscle-tendon after an Achilles' tendon repair.
  • Watson TW et al: The strength of Achilles tendon repair: an in vitro study of the biomechanical behavior in human cadaver tendons.
  • Nakagawa A et al: [Ultrasound-guided sciatic nerve block in the popliteal fossa for the postoperative pain control after Achilles' tendon repair].
  • Lee SJ et al: Optimizing Achilles tendon repair: effect of epitendinous suture augmentation on the strength of achilles tendon repairs.
  • Pneumaticos SG et al: The effects of early mobilization in the healing of achilles tendon repair.
  • Jelinsky SA et al: Treatment with rhBMP12 or rhBMP13 increase the rate and the quality of rat Achilles tendon repair.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2014 Siadaty and Cooper; licensee BioMedLib LLC.
  • (UID = 705228849.001).
  • [ISSN] 2331-5717
  • [Journal-full-title] BioMedLib Review
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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9. ||........ 15%  Cooper IF, Siadaty MS: 'Steroids' associated with 'Achilles Repairing Tendons': Top Publications. BioMedLib Review; Steroid;AchillesRepairingTendons:705729814. ISSN: 2331-5717. 2014/11/25
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  • [Title] 'Steroids' associated with 'Achilles Repairing Tendons': Top Publications.
  • [Transliterated title]
  • Background: There are articles published each month which present 'Steroid' for 'achilles repairing tendons'.
  • Finding such articles is important for researchers, clinicians, and patients.
  • However these articles are spread across thousands of journals, and there are many types of 'Steroid'.
  • This makes searching and locating the relevant publications a challenge.
  • We have used BioMedLib's semantic search technology to address the issue, and gathered all the pertinent publications in this review article.
  • Methods: We categorized the publications we found into two groups.
  • We used the strength of textual-association to separate the groups.
  • In group one there are publications with the strongest evidence of association. We focused finding the most relevant publications pertinent to our goal, rather than combining them into a conclusion section. Such textual synthesis will be the focus of our next project.
  • Results: Group one includes 21 publications, and group two 407 publications.
  • Here are the top 10.
  • Akizuki KH et al: The relative stress on the Achilles tendon during ambulation in an ankle immobiliser: implications for rehabilitation after Achilles tendon repair.
  • Makhdom AM et al: Fatal Pulmonary Embolism following Achilles Tendon Repair: A Case Report and a Review of the Literature.
  • Citak M et al: Anatomy of the sural nerve in a computer-assisted model: implications for surgical minimal-invasive Achilles tendon repair.
  • Shepard ME et al: Biomechanical comparison of the simple running and cross-stitch epitenon sutures in achilles tendon repairs.
  • Wang HK et al: Early neuromechanical outcomes of the triceps surae muscle-tendon after an Achilles' tendon repair.
  • Watson TW et al: The strength of Achilles tendon repair: an in vitro study of the biomechanical behavior in human cadaver tendons.
  • Nakagawa A et al: [Ultrasound-guided sciatic nerve block in the popliteal fossa for the postoperative pain control after Achilles' tendon repair].
  • Lee SJ et al: Optimizing Achilles tendon repair: effect of epitendinous suture augmentation on the strength of achilles tendon repairs.
  • Pneumaticos SG et al: The effects of early mobilization in the healing of achilles tendon repair.
  • Jelinsky SA et al: Treatment with rhBMP12 or rhBMP13 increase the rate and the quality of rat Achilles tendon repair.

  • [Email] Email this result item
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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2014 Siadaty and Cooper; licensee BioMedLib LLC.
  • (UID = 705729814.001).
  • [ISSN] 2331-5717
  • [Journal-full-title] BioMedLib Review
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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10. |||||||... 72%  Black DA, Lindley S, Tucci M, Lawyer T, Benghuzzi H: A new model for repair of the Achilles tendon in the rat. J Invest Surg; 2011;24(5):217-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A new model for repair of the Achilles tendon in the rat.
  • The Sprague-Dawley rat is an excellent model for studies of Achilles tendon repair.
  • Most researchers use a modification of the Kessler technique for suture repair of the Achilles tendon in rats.
  • Prior to healing, the load will be borne completely by the suture repair, subjecting it to rupture.
  • To prevent this complication, investigators employing the Kessler repair often immobilize the operative extremity with a cast or splint.
  • This has also been shown to be detrimental to the peak load borne by the tendons prior to rupture.
  • A double-loop locking technique of suture repair for rat Achilles tendons is favored over the modified Kessler technique.
  • As force is applied across the repair, the suture pulls on the tendon, sharing the load.
  • This allows for early mobilization of repaired tendons, with minimal risk of rupture.
  • One hundred repairs have been performed using this double-loop locking technique.
  • This technique of tendon repair is ideal for use in studies of tendon repair in the rat, since it is easy to perform and eliminates the need for immobilization of the operative leg.
  • [MeSH-major] Achilles Tendon / surgery. Orthopedic Procedures / methods. Rats / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Early Ambulation. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Suture Techniques. Tendon Injuries / surgery. Weight-Bearing

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  • (PMID = 21867391.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-0553
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of investigative surgery : the official journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Invest Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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11. |||||||... 71%  Magnussen RA, Glisson RR, Moorman CT 3rd: Augmentation of Achilles tendon repair with extracellular matrix xenograft: a biomechanical analysis. Am J Sports Med; 2011 Jul;39(7):1522-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Augmentation of Achilles tendon repair with extracellular matrix xenograft: a biomechanical analysis.
  • BACKGROUND: Achilles tendon rupture is a frequent injury in athletes and the general public.
  • Cases of chronic rupture or poor tendon quality secondary to tendinopathy are challenging to repair primarily.
  • Commercially available extracellular matrix materials have been utilized in recent years to augment tendon repair.
  • HYPOTHESIS: Augmentation of Achilles tendon with extracellular matrix xenograft results in reduced repair site gapping and increased peak failure load in a cadaveric model featuring simulated physiologic loads.
  • METHODS: Ten matched pairs of fresh-frozen human lower extremities amputated just below the knee were obtained and each Achilles tendon was sharply tenotomized.
  • One randomly selected specimen from each matched pair underwent Achilles repair using a 4-strand Krackow technique with extracellular matrix xenograft augmentation (TissueMend Soft Tissue Repair Matrix), while the opposite tendon underwent suture repair alone as a control.
  • Each tendon was then subjected to 1000 sinusoidal tensile loading cycles to 86 N during which repair site gapping was monitored, followed by distraction to failure.
  • RESULTS: Significantly less gapping was noted in the augmented tendon group at all time points after the 10th load cycle (P < .05).
  • The mean repair site gapping after 1000 cycles of loading was 4.0 mm (range, 3.1-5.0 mm) in the augmented group and 6.5 mm (range, 4.1-8.6 mm) in the suture-only group.
  • CONCLUSION: The augmentation of Achilles tendon repair with extracellular matrix xenograft decreases gapping and increases load to failure immediately after surgery in a cadaveric model.
  • CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Tendon repair augmentation may allow more aggressive early rehabilitation, particularly in cases of chronic rupture or poor tendon quality.
  • Further work is necessary to define indications for extracellular matrix graft augmentation of tendon repairs.
  • [MeSH-major] Achilles Tendon / injuries. Achilles Tendon / surgery. Extracellular Matrix / transplantation

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  • (PMID = 21372317.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-3365
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of sports medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Sports Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. |||||..... 54%  Ortiz C, Wagner E, Mocoçain P, Labarca G, Keller A, Del Buono A, Maffulli N: Biomechanical comparison of four methods of repair of the Achilles tendon: a laboratory study with bovine tendons. J Bone Joint Surg Br; 2012 May;94(5):663-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Biomechanical comparison of four methods of repair of the Achilles tendon: a laboratory study with bovine tendons.
  • We tested four types of surgical repair for load to failure and distraction in a bovine model of Achilles tendon repair.
  • A total of 20 fresh bovine Achilles tendons were divided transversely 4 cm proximal to the calcaneal insertion and randomly repaired using the Dresden technique, a Krackow suture, a triple-strand Dresden technique or a modified oblique Dresden technique, all using a Fiberwire suture.
  • Each tendon was loaded to failure.
  • The resistance to distraction was significantly greater for the triple technique (mean 246.1 N (205 to 309) to initial gapping) than for the Dresden (mean 180 N (152 to 208); p = 0.012) and the Krackow repairs (mean 101 N (78 to 112; p < 0.001).
  • Peak load to failure was significantly greater for the triple-strand repair (mean 675 N (453 to 749)) than for the Dresden (mean 327.8 N (238 to 406); p < 0.001), Krackow (mean 223.6 N (210 to 252); p < 0.001) and oblique repairs (mean 437.2 N (372 to 526); p < 0.001).
  • Failure of the tendon was the mechanism of failure for all specimens except for the tendons sutured using the Krackow technique, where the failure occurred at the knot.
  • The triple-strand technique significantly increased the tensile strength (p = 0.0001) and gap resistance (p = 0.01) of bovine tendon repairs, and might have advantages in human application for accelerated post-operative rehabilitation.
  • [MeSH-major] Achilles Tendon / injuries. Tendon Injuries / surgery

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  • (PMID = 22529088.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-620X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of bone and joint surgery. British volume
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Bone Joint Surg Br
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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13. |||||..... 52%  Wang HK, Chiang H, Chen WS, Shih TT, Huang YC, Jiang CC: Early neuromechanical outcomes of the triceps surae muscle-tendon after an Achilles' tendon repair. Arch Phys Med Rehabil; 2013 Aug;94(8):1590-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Early neuromechanical outcomes of the triceps surae muscle-tendon after an Achilles' tendon repair.
  • OBJECTIVES: To compare the neuromechanical and functional characteristics of the legs of athletes who underwent unilateral Achilles' tendon repair and their controls, and to determine any correlation between the characteristics.
  • INTERVENTION: Surgical Achilles' tendon repair in the study group.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Bilateral measurements of activation strategy involving the triceps surae and tibialis anterior muscles, mechanical properties of the Achilles' tendon, and explosive performance tests were conducted.
  • RESULTS: Compared with the noninjured legs and the control legs, the repaired legs showed lower normalized rates of electromyographic rise (RER) in the soleus, gastrocnemius medialis, and gastrocnemius lateralis (P ranged between .006 and .001); and less tendon stiffness, greater hysteresis, and less rates of force development (RFD) (P ranged between .006 and <.001).
  • The noninjured legs of the athletes who underwent surgical Achilles' tendon repair had a lower normalized RER (0-50 ms) in the soleus and lateral gastrocnemius when compared with the legs of the healthy controls (P=.011).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The athletes who underwent unilateral Achilles' tendon repair demonstrated bilateral neuromechanical deficits within the 1-year postsurgical period.
  • [MeSH-major] Achilles Tendon / injuries. Achilles Tendon / physiopathology. Athletic Injuries / surgery. Muscle, Skeletal / physiopathology. Muscle, Skeletal / transplantation

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 23380346.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-821X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Phys Med Rehabil
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; M(max) / M(sup) / MVIC / Mechanical phenomena / Nervous system / Postural balance / RER / RFD / RMS / Rehabilitation / SEBT / Star Excursion Balance Test / Tendons / VISA-A / Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment–Achilles questionnaire / maximal M wave / maximal voluntary isometric contraction / rate of electromyographic rise / rate of force development / root mean square / supramaximal M wave
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14. |||||..... 48%  Labib SA, Rolf R, Dacus R, Hutton WC: The "Giftbox" repair of the Achilles tendon: a modification of the Krackow technique. Foot Ankle Int; 2009 May;30(5):410-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The "Giftbox" repair of the Achilles tendon: a modification of the Krackow technique.
  • BACKGROUND: The Krackow locking loop technique has been used for Achilles tendon repair with documented success in allowing early range of motion with stable fixation.
  • We compared the tensile strength of Achilles tendons repaired using the traditional Krackow technique with those repaired using the Giftbox technique.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirteen pairs of fresh frozen cadaveric Achilles tendons were harvested.
  • An Achilles tendon rupture was created 4 cm from the calcaneal insertion.
  • Thirteen Achilles ruptures were repaired using the traditional Krackow technique and 13 pairs were repaired using the Giftbox technique.
  • The Achilles tendons were then tested to failure as defined as a gap of 1 cm.
  • RESULTS: The mean force to failure for the tendons using the Giftbox technique was 168 N, whereas the mean for the traditional Krackow technique was 81 N (p < 0.0001).
  • CONCLUSION: Based on our biomechanical study, Achilles tendons repaired using the Giftbox technique are more than twice as strong as those repaired using the traditional Krackow technique.
  • CLINICAL RELEVANCE: We recommend the Giftbox modification to minimize gap formation and improve the strength of the repair of a ruptured Achilles tendon.
  • [MeSH-major] Achilles Tendon / injuries. Suture Techniques. Tendon Injuries / surgery

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  • [CommentIn] Foot Ankle Int. 2009 Oct;30(10):1027 [19796601.001]
  • (PMID = 19439140.001).
  • [ISSN] 1071-1007
  • [Journal-full-title] Foot & ankle international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Foot Ankle Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. |||||..... 47%  Baltzer WI, Rist P: Achilles tendon repair in dogs using the semitendinosus muscle: surgical technique and short-term outcome in five dogs. Vet Surg; 2009 Aug;38(6):770-9
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  • [Title] Achilles tendon repair in dogs using the semitendinosus muscle: surgical technique and short-term outcome in five dogs.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe augmentation of primary Achilles tendon repair using suture with a semitendinosus muscle flap and report outcome in 5 dogs.
  • ANIMALS: Dogs (n=5) with Achilles tendon rupture (n=6).
  • METHODS: After tendon repair with #2 polypropylene in a 3-loop pulley suture pattern, the lateral one-half of the semitendinosus muscle was transected from the ischium, rotated distally then sutured with #2 polypropylene to the calcaneus in a 3-loop pulley pattern.
  • Three dogs returned to full work/activity after repair.
  • CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Augmentation of primary Achilles tendon repair with a semitendinosus flap can be considered in dogs with chronic rupture but further investigation of the long-term outcome using this technique is needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Achilles Tendon / injuries. Dog Diseases / surgery. Orthopedic Procedures / veterinary. Rupture / veterinary. Tendon Injuries / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 19674421.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-950X
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary surgery : VS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. |||||..... 46%  Ahn JH, Choy WS: Tendon adhesion after percutaneous repair of the Achilles tendon: a case report. J Foot Ankle Surg; 2011 Jan-Feb;50(1):93-5
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  • [Title] Tendon adhesion after percutaneous repair of the Achilles tendon: a case report.
  • Percutaneous repair of the Achilles tendon is known to minimize tendon adhesions and wound complication through a minimally invasive technique.
  • The usually reported complications are sural nerve injury and inadequate contact of the tendon stumps, which can lead to rerupture or tendon lengthening.
  • We experienced an interesting case of Achilles tendon adhesion after percutaneous repair, which had been initially misdiagnosed as a rerupture.
  • To our knowledge, this is the only report of Achilles tendon adhesion as a complication after percutaneous repair, which stresses the importance of functional postoperative rehabilitation.
  • [MeSH-major] Achilles Tendon / injuries. Orthopedic Procedures / methods. Tendon Injuries / surgery. Tissue Adhesions / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2011 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20833567.001).
  • [ISSN] 1542-2224
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of foot and ankle surgery : official publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Foot Ankle Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. |||||..... 46%  Ozkaya U, Parmaksizoglu AS, Kabukcuoglu Y, Sokucu S, Basilgan S: Open minimally invasive Achilles tendon repair with early rehabilitation: functional results of 25 consecutive patients. Injury; 2009 Jun;40(6):669-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Open minimally invasive Achilles tendon repair with early rehabilitation: functional results of 25 consecutive patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Various treatment techniques have been described for the treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture.
  • Mid-term functional outcome results of the patients who had undergone open minimally invasive repair of fresh Achilles tendon ruptures followed by an early rehabilitation programme were evaluated.
  • METHODS: Twenty-five consecutive patients who underwent open minimally invasive repair of Achiles tendon ruptures during January 2004-October 2005 were independently reviewed at an average follow-up of 34 months (range 24-45 months).
  • CONCLUSION: These results suggest that open minimally invasive Achilles tendon repair and an early rehabilitation programme provides satisfactory results with early return to previous functional status with low complication rates.
  • [MeSH-major] Achilles Tendon / injuries. Orthopedic Procedures / methods

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  • (PMID = 19232585.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0267
  • [Journal-full-title] Injury
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Injury
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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18. ||||...... 42%  Cook KD, Clark G, Lui E, Vajaria G, Wallace GF: Strength of braided polyblend polyethylene sutures versus braided polyester sutures in Achilles tendon repair: a cadaveric study. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc; 2010 May-Jun;100(3):185-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Strength of braided polyblend polyethylene sutures versus braided polyester sutures in Achilles tendon repair: a cadaveric study.
  • BACKGROUND: Various techniques may be used to repair Achilles tendon ruptures; however, we contend that using the strongest suture with the least amount of suture material is ideal.
  • METHODS: To compare the strength of 2-0 FiberLoop (Arthrex Inc, Naples, Florida) and #2 Ethibond (Ethicon Inc, Somerville, New Jersey) suture materials in Achilles tendon repairs, 12 Achilles tendons were harvested from cadavers aged 18 to 62 years (median age, 42 years).
  • The tendons were transected and repaired using a modified Krackow suture technique.
  • The specimens were mounted to a materials testing system, and the repairs were pulled to failure in an anatomical direction.
  • This study suggests that there is no advantage to using the traditional larger suture material for Achilles tendon repairs; however, further clinical testing is needed to determine the optimal repair technique.
  • [MeSH-major] Achilles Tendon / injuries. Ankle Injuries / surgery. Orthopedic Procedures / methods. Polyesters. Polyethylene. Suture Techniques / instrumentation. Sutures

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  • HSDB. structure - POLYETHYLENE.
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  • (PMID = 20479448.001).
  • [ISSN] 1930-8264
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Am Podiatr Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Polyesters; 9002-88-4 / Polyethylene
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19. ||||...... 42%  Hong Y, Hermida L, White KL, Parks BG, Camire LM, Guyton C: Core weave versus Krackow technique for Achilles tendon repair: a biomechanical study. Foot Ankle Int; 2010 Dec;31(12):1107-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Core weave versus Krackow technique for Achilles tendon repair: a biomechanical study.
  • BACKGROUND: The Krackow stitch, commonly used for Achilles tendon repair, leaves the bulk of the stitch on the surface of the tendon as a possible nidus for adhesion.
  • The proposed core weave stitch leaves a minimal amount of suture material on the tendon surface.
  • The functional strength of the core weave stitch compared with the Krackow and the optimal number of throws, or stitches crossing the surface of the tendon, with this stitch are not known.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-one matched pairs of fresh-frozen cadaveric Achilles tendons were transected and randomly assigned to receive a 4-stranded stitch, either Krackow or core weave, with three, five, or seven throws.
  • CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The proposed core weave stitch provides functional strength similar to that of the Krackow stitch for tendon repair with reduced suture material on the tendon surface.
  • [MeSH-major] Achilles Tendon / surgery. Stress, Mechanical. Suture Techniques

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  • (PMID = 21189213.001).
  • [ISSN] 1071-1007
  • [Journal-full-title] Foot & ankle international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Foot Ankle Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. ||||...... 39%  Blackmon JA, Atsas S, Clarkson MJ, Fox JN, Daney BT, Dodson SC, Lambert HW: Locating the sural nerve during calcaneal (Achilles) tendon repair with confidence: a cadaveric study with clinical applications. J Foot Ankle Surg; 2013 Jan-Feb;52(1):42-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Locating the sural nerve during calcaneal (Achilles) tendon repair with confidence: a cadaveric study with clinical applications.
  • The sural nerve is at risk of iatrogenic injury even during minimally invasive operative procedures to repair the calcaneal (Achilles) tendon.
  • Through 107 cadaveric leg dissections, the data derived from the present study was used to develop a regression equation that will enable surgeons to estimate the intersection point at which the sural nerve crosses the lateral border of the Achilles tendon, an important surgical landmark.
  • In most cases, the sural nerve crossed the lateral border of the Achilles tendon 8 to 10 cm proximal to the superior border of the calcaneal tuberosity.
  • For example, for a patient with a lower leg length of 47.0 cm, the mean measurement in the present study, a surgeon can be 90% confident that the sural nerve will cross the lateral border of the Achilles tendon 8.28 to 8.96 cm (interval width of 0.68 cm) proximal to the calcaneal tuberosity.
  • The results of the present study offer surgeons another method, that is less intensive, to locate reliably and subsequently avoid damage to the sural nerve during calcaneal (Achilles) tendon repair and other procedures of the posterolateral leg and ankle.
  • [MeSH-major] Achilles Tendon / surgery. Sural Nerve / anatomy & histology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2013 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 23099184.001).
  • [ISSN] 1542-2224
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of foot and ankle surgery : official publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Foot Ankle Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. ||||...... 38%  Jielile J, Aibai M, Sabirhazi G, Shawutali N, Tangkejie W, Badelhan A, Nuerduola Y, Satewalede T, Buranbai D, Hunapia B, Jialihasi A, Bai J, Kizaibek M: Active Achilles tendon kinesitherapy accelerates Achilles tendon repair by promoting neurite regeneration. Neural Regen Res; 2012 Dec 15;7(35):2801-10
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  • [Title] Active Achilles tendon kinesitherapy accelerates Achilles tendon repair by promoting neurite regeneration.
  • Active Achilles tendon kinesitherapy facilitates the functional recovery of a ruptured Achilles tendon.
  • New Zealand rabbits, aged 14 weeks, underwent tenotomy followed immediately by Achilles tendon microsurgery to repair the Achilles tendon rupture.
  • The tendon was then immobilized or subjected to postoperative early motion treatment (kinesitherapy).
  • These findings suggest that active Achilles tendon kinesitherapy promotes the neurite regeneration of a ruptured Achilles tendon and gelsolin isoform b can be used as a biomarker for Achilles tendon healing after kinesitherapy.

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  • (PMID = 25317130.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-5374
  • [Journal-full-title] Neural regeneration research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neural Regen Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4190862
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Achilles tendon / achilles tendon rupture / early / exercise / functional exercise / healing / marker / motion / proteomics / tissue repair
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22. |||....... 34%  Cervi M, Brebner N, Liptak J: Short- and long-term outcomes of primary Achilles tendon repair in cats: 21 cases. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol; 2010;23(5):348-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Short- and long-term outcomes of primary Achilles tendon repair in cats: 21 cases.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the short- and long-term outcomes of surgically repaired Achilles tendons in cats.
  • METHODS: Twenty-one cats that underwent surgical repair of Achilles tendon injuries were retrospectively examined.
  • Signalment, type of injury, time from injury to surgery, the surgical repair, complications, and long-term outcomes were recorded.
  • CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Surgical correction resulted in excellent functional outcome in all cases but one, and should be considered in both complete and partial disruption of the Achilles mechanism in cats.
  • [MeSH-major] Achilles Tendon / injuries. Cat Diseases / surgery. Tendinopathy / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 20740261.001).
  • [ISSN] 0932-0814
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary and comparative orthopaedics and traumatology : V.C.O.T
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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23. |||....... 33%  Porter KJ, Robati S, Karia P, Portet M, Szarko M, Amin A: An anatomical and cadaveric study examining the risk of sural nerve injury in percutaneous Achilles tendon repair using the Achillon device. Foot Ankle Surg; 2014 Jun;20(2):90-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] An anatomical and cadaveric study examining the risk of sural nerve injury in percutaneous Achilles tendon repair using the Achillon device.
  • BACKGROUND: Percutaneous Achilles tendon repairs are gaining in popularity.
  • METHODS: The Achillon device was instrumented into 15 cadaveric specimens and through dissection the rate of sural nerve puncture and the position of the sural nerve in relation to the Achilles tendon was documented.
  • RESULTS: The sural nerve was found lateral to the Achilles tendon insertion point over a range of 14.3mm and crossed the lateral border of the Achilles tendon over a range of 57.7mm.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The sural nerve displays a highly variable anatomical course and there is a risk of puncture during percutaneous Achilles tendon repair using the Achillon device.
  • [MeSH-major] Achilles Tendon / surgery. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / adverse effects. Sural Nerve / anatomy & histology. Sural Nerve / injuries. Tendon Injuries / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2013 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 24796825.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-9584
  • [Journal-full-title] Foot and ankle surgery : official journal of the European Society of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Foot Ankle Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Achilles tendon / Achillon / Percutaneous repair / Rupture / Sural nerve
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24. |||....... 31%  Black DA, Tucci M, Puckett A, Lawyer T, Benghuzzi H: Strength of a new method of achilles tendon repair in the rat - biomed 2011. Biomed Sci Instrum; 2011;47:112-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Strength of a new method of achilles tendon repair in the rat - biomed 2011.
  • The rat Achilles tendon is frequently used as the model for tendon healing research.
  • The Kessler method of suture repair requires immobilization of the operative extremity, which can be detrimental to healing.
  • Determination of cross-sectional area of tendons by caliper measurement may lead to significant errors in normalization of biomechanical data for stress and elastic modulus.
  • New methods of suture repair of rat Achilles tendons and micro-CT scanning of tendons are presented as preferable techniques for tendon healing studies in rats.
  • Operations involved transection of the right Achilles tendon at the mid-portion and suture repair using a 4-strand, looped locking technique.
  • Groups were: positive control (no injury or treatment); negative control (injury, suture repair, no healing); 2 week repair; and 4 week repair.
  • The cross-sectional area of the tendons was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the repair groups compared to controls.
  • Peak stress and elastic modulus of repair groups were significantly lower than positive control.
  • Strain of repair groups was not significantly different from control.
  • Four weeks after repair, tendons bore significantly higher peak loads than positive control tendons.
  • Based on these results, further studies of adjunct therapy for tendon healing may be placed in the context of normal (repair groups), ideal (positive control), and worst case (negative control) healing.

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  • (PMID = 21525606.001).
  • [ISSN] 0067-8856
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomedical sciences instrumentation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomed Sci Instrum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. |||....... 30%  Ngai WY, Chan SC: An uncomplicated method for minimally invasive achilles tendon repair. J Foot Ankle Surg; 2010 Mar-Apr;49(2):208-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] An uncomplicated method for minimally invasive achilles tendon repair.
  • The Achilles tendon is the largest palpable tendon in the human body, and rupture of this tendon is not an uncommon injury encountered by foot and ankle surgeons.
  • A number of different minimally invasive methods have been described for repair of the ruptured Achilles tendon.
  • In this article, we describe a relatively simple, minimally invasive technique of Achilles tendon repair that does not require special instrumentation, the key requirement being that of a sponge forceps.
  • [MeSH-major] Achilles Tendon / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20188285.001).
  • [ISSN] 1542-2224
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of foot and ankle surgery : official publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Foot Ankle Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. |||....... 30%  Hrnack SA, Crates JM, Barber FA: Primary achilles tendon repair with mini-dorsolateral incision technique and accelerated rehabilitation. Foot Ankle Int; 2012 Oct;33(10):848-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary achilles tendon repair with mini-dorsolateral incision technique and accelerated rehabilitation.
  • BACKGROUND: No consensus exists for the best primary repair of acute Achilles tendon ruptures.
  • This study assesses the clinical outcome of acute Achilles tendon repairs using a mini-dorsolateral incision followed by a rapid rehabilitation program.
  • MATERIALS: A consecutive series of acute Achilles tendon ruptures repaired using a mini-dorsolateral incision were reviewed with a minimum 12 months follow up.
  • Two modified, buried core high strength sutures were placed in each torn end of the Achilles tendon reinforced with a running circumferential whip-stitch.
  • CONCLUSION: The repair of acute Achilles tendon ruptures through a minimal lateral incision provided excellent functional outcomes, avoided complications including sural nerve injury, and allowed a return to sports between 4 to 6 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Achilles Tendon / injuries. Achilles Tendon / surgery. Physical Therapy Modalities. Postoperative Care

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  • (PMID = 23050708.001).
  • [ISSN] 1071-1007
  • [Journal-full-title] Foot & ankle international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Foot Ankle Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. |||....... 30%  Ni T, Senthil-Kumar P, Dubbin K, Aznar-Cervantes SD, Datta N, Randolph MA, Cenis JL, Rutledge GC, Kochevar IE, Redmond RW: A photoactivated nanofiber graft material for augmented Achilles tendon repair. Lasers Surg Med; 2012 Oct;44(8):645-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A photoactivated nanofiber graft material for augmented Achilles tendon repair.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Suture repair of Achilles tendon rupture can cause infection, inflammation and scarring, while prolonged immobilization promotes adhesions to surrounding tissues and joint stiffness.
  • Early mobilization can reduce complications provided the repair is strong enough to resist re-rupture.
  • We have developed a biocompatible, photoactivated tendon wrap from electrospun silk (ES) to provide additional strength to the repair that could permit early mobilization, and act as a barrier to adhesion formation.
  • New Zealand white rabbits underwent surgical transection of the Achilles tendon and repair by: (a) SR: standard Kessler suture + epitendinous suture (5-0 vicryl). (b) ES/PTB: a single stay suture and a section of ES mat, stained with 0.1% Rose Bengal (RB), wrapped around the tendon and bonded with 532 nm light (0.3 W/cm(2) , 125 J/cm(2) ). (c) SR + ES/PTB: a combination of (a) and (b).
  • Gross appearance, extent of adhesion formation and biomechanical properties of the repaired tendon were evaluated at Days 7, 14, or 28 post-operatively (n = 8 per group at each time point).
  • CONCLUSION: Photochemical sealing of a ES mat around the tendon repair site provides considerable benefit in Achilles tendon repair.
  • [MeSH-major] Achilles Tendon / surgery. Lasers. Nanofibers. Photochemical Processes. Silk

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  • NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .
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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 22911554.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9101
  • [Journal-full-title] Lasers in surgery and medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lasers Surg Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Fluorescent Dyes; 0 / Silk; 1ZPG1ELY14 / Rose Bengal
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28. |||....... 29%  Sarrafian TL, Wang H, Hackett ES, Yao JQ, Shih MS, Ramsay HL, Turner AS: Comparison of Achilles tendon repair techniques in a sheep model using a cross-linked acellular porcine dermal patch and platelet-rich plasma fibrin matrix for augmentation. J Foot Ankle Surg; 2010 Mar-Apr;49(2):128-34
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Comparison of Achilles tendon repair techniques in a sheep model using a cross-linked acellular porcine dermal patch and platelet-rich plasma fibrin matrix for augmentation.
  • The primary goal of this study was to evaluate a cross-linked acellular porcine dermal patch (APD), as well as platelet-rich plasma fibrin matrix (PRPFM), for repair of acute Achilles tendon rupture in a sheep model.
  • The 2 surgically transected tendon ends were reapproximated in groups 1 and 2, whereas a gap was left between the tendon ends in group 3.
  • APD was used to reinforce the repair in group 2, and autologous PRPFM was used to fill the gap, which was also reinforced with APD, in group 3.
  • All sheep were humanely euthanized at 24 weeks after the repair, and biomechanical and histological testing were performed.
  • All operated tendons appeared healed with no apparent fibrosis under light and polarized microscopy.
  • In group 1, all surgical separation sites were identifiable, and healing occurred via increasing tendon thickness.
  • In group 2, healing occurred with new tendon fibers across the separation, without increasing tendon thickness in 2 out of 6 animals.
  • Group 3 showed complete bridging of the gap, with no change in tendon thickness in 2 out of 6 animals.
  • In groups 2 and 3, peripheral integration of the APD to tendon fibers was observed.
  • These findings support the use of APD, alone or with PRPFM, to augment Achilles tendon repair in a sheep model.
  • [MeSH-major] Achilles Tendon / surgery. Biocompatible Materials

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20137980.001).
  • [ISSN] 1542-2224
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of foot and ankle surgery : official publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Foot Ankle Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Cross-Linking Reagents; 9001-31-4 / Fibrin; 9007-34-5 / Collagen
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29. |||....... 29%  Song L, Olsen RE, Spalazzi JP, Davisson T: Biomechanical evaluation of acellular collagen matrix augmented Achilles tendon repair in sheep. J Foot Ankle Surg; 2010 Sep-Oct;49(5):438-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Biomechanical evaluation of acellular collagen matrix augmented Achilles tendon repair in sheep.
  • The rate of rerupture of repaired Achilles tendon in young and athletic populations remains high despite improvement in surgical techniques, suture design, and postsurgical management.
  • Acellular biological matrices can be used to enhance the immediate strength of repaired tendons and to serve as scaffolds for cell in-growth and constructive tissue remodeling.
  • In this study, we investigated the biomechanical characteristics of 2 different acellular collagen matrices, namely TissueMend and GraftJacket, using a sheep Achilles tendon repair model.
  • We found that the maximum load to failure, displacement, and ultimate failure mode were similar between tendons augmented with either acellular collagen matrix; however, TissueMend augmentation yielded lower creep and smaller construct elongation than did GraftJacket.
  • The results indicated that the strength of TissueMend-augmented tendons and GraftJacket-augmented tendons was not statistically significantly different, although tendons augmented with TissueMend displayed greater stiffness, which may be clinically advantageous in the restoration of ruptured tendons.
  • [MeSH-major] Achilles Tendon / surgery. Biocompatible Materials. Collagen. Materials Testing

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20797586.001).
  • [ISSN] 1542-2224
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of foot and ankle surgery : official publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Foot Ankle Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 9007-34-5 / Collagen
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30. |||....... 28%  Patel VC, Lozano-Calderon S, McWilliam J: Immediate weight bearing after modified percutaneous Achilles tendon repair. Foot Ankle Int; 2012 Dec;33(12):1093-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immediate weight bearing after modified percutaneous Achilles tendon repair.
  • BACKGROUND: Controversy exists regarding postoperative treatment of Achilles tendon repair.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of immediate weight bearing following modified percutaneous Achilles tendon repair using readily available materials.
  • METHODS: Fifty-two patients who were treated at a single center from 2000 to 2009 underwent percutaneous Achilles tendon repair by a single surgeon and were allowed immediate weight bearing.
  • CONCLUSION: Immediate weight bearing after percutaneous Achilles tendon repair had a low overall complication rate with good clinical and functional outcomes.
  • [MeSH-major] Achilles Tendon / injuries. Achilles Tendon / surgery. Weight-Bearing

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  • [ErratumIn] Foot Ankle Int. 2013 Mar;34(3):470. Chandrakant, Vishal [corrected to Patel, Vishal C]
  • (PMID = 23199859.001).
  • [ISSN] 1071-1007
  • [Journal-full-title] Foot & ankle international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Foot Ankle Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. |||....... 26%  Ollivere BJ, Bosman HA, Bearcroft PW, Robinson AH: Foreign body granulomatous reaction associated with polyethelene 'Fiberwire(®)' suture material used in Achilles tendon repair. Foot Ankle Surg; 2014 Jun;20(2):e27-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Foreign body granulomatous reaction associated with polyethelene 'Fiberwire(®)' suture material used in Achilles tendon repair.
  • Repair of acute Achilles tendon rupture is a common procedure.
  • We present a case report of a granulomatous reaction to suture material following Achilles tendon repair.
  • 'Fiberwire(®)' is an increasingly popular suture material for the repair of tendons and ligamentous structures; the polyethelene braided structure with silicone and polyester coating provides high tensile strengths and good handling characteristics.
  • Eight months following uneventful Achilles tendon repair surgery in an otherwise fit and well patient, pain, swelling and loss of function was noted.
  • She required revision surgery with debridement and reconstruction of the tendo Achillis with flexor hallucis longus tendon transfer.
  • We would advise caution in the use of this suture for tendo Achillis repair, and use the readily available alternatives.
  • [MeSH-major] Achilles Tendon / surgery. Foreign-Body Reaction / etiology. Polyethylene / adverse effects. Sutures / adverse effects. Tendon Injuries / surgery. Tendon Transfer

  • HSDB. structure - POLYETHYLENE.
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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2014 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 24796842.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-9584
  • [Journal-full-title] Foot and ankle surgery : official journal of the European Society of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Foot Ankle Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-88-4 / Polyethylene
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Achilles / Fiberwire / Tendo Achillis / Tendon repair
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32. |||....... 26%  Giza E, Frizzell L, Farac R, Williams J, Kim S: Augmented tendon Achilles repair using a tissue reinforcement scaffold: a biomechanical study. Foot Ankle Int; 2011 May;32(5):S545-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Augmented tendon Achilles repair using a tissue reinforcement scaffold: a biomechanical study.
  • BACKGROUND: Missed or chronic Achilles tendon ruptures may have muscle atrophy and tendon retraction resulting in a defect that must be augmented with endogenous or exogenous materials.
  • The Artelon® Tissue Reinforcement (ATR) scaffold is a readily available synthetic degradable poly(urethane urea) material used to augment tendon repair.
  • The objective of this study was to compare human cadaveric Achilles tendon repairs with and without ATR.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen fresh frozen human cadaver limbs were dissected and the tendon transected 2 cm proximal to the calcaneal insertion.
  • CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This finding may allow for development of more aggressive rehabilitation techniques following chronic Achilles tendon repairs.
  • [MeSH-major] Achilles Tendon / injuries. Achilles Tendon / surgery. Orthopedic Procedures / methods. Tissue Scaffolds
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomechanical Phenomena. Biomimetic Materials. Cadaver. Humans. Rupture. Suture Techniques. Tendon Injuries / surgery

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  • (PMID = 21733465.001).
  • [ISSN] 1071-1007
  • [Journal-full-title] Foot & ankle international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Foot Ankle Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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33. |||....... 26%  Branch JP: A tendon graft weave using an acellular dermal matrix for repair of the Achilles tendon and other foot and ankle tendons. J Foot Ankle Surg; 2011 Mar-Apr;50(2):257-65
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A tendon graft weave using an acellular dermal matrix for repair of the Achilles tendon and other foot and ankle tendons.
  • Many techniques are available to repair tendon ruptures of the Achilles tendon as well as other foot and ankle tendons.
  • The purpose of this article was to present a technique of tendon repair that is a combination of a tendon graft inlay with a Pulvertaft-type tendon weave using an acellular human dermal matrix graft with a resultant "strip and shoelace."
  • Tendon donor site morbidity problems associated with tendon transfer procedures are avoided by use of this dermal matrix weave.
  • This procedure is felt to have enhanced strength with less bulk than soft tissue graft wrap procedures.
  • [MeSH-major] Achilles Tendon / surgery. Biocompatible Materials / therapeutic use. Tendon Injuries / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2011 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21354014.001).
  • [ISSN] 1542-2224
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of foot and ankle surgery : official publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Foot Ankle Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biocompatible Materials
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34. |||....... 25%  Ahluwalia R, Zourelidis C, Guo S, Dega R: Chronic sinus formation using non absorbable braided suture following open repair of Achilles tendon. Foot Ankle Surg; 2013 Jun;19(2):e7-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Chronic sinus formation using non absorbable braided suture following open repair of Achilles tendon.
  • This study reports a case of a 34 year old man who sustained an Achilles tendon rupture which was surgically repaired using a non-absorbable suture that was complicated by a deep sinus and chronic infection.
  • Further imaging revealed a sinus leading to the core suture knot that was eccentrically placed but not buried within the healed tendon repair, and the offending suture was subsequently removed.
  • This case highlights the importance of meticulous surgical technique when performing Achilles tendon repair and a high index of suspicion for early imaging when patients present with chronic wound infection post-operatively.
  • The authors urge surgeons to use routinely use an absorbable non-braided suture, which remains buried within the core when performing Achilles tendon repair.
  • [MeSH-major] Achilles Tendon / surgery. Surgical Wound Infection / therapy. Sutures / adverse effects

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2012 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 23548461.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-9584
  • [Journal-full-title] Foot and ankle surgery : official journal of the European Society of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Foot Ankle Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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35. ||........ 25%  Talbot JC, Williams GT, Bismil Q, Shaw DL, Schilders E: Results of accelerated postoperative rehabilitation using novel "suture frame" repair of Achilles tendon rupture. J Foot Ankle Surg; 2012 Mar-Apr;51(2):147-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Results of accelerated postoperative rehabilitation using novel "suture frame" repair of Achilles tendon rupture.
  • The management of Achilles tendon rupture is a much-debated subject.
  • We present the results of our Achilles tendon repair technique and accelerated rehabilitation program.
  • The technique we propose uses the strength of a 1-loop polydioxanone "suture frame" to enable restoration of the tendon length, immediate positioning of the foot in a near-plantigrade position, and an accelerated rehabilitation program.
  • We followed up 15 cases of Achilles tendon rupture treated with this technique.
  • The Achilles rupture repair scores (including isokinetic muscle strength) were good or excellent in all but 1 patient, whose result was fair.
  • Our technique with accelerated rehabilitation is safe and effective in the management of acute Achilles tendon rupture.
  • [MeSH-major] Achilles Tendon / injuries. Achilles Tendon / surgery. Suture Techniques

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2012 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • [CommentIn] J Foot Ankle Surg. 2012 Sep-Oct;51(5):704; author reply 704 [22916739.001]
  • (PMID = 22153660.001).
  • [ISSN] 1542-2224
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of foot and ankle surgery : official publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Foot Ankle Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 31621-87-1 / Polydioxanone
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36. ||........ 25%  Wisbeck JM, Parks BG, Schon LC: Xenograft scaffold full-wrap reinforcement of Krackow achilles tendon repair. Orthopedics; 2012 Mar;35(3):e331-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Xenograft scaffold full-wrap reinforcement of Krackow achilles tendon repair.
  • Standard 4-strand repair of Achilles tendon tears is effective, but additional strength may be desirable in patients who are compromised or those with reruptures.
  • Use of a xenograft scaffold has not been investigated biomechanically in Achilles tendon repair.
  • This study compared stiffness, gap formation, and ultimate load to failure with Krackow repair vs Krackow repair augmented with xenograft scaffold in 6 matched pairs of fresh-frozen human lower extremities.
  • The Achilles tendon was transected 4 cm above the calcaneal insertion.
  • Specimens were randomized to receive standard Krackow repair or Krackow repair augmented with a porcine xenograft scaffold.
  • The graft was wrapped around the repaired tendon, sutured to itself with 2-0 FiberWire (Arthrex, Naples, Florida), and attached to the tendon distally and proximally and then medially and laterally.
  • Xenograft scaffold augmentation of standard Krakow Achilles tendon repair was significantly stronger and stiffer than standard Krackow repair in a biomechanical model immediately after repair (39.0±8.8 vs 24.4±4.6 N/mm; P=.01).
  • The augmented repair group had significantly higher load to ultimate failure than did the Krackow group (862.7±174.0 vs 479.5±65.5 N; P<.01).
  • [MeSH-major] Achilles Tendon / physiopathology. Achilles Tendon / surgery. Bioprosthesis. Suture Techniques / instrumentation. Tendon Injuries / physiopathology. Tendon Injuries / surgery. Tissue Scaffolds

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.
  • (PMID = 22385442.001).
  • [ISSN] 1938-2367
  • [Journal-full-title] Orthopedics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orthopedics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; In Vitro; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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37. ||........ 25%  Deangelis JP, Wilson KM, Cox CL, Diamond AB, Thomson AB: Achilles tendon rupture in athletes. J Surg Orthop Adv; 2009;18(3):115-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Achilles tendon rupture in athletes.
  • Achilles tendon ruptures commonly affect middle-aged athletes and can result in considerable functional impairment.
  • Augmentation of an Achilles tendon repair has demonstrated no clinical benefit.
  • [MeSH-major] Achilles Tendon / injuries. Athletic Injuries / therapy. Orthopedic Procedures / methods

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  • (PMID = 19843435.001).
  • [ISSN] 1548-825X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical orthopaedic advances
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Orthop Adv
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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38. ||........ 23%  Cox JT, Shorten PL, Gould GC, Markert RJ, Barnett MD Jr, Laughlin RT: Knotted versus knotless suture bridge repair of the achilles tendon insertion: a biomechanical study. Am J Sports Med; 2014 Nov;42(11):2727-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Knotted versus knotless suture bridge repair of the achilles tendon insertion: a biomechanical study.
  • BACKGROUND: Surgical treatment of insertional Achilles tendinopathy often involves detachment and debridement of the Achilles tendon insertion.
  • A recent study has shown that knotted suture bridge fixation of the Achilles to the calcaneus is biomechanically superior to single-row fixation, but there is an absence of literature on the use of different suture bridge constructs to repair the Achilles tendon.
  • HYPOTHESIS: There will be no significant difference in the load to failure, mode of failure, tendon strain, tendon stiffness, repair site gapping, or footprint size when comparing knotted suture bridge repair to knotless suture bridge repair of the Achilles tendon after detachment for insertional Achilles tendinopathy.
  • METHODS: A single specimen from each pair of 10 cadaveric Achilles tendons was randomized to 1 of 2 Achilles insertion repair groups: knotted (n = 10) or knotless (n = 10) suture bridge repair.
  • This was followed by measurement of tendon strain, repair site displacement, load to failure, and tendon stiffness.
  • RESULTS: The knotted suture bridge repair had a significantly higher load to failure compared with the knotless suture bridge (mean ± SD, 317.8 ± 93.6 N vs 196.1 ± 12.1 N, respectively; P = .001).
  • All constructs failed at the tendon-suture interface.
  • Tendon strain after cyclic testing was significantly greater in the knotless (1.20 ± 1.05) compared with the knotted (0.39 ± 0.4) suture repair groups (P = .011).
  • There was also no significant difference in stiffness (knotted = 76.4 ± 8.0 N/mm; knotless = 69.6 ± 10.9 N/mm; P = .17) and repair site displacement after cyclic testing (knotted = 2.8 ± 1.2 mm; knotless = 3.6 ± 1.1 mm; P = .17).
  • CONCLUSION: During suture bridge repair of the Achilles tendon after detachment, knots at the proximal suture anchors significantly improve the biomechanical strength of the repair.
  • CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This study demonstrated that the knotless suture bridge repair had a significantly lower load to failure than the knotted suture bridge.

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  • [Copyright] © 2014 The Author(s).
  • (PMID = 25225681.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-3365
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of sports medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Sports Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; insertional Achilles tendinopathy / repair / suture anchor / suture bridge
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39. ||........ 23%  Brodie M, Vollenweider L, Murphy JL, Xu F, Lyman A, Lew WD, Lee BP: Biomechanical properties of Achilles tendon repair augmented with a bioadhesive-coated scaffold. Biomed Mater; 2011 Feb;6(1):015014
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  • [Title] Biomechanical properties of Achilles tendon repair augmented with a bioadhesive-coated scaffold.
  • The Achilles tendon is the most frequently ruptured tendon.
  • Both acute and chronic (neglected) tendon ruptures can dramatically affect a patient's quality of life, and require a prolonged period of recovery before return to pre-injury activity levels.
  • This paper describes the use of an adhesive-coated biologic scaffold to augment primary suture repair of transected Achilles tendons.
  • These adhesive constructs were wrapped around transected cadaveric porcine Achilles tendons repaired with a combination of parallel and three-loop suture patterns.
  • Tensile mechanical testing of the augmented repairs exhibited significantly higher stiffness (22-34%), failure load (24-44%), and energy to failure (27-63%) when compared to control tendons with suture repair alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Achilles Tendon / physiopathology. Achilles Tendon / surgery. Tissue Adhesives. Tissue Scaffolds

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  • (PMID = 21266745.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-605X
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomedical materials (Bristol, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomed Mater
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / 1R43AR056519-01A1; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / P41GM66326; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P41RR02301; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R43 AR056519; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R43 AR056519-01A1; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR02781; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR08438
  • [Publication-type] In Vitro; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coated Materials, Biocompatible; 0 / Tissue Adhesives
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS270392; NLM/ PMC3046464
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40. ||........ 23%  Ng GY: Comparing therapeutic ultrasound with microamperage stimulation therapy for improving the strength of Achilles tendon repair. Connect Tissue Res; 2011 Jun;52(3):178-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Comparing therapeutic ultrasound with microamperage stimulation therapy for improving the strength of Achilles tendon repair.
  • In exploring the effects of therapeutic ultrasound (US) and microamperage stimulation (MAS) on the biomechanical performance of repairing Achilles tendon in rats, 35 Sprague-Dawley rats receiving surgically induced injury to their right medial Achilles tendon were studied.
  • On day 31, the Achilles tendons were mechanically tested.
  • These findings suggested that both low/high doses of US and MAS therapies could improve the strength of Achilles tendon but in view of its short treatment time, US is considered to be more efficient than MAS for improving the strength of the repairing tendons.
  • [MeSH-major] Achilles Tendon / pathology. Achilles Tendon / physiopathology. Electric Stimulation Therapy / methods. Tensile Strength / physiology. Ultrasonic Therapy / methods. Wound Healing

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  • (PMID = 20672987.001).
  • [ISSN] 1607-8438
  • [Journal-full-title] Connective tissue research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Connect. Tissue Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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41. ||........ 23%  McCoy BW, Haddad SL: The strength of achilles tendon repair: a comparison of three suture techniques in human cadaver tendons. Foot Ankle Int; 2010 Aug;31(8):701-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The strength of achilles tendon repair: a comparison of three suture techniques in human cadaver tendons.
  • BACKGROUND: A previous study suggests the double Krackow suture (locking-loop) weave technique is nearly twice as strong as the single Bunnell or single Kessler suture repair techniques.
  • Our hypothesis was that the strength of different repair techniques would be comparable if a similar number of suture strands cross the repair site.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four fresh-frozen human cadaver Achilles tendons were used to test maximum strength of three suture techniques (double Bunnell, double Kessler, and double Krackow).
  • The simulated ruptures were created in the midsubstance of the Achilles tendon, five centimeters proximal to its calcaneal insertion.
  • All repairs were performed with No. 2 polyester (Mersilene, Ethicon, Sommerville, NJ) nonabsorbable suture in standard fashion for each technique, with four strands crossing the repair site.
  • The tendons were then anchored to a materials testing machine (Instron, Canton, MA) through a calcaneal pin distally and a modified soft tissue clamp proximally.
  • Tendons were loaded with continuous tension at a head speed of 0.85 cm/s.
  • RESULTS: All repairs failed at the site of the suture knots, none pulling out through the substance of the tendon.
  • A one-way analysis of variance was performed on the maximum force at failure of each repair technique.
  • CONCLUSION: We found that in a laboratory model of cadaveric Achilles tendon repairs there was no significant difference in strength between the Krackow, Bunnell, and Kessler suture techniques, when each was performed with a double suture weave.
  • CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This is a cadaveric study that attempts to simulate the clinical parameters of Achilles tendon ruptures, repairs, and repair failures to examine the strength of different repair techniques.
  • [MeSH-major] Achilles Tendon / surgery. Suture Techniques

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  • (PMID = 20727319.001).
  • [ISSN] 1071-1007
  • [Journal-full-title] Foot & ankle international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Foot Ankle Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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42. ||........ 22%  An J, Chua CK, Leong KF, Chen CH, Chen JP: Solvent-free fabrication of three dimensionally aligned polycaprolactone microfibers for engineering of anisotropic tissues. Biomed Microdevices; 2012 Oct;14(5):863-72
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  • Fabrication of aligned microfiber scaffolds is critical in successful engineering of anisotropic tissues such as tendon, ligaments and nerves.
  • In vivo result of Achilles tendon repair in a rabbit model shows that the microfibers were highly infiltrated by tendon tissue as early as in 1 month, besides, the repaired tendon have a well-aligned tissue structure under the guidance of aligned microfibers.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Anisotropy. Cell Proliferation. Cells, Cultured. Equipment Design. Fibroblasts / cytology. Fibroblasts / metabolism. Humans. Ligaments / metabolism. Microscopy, Electron, Scanning. Nerve Tissue / metabolism. Rabbits. Solvents / chemistry. Tendons / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 22695726.001).
  • [ISSN] 1572-8781
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomedical microdevices
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomed Microdevices
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Polyesters; 0 / Solvents; 24980-41-4 / polycaprolactone
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43. ||........ 22%  Taglialavoro G, Biz C, Mastrangelo G, Aldegheri R: The repair of the Achilles tendon rupture: comparison of two percutaneous techniques. Strategies Trauma Limb Reconstr; 2011 Nov;6(3):147-54
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The repair of the Achilles tendon rupture: comparison of two percutaneous techniques.
  • This study proposes a comparison between two percutaneous techniques of subcutaneous Achilles tendon rupture by evaluating the risk of lesion developing, the morbidity of the surgical technique adopted and the effectiveness of each technique.
  • Tenolig group shows shorter average time from hospital admission and operation, hospital permanence and immobilization (P < 0.05), and it results in an easier and quicker execution and functionally stimulates the tendon healing in a short time.

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  • (PMID = 22065368.001).
  • [ISSN] 1828-8928
  • [Journal-full-title] Strategies in trauma and limb reconstruction (Online)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Strategies Trauma Limb Reconstr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3225567
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44. ||........ 22%  Maranho DA, Nogueira-Barbosa MH, Simão MN, Volpon JB: Ultrasonographic evaluation of Achilles tendon repair after percutaneous sectioning for the correction of congenital clubfoot residual equinus. J Pediatr Orthop; 2009 Oct-Nov;29(7):804-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ultrasonographic evaluation of Achilles tendon repair after percutaneous sectioning for the correction of congenital clubfoot residual equinus.
  • BACKGROUND: Most cases of congenital clubfoot treated with the Ponseti technique require percutaneous Achilles tenotomy to correct the residual equinus.
  • Clinical evidence suggests that complete healing occurs between the cut tendon stumps, but there have not yet been any detailed studies investigating this reparative process.
  • This study was performed to assess Achilles tendon repair after percutaneous section to correct the residual equinus of clubfoot treated with the Ponseti method.
  • RESULTS: The ultrasonography performed immediately after the procedure showed that in some cases, residual strands between the tendon ends persisted, and these were completely sectioned under ultrasound control.
  • A mean retraction of 5.65 mm+/-2.26 mm (range, 2.3 to 11.0 mm) between tendon stumps after section was observed.
  • After 3 weeks, ultrasonography showed tendon repair with the tendon gap filled with irregular hypoechoic tissue, and also with transmission of muscle motion to the heel.
  • Six months after tenotomy, there was structural filling with a fibrillar aspect, mild or moderate hypoechogenicity, and tendon scar thickening when compared with a normal tendon.
  • One year after tenotomy, ultrasound showed a fibrillar structure and echogenicity at the repair site that was similar to a normal tendon, but with persistent tendon scarring thickness.
  • CONCLUSIONS: There is a fast reparative process after Achilles tendon percutaneous section that reestablishes continuity between stumps.
  • The reparative tissue evolved to tendon tissue with a normal ultrasonographic appearance except for mild thickening, suggesting a predominantly intrinsic repair mechanism.
  • [MeSH-major] Achilles Tendon / surgery. Achilles Tendon / ultrasonography. Clubfoot / surgery. Clubfoot / ultrasonography. Orthopedic Procedures / methods

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  • (PMID = 20104166.001).
  • [ISSN] 1539-2570
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric orthopedics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pediatr Orthop
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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45. ||........ 22%  Lui TH: Surgical tip: Repair of acute Achilles rupture with Krackow suture through a 1.5 cm medial wound. Foot Ankle Surg; 2010 Mar;16(1):28-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical tip: Repair of acute Achilles rupture with Krackow suture through a 1.5 cm medial wound.
  • Acute Achilles tendon ruptures is one of the commonest tendon injury of the foot and ankle.
  • Surgical management can be subdivided into open repair, percutaneous with or without adjunct of arthroscopy.
  • In compare with non-surgical management, surgical management will decrease the tendon re-rupture rate.
  • Percutaneous repair technique has the advantage of less chance of wound breakdown, but the rate of tendon re-rupture is higher than that after open tendon repair, because the repair is usually weaker than that achieved in open repair.
  • Lui have described an endoscopic assisted repair with the Krackow locking suture.
  • A simpler way of applying the Krackow suture through the portal wound has been described for reattachment of Achilles tendon insertion after endoscopic calcaneoplasty.
  • We describe a mini-open approach of Achilles tendon repair with the Krackow locking suture.
  • By means of release of the medial edge of the investing fascia, the Achilles tendon can be mobilized easily and the Krackow locking suture can be applied through a 1.5cm medial wound.
  • Hopefully, this can improve the strength of repair and maintaining the advantage of minimally invasive tendon repair.
  • [MeSH-major] Achilles Tendon / injuries. Achilles Tendon / surgery. Orthopedic Procedures / methods. Suture Techniques. Tendon Injuries / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20152752.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-9584
  • [Journal-full-title] Foot and ankle surgery : official journal of the European Society of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Foot Ankle Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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46. ||........ 22%  Hohendorff B, Siepen W, Staub L: Treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture: fibrin glue versus fibrin glue augmented with the plantaris longus tendon. J Foot Ankle Surg; 2009 Jul-Aug;48(4):439-46
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture: fibrin glue versus fibrin glue augmented with the plantaris longus tendon.
  • In the surgical repair of Achilles tendon ruptures, suturing is standard, although fibrin glue also has been used for repair since the 1980s.
  • Augmentation with the plantaris longus tendon is also a popular technique; however, no study has yet compared the outcome of augmented versus only glued repair of ruptured Achilles tendons.
  • This study compares the long-term results of surgical repair of Achilles tendon rupture with fibrin glue versus fibrin glue augmented with the plantaris longus tendon.
  • Forty patients who had undergone Achilles tendon repair with fibrin glue took part in a follow-up examination after an average of 11.5 years.
  • The fibrin group consisted of 16 patients and the fibrin glue augmented with plantaris longus tendon group consisted of 15 patients.
  • We conclude that augmentation with the plantaris longus tendon is not necessary when operatively treating acute ruptured Achilles tendons with fibrin glue.
  • [MeSH-major] Achilles Tendon / injuries. Achilles Tendon / surgery. Fibrin Tissue Adhesive / therapeutic use. Tendons / transplantation. Tissue Adhesives / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19577719.001).
  • [ISSN] 1542-2224
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of foot and ankle surgery : official publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Foot Ankle Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fibrin Tissue Adhesive; 0 / Tissue Adhesives
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47. ||........ 21%  McMahon SE, Smith TO, Hing CB: A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials comparing conventional to minimally invasive approaches for repair of an Achilles tendon rupture. Foot Ankle Surg; 2011 Dec;17(4):211-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials comparing conventional to minimally invasive approaches for repair of an Achilles tendon rupture.
  • Achilles tendon ruptures are a common injury afflicting predominantly the young male occasional sportsman.
  • Previous studies have shown that outcome is better with surgical repair for the young active patient.
  • A meta-analysis was undertaken to compare the clinical outcomes of MIS with conventional open surgical repair.
  • Six randomised controlled trials of 277 Achilles tendon repairs were eligible for review.
  • This included 136 minimally invasive repairs and 141 conventional open repairs.
  • [MeSH-major] Achilles Tendon / injuries. Achilles Tendon / surgery. Orthopedic Procedures / methods. Tendon Injuries / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 22017889.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-9584
  • [Journal-full-title] Foot and ankle surgery : official journal of the European Society of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Foot Ankle Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Meta-Analysis
  • [Publication-country] France
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48. ||........ 21%  Dargel J, Ninck J, Koebke J, Appell HJ, Pennig D, Hillekamp J: Influence of knee flexion on plantarflexion moments after open or percutaneous Achilles tendon repair. Foot Ankle Int; 2009 Jun;30(6):551-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Influence of knee flexion on plantarflexion moments after open or percutaneous Achilles tendon repair.
  • BACKGROUND: The influence of the knee angle on plantarflexion moments after Achilles tendon repair has yet to be analyzed.
  • It was hypothesized that flexion of the knee joint will disproportionately influence isometric plantarflexion moments after Achilles tendon repair.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Isometric plantarflexion moments and functional heel rise performance were retrospectively assessed in 32 patients at a mean follow-up of 36.9 (+/- 17.83) months after open or percutaneous repair of acute Achilles tendon rupture.
  • Data were compared between the involved and the noninvolved leg as well as between open and percutaneous repair.
  • No overall differences in plantarflexion strength were observed between open and percutaneous Achilles tendon repair.
  • CONCLUSION: The flexion angle of the knee had no influence on plantarflexion moments when comparing the involved with the noninvolved leg after open or percutaneous Achilles tendon repair.
  • Weakness of plantarflexion after open or percutaneous Achilles tendon repair is determined by the position of the ankle joint rather than by the flexion angle of the knee.
  • [MeSH-major] Achilles Tendon / injuries. Achilles Tendon / surgery. Knee Joint / physiopathology. Range of Motion, Articular
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Ankle Joint / physiopathology. Child. Female. Humans. Isometric Contraction / physiology. Male. Middle Aged. Postoperative Period. Retrospective Studies. Rupture. Suture Techniques. Tendon Injuries / physiopathology. Tendon Injuries / surgery. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19486634.001).
  • [ISSN] 1071-1007
  • [Journal-full-title] Foot & ankle international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Foot Ankle Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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49. ||........ 21%  Sadoghi P, Rosso C, Valderrabano V, Leithner A, Vavken P: Initial Achilles tendon repair strength--synthesized biomechanical data from 196 cadaver repairs. Int Orthop; 2012 Sep;36(9):1947-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Initial Achilles tendon repair strength--synthesized biomechanical data from 196 cadaver repairs.
  • PURPOSE: The study aim was to describe what kind of operative technique performs best with respect to initial strength after the surgical repair of acute Achilles tendon ruptures.
  • METHODS: We performed a systematic search of the keywords "Achilles tendon AND (suture strength OR biomechanics) AND (cadaver NOT animal)" in the online databases PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library.
  • We included studies that employed open, mini-open, or percutaneous Achilles tendon repair in human cadavers, and assessed some measure of tensile strength as a primary outcome.
  • RESULTS: Our search produced 11 relevant papers reporting results for Kessler, Bunnell, and Krackow sutures in open repair, as well as the Achillon device, the Ma-Griffith repair technique, the triple bundle technique and the "giftbox" technique.
  • [MeSH-major] Achilles Tendon / injuries. Achilles Tendon / surgery. Suture Techniques

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  • (PMID = 22460821.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-5195
  • [Journal-full-title] International orthopaedics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Orthop
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3427445
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50. ||........ 21%  Huang D, Wang HW, Xu DC, Wang HG, Wu WZ, Zhang HR: An anatomic and clinical study of the adductor magnus tendon-descending genicular artery bone flap. Clin Anat; 2011 Jan;24(1):77-83
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] An anatomic and clinical study of the adductor magnus tendon-descending genicular artery bone flap.
  • The composite tissue flap of the descending genicular vessels with the adductor magnus tendon is a newly developed, reliable method to repair the Achilles tendon and relevant skin defects.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the anatomy of the adductor magnus tendon-descending genicular artery bone flap, and the feasibility and value for the repair of the Achilles tendon and relevant skin defects.
  • Its articular branch is distributed in the adductor magnus tendon and the medial condyle of the femur.
  • A total of 16 cases of trauma-induced Achilles tendon damage and calcaneus and skin defects were repaired with the vascularized adductor magnus tendon bone flap, including the reconstruction of Achilles tendon insertion and repair of relevant skin defects.
  • Our results suggested that the adductor magnus tendon-descending genicular artery bone flap is an alternative method to repair composite tissue defects of the Achilles tendon.
  • [MeSH-major] Achilles Tendon / surgery. Bone Transplantation. Knee Joint / blood supply. Surgical Flaps / blood supply. Tendons / blood supply
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Calcaneus / injuries. Calcaneus / surgery. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures. Tendon Transfer / methods. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20890971.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-2353
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical anatomy (New York, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Anat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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